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Biology Form One

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Biology Form One

  2. 2. Emanuel John Kisunte Page i of 68 COPYRIGHT Preoared by: Emanuel John Kisunte 0655 450 712 sokolokisunte@gmail.com P.o. Box 45 Shebomeza Secondary School, Amani – Muheza Tanga. @ no production of any kind is allowed without the producer permission. This pamphlet and many other works are also available in the following link (https://modernacademicsite.blogspot.com)
  3. 3. Emanuel John Kisunte Page ii of 68 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Primarily, I hereby heartily thank my Almighty God for enabling me to have strength throughout this fruitful work. My sincere appreciation also goes to Mr. KROWIN MBWELWA in collaboration with Mr. KILUWASHA ABDUL, the biology teachers (Shebomeza Secondary School) who in one way or another tirelessly helped me to accomplish this work. It is unforgettable to appreciate the courage and help from Mr. SIMBA EMANUEL MTINDA who tirelessly used his time to supply materials for the creation of this pamphlet. It is indeed impossible to mention every person who helped to improve this work. I still remember the role of all people, helped me to reach the last stage of this task. I have nothing to give them; instead may my loving father in heaven bless them all.
  4. 4. Emanuel John Kisunte Page iii of 68 TABLE OF CONTENTS COPYRIGHT................................................................................i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................ii INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY...............................................1 SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES IN BIOLOGY..................................4 THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY ...............................................7 FIRST AID AND SAFETY........................................................17 WASTE DISPOSAL..................................................................27 PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS...................31 THE CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND IMMUNITY.................34 STIS, STDS, HIV AND AIDS.....................................................41 CELL STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION .........................47 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS................................52 VIRUSES, KINGDOM MONERA AND KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA ........................................................................56 BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................64
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY Biology is the science that deals with the study of living things. The word Biology originates from two Greek words:  Bios means Life, and  Logos means study. Therefore, biology is a study of life and living organisms. Biologist – is a person who studies biology. MAJOR BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY (i) Botany – is the study of plants, such as flowering and non-flowering plants. (ii) Zoology – is the study of animals, such as man, cow and insects. OTHER BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY (i) Mycology – is the study of fungi such as mushrooms and moulds. (ii) Protocology – is the study of proctists such as amoeba. (iii) Cytology – is the study of cells. (iv) Ecology – is the study of environment and living things. (v) Parasitology – is the study of parasites. (vi) Paleontology – is the study of fossil (remains of living organisms). (vii) Physiology – is the study of organisms’ bodies. (viii) Taxonomy – is the study of classification. (ix) Virology – is the study of viruses; such as HIV. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS (i) Movement/locomotion – is the action of changing positions. Living organisms are capable of moving in search of food, shelter, mate and other needs. animals move the whole body (locomotion) and plants move their parts in responding the stimuli (movement of curveture). (ii) Irritability (sensitivity) – is the ability of an organism to respond to stimulus. Stimulus (plural; stimuli) is anything that causes a response in an organism. Examples of stimuli include: an alarm clock, a smell of breakfast cooking and a fly landing on the skin. Plants do not have sense organs but are still able to detect and respond to things like gravity, water and light.
  6. 6. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 2 of 68 (iii) Feeding (Nutrition) – this is the process of taking in food and breaking it to release energy. Some living things feed on ready-made organic matter from plants (heterotrophs). Other organism (plants) manufactures their own food (autotrophs). (iv) Respiration - is the breakdown of food within cells to release energy. It involves the use of oxygen. The energy realesed is required for movement, growth and development, as well as functioning of body organs. (v) Excretion – is the removal of by-products from the organism’s body. The by-products (excretory products) include carbon dioxide, water, urea, ammonia and others. Waste products are removed from the body by excretory organs such as skin, kidneys, lungs and liver. (vi) Reproduction - is the process by which living things produce new individuals of their kind. The new individual is also called an offspring. (vii) Growth - Growth is the permanent increase in size and weight of an organism. Growth is caused by an increase in number of cells. All living things need food in order to grow and build up their bodies. A TABLE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LIVING THINGS AND NON- LIVING THINGS Living things Non-living things They respire They do not respire They grow They do not grow They respond to stimuli They do not respond to stimuli They reproduce They do not reproduce They excrete They do not excrete They feed They do not feed They move They do not move THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING BIOLOGY 1. Helps to understand environment. This is because biology deals with plants, animals and their surroundings. 2. Helps to identify and group living things for easier learning.
  7. 7. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 3 of 68 3. Provides research skills useful for scientific investigation. 4. It helps to understand ourselves better since we are living things. 5. It provides skills and knowledge for other fields such as agriculture, forestry medicine, nutrition, pharmacy and veterinary science. 6. Helps to answer some important questions such as, what do living things need, why do we resemble with a monkey? 7. Helps to improve our health; since, biology deals with causes, symptoms, transmission and treatment of various diseases. 8. Helps to clear doubts of inheritance through the knowledge of genetics. For example albinism, sickle cell anaemia, haemophilia, etc. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC FIELD 1. Medicine and Pharmacy – ‘medicine’ involves the prevention, treatment and cure of diseases. ‘Pharmacy’ deals with the preparation of medicine. Biology relates with medicine and pharmacy disciplines because it studies body structure, its functions and body’s response to diseases through anatomy and immunology respectively. Therefore, medical doctors, pharmacist and veterinary use a broad knowledge of biology in treating organisms. 2. Nutrition – In this discipline, biology is very important as it helps dieticians to understand the composition and value of different food types. Biologists use knowledge of biology to produce variety of plants and animals of higher nutritional values. For example, Jersey cattle are a biological breed, which produces milk of very high nutritional content. 3. Agriculture – it involves crop production and animal rearing for food or money. Agriculturalists apply the biology knowledge for proper animal and plant growth. For example, biology helps to select breeds, soil, fertilizers and others for the appropriate growth. 4. Forestry – is the science of conserving forest and wild animals for sustainable use. Biologists use biology knowledge to develop varieties of trees in different climate and places.
  8. 8. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 4 of 68 SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES IN BIOLOGY Basic skills essential for scientific studies are:- 1. Observation 2. Measurement 3. Experimentation 1. Observation – is the collection of information from the environment by using sense organs. Sense organs are like eyes, ears, tongue and skin. 2. Measurement – this is the use of specific instruments and units of measurements in the investigation. International System of Units (SI units) is the standard system of measurement used by scientists to ensure uniformity of scientific results. COMMON MEASURES IN BIOLOGY (i) Mass – is the quantity of matter in an object. Mass is measured by Weighing scales. It is expressed in kilograms (kg) or grams (g) (ii) Length – is the measure of distance from one point to another. It is measured by using a ruler or tape. The length is expressed in milimetre (mm), centimeter (cm), metres (m) and kilometres (km). (iii) Temperature - is the measure of hotness or coldness of an object. It is expressed in Kelvin (K), degrees Celsius (0 C) and degrees Fahrenheit (0 F). Whereby K = 0 C + 273.15 0 F = {( 0 C} + 32 Thermometer – is an instrument used to measure temperature. Thermometer
  9. 9. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 5 of 68 Measure SI Unit Other Common Units Mass Kilogram (kg) Grams Length Metre (m)  Millimeter (mm)  Kilometre (km)  Centimetre (cm) Temperature Kelvin (k)  Degrees Celcius (0 C)  Degree Fahrenheit (0 F) Time Second  Minute (min)  Hour (hr) INSTRUMENTS USED FOR VARIOUS MEASUREMENTS: (i) Beam balance – for measuring mass (ii) Thermometer – for measuring temperature (iii) Clock/stopwatch – for measuring time (iv) Ruler – for measuring length (v) Pulse rate can be measured by using a stethoscope or by pressing the fingers firmly on the skin. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Science is the knowledge about the structure and behaviour of natural and physical world based on proof. Scientific method – is a systematic test of fact. These methods are:- 1. Identifying the problem - this is the observation of work of other scientists it identify weakness for investigation. 2. Asking question – after observation, the scientist asks questions that are to be answered by gathering evidence. 3. Formulation of hypothesis Hypothesis is the suggestion of answer to questions asked. In this step, the biologist guess the answer to the question asked. 4. Experimentation – experiment is carried out to test hypothesis. An experiment is a test done under controlled conditions. Hear the scientist uses variables (factor that can change or be changed) to test hypothesis.
  10. 10. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 6 of 68 5. Observation and data recording This is the observation to the experiment. The scientist observes what happens from beginning until the end of the experiment and note all the changes happening. Data recording is the noting down of the changes made during the experiment. 6. Data interpretation - this is the analysis of observation and data recorded during the experiment. Trends or patterns in the data are considered. 7. Conclusion – is a statement that summarizes what happened during the experiment. Scientist states whether the data supports the hypothesis or not. DIAGRAM: STEPS IN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Problem Identification
  11. 11. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 7 of 68 THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY A biology laboratory is a special room or building for carrying out biological experiments. A biology laboratory should have: 1. Large windows and big space to allow enough air ventilation and light for proper visibility. 2. Shelves – for keeping chemicals, specimens, apparatus and models. 3. Supply of gas, electricity and water 4. Working benches 5. An emergence door in case of danger occurs. 6. Storage room THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY RULES Biology laboratory has sophisticated instruments and hazardous chemicals, needed to be handled with special care and attention. The following laboratory rules should be adhered for special care and attention: 1. Do not enter in the laboratory without permission from the teacher or laboratory technician. 2. Do not play, or run unnecessarily in the laboratory. 3. Do not eat or drink in the laboratory. 4. Do not use chemicals or handle apparatus or specimens without instruction from the teacher or technician. 5. Report to the teacher or laboratory technician in case of any accident or damage. 6. Label chemicals and specimens to avoid confusion. 7. Keep flammable substances away from flames. 8. Turn off water and gas taps after use. 9. Never point the open end of the test tube to your fellow or yourself when heating. 10. Never smell substances, specimens, chemicals or gases directly. 11. Wash your hands with soap after the experiment. 12. Clean the apparatus and benches after the experiment. 13. Return the apparatus and chemicals to their normal position after use.
  12. 12. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 8 of 68 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORIES FROM OTHER SCHOOL FACILITIES Laboratory is different from other school facilities such as classrooms, the library, physics and chemistry laboratories because biology laboratory has: Equipment Diagram/picture Role Special equipment such as Dissecting kit and the microscope Contains apparatus used during the dissection of specimen. Models e.g ear model Illustrate organs of living organism especially human being. Refrigerators and oven. Refrigerators and ovens used for storing and drying specimens. Keeping units Used to keep specimen. Chemicals Used for biological experiments . Preserved specimen Specimen stored for future use.
  13. 13. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 9 of 68 Gases and Electric supply Used as source of heat and power during the experiment. Cages Keep live animals such as rabbit. Aquaria Keeps live aquatic organisms such as fish SOME APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY. Equipment Diagram/picture Role Microscope Magnifies smallest substance. Thermometer Measures temperature Hand lens Magnifies object Motor and Pestle Grind solid and hard specimen.
  14. 14. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 10 of 68 Dissecting tray Carries specimen during the dissection Measuring cylinder Measures liquid volume Bunsen Burner Act as a source of heat Test tube Holds chemical or heat substances. Specimen bottles Keep specimen Pair of scissors Cutting dressing materials Funnel Separates solids from liquids Surgical blades Used for dissection Spatula Used for picking powder or crystalline substances.
  15. 15. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 11 of 68 Beam balance Dropping pipette Adds drop of liquids during an experiment Beaker Used to mix or measure liquid Test tube holder Holds test tube when heated Syringes Transfer small quantity of gas or liquid Cork stoppers Used to seal test tubes and other container glass Mounting needle Lifts small delicate specimens Watch glass Is a dish for evaporating surface or cover for beakers COMMON CHEMICALS USED IN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY 1. Benedict’s solution 2. Lime water (calcium hydroxide)
  16. 16. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 12 of 68 3. Sodium hydroxide (slaked lime) 4. Cobalt chloride 5. Hydrochloric acid 6. Copper (II) sulphate 7. Sudan III 8. Alcohol 9. Stains e.g. carmine red, methylene blue 10. Sodium bicarbonate 11. Potassium permanganate 12. Iodine solution THE MICROSCOPE This is an instrument used to magnify too small objects to be seen by naked eyes. IMPORTANCE OF THE MICROSCOPE  Helps Physicians and biologists, to examine bacteria and blood cells.  Helps scientists and engineers to study crystal structures within metals and alloys (metal mixtures).  It helps to study computer chips and other tiny electronic devices. TYPES OF MICROSCOPES a. Light microscope b. Electron microscope (a) LIGHT MICROSCOPE This is the microscope depending on light to illuminate and magnify tiny objects.
  17. 17. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 13 of 68 PARTS OF THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS OF PARTS OF THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE 1. Eyepiece – Magnifies objects under observation since it consists of magnifying lenses. 2. Body tube – Hollow tube attached to the arm. It holds eyepiece lens and revolving nose piece. 3. Revolving nose piece – Holds objective lenses in place. 4. Coarse adjustment knob – It lowers and raises the body tube so that a clear image is obtained. 5. Fine adjustment knob – Raises and lowers the body tube to obtain a fine focus. 6. Objective lens – Brings image into focus and magnifies it. 7. Stage – is a place where specimen is placed. 8. Clips – Hold the slide or specimen in position. 9. Mirror – Reflects and directs light to the object under observation. 10. Diaphragm – it regulates light for clear illumination of the specimen. 11. Condenser – Concentrates light reflected by the mirror. 12. Base or stand – Supports the microscope steadily. 13. Arm or limb – Supports the body tube and stage. It is used to hold the microscope 14. Hinge screw – Raises and lowers the stage.
  18. 18. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 14 of 68 MAGNIFICATION Magnification power is symbolized by a number and abbreviation X. For example a 10X magnifying glass magnifies an object by 10 times. An object is magnified by multiplying the eyepiece lens magnification and objective lens magnification. Example: Magnification = eyepiece lens x objective lens magnification = 10 × 20= X200 A table of magnification Eye piece lens magnification Objective lens magnification Total magnification 5 20 X100 10 20 X200 15 10 X150 10 25 X250 20 20 X400 HOW TO USE A MICROSCOPE 1. Place the microscope on the table. 2. Mount the specimen on a microscope slide. 3. Line the low power objective lens with eye piece lens. 4. Place the slide with the specimen on the stage. 5. Look through the eyepiece while adjusting the eyepiece for proper direction of light. 6. Adjust the coarse knob to bring the specimen into focus. 7. Rotate the nosepiece to a higher power objective lens for more observation of specimen details. 8. Clean the microscope and store it after usage. WAYS OF HANDLING AND CARRYING A LIGHT MICROSCOPE a. Use both hands to carry the microscope. One hand holds the base and the other hand holds the arm. b. Do not place the microscope on the edge of the desk or table. c. Do not touch the microscope with wet hands. d. Remove and keep lenses in a desiccator when the microscope is not in use. e. Regularly lubricate the moving parts of microscope. f. Keep the stage clean and dry. g. Remove the slides from the stage immediately after use. h. Focus with the low-power objective lens first.
  19. 19. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 15 of 68 i. Focus by moving the lens away from the slide, that is, by increasing the working distance. j. Keep the microscope covered when not in use. k. Ensure the work area clean and tidy. (b) ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPE This is the microscope using electric power to illuminate and magnify tiny objects. TYPES OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPES a. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) This type of a microscope passes a broad beam of electrons through a specimen slice a few hundred angstroms thick. b. Scanning electron microscope (S E M) This microscope scans a focused beam across the surface of the specimen. SAFETY SYMBOLS Symbol Diagram Meaning 1. Harmful or irritant or This substance is harmful or poisonous in body parts. 2. Radioactive This substance emits harmful radiations. 3. Corrosive This substance can damages the skin and other tissues. 4. Toxic This substance is dangerous and can cause death. 5. Oxidant This substance reacts easily with oxygen.
  20. 20. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 16 of 68 6. Flammable This substance catches fire easily. 7. Explosive This substance explodes easily.
  21. 21. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 17 of 68 FIRST AID AND SAFETY FIRST AID This is an immediate help to a sick or injured person before professional medical help. IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID 1. Saves life 2. Reduces fear of death 3. Brings hope and encouragement to the patient 4. Relieves the victim’s pain 5. Prevents the illness or injury from becoming worse 6. Helps a person to recover from shock 7. It shows spirit of helping each other. First Aid Kit - is a small box that contains items for first aid. Closed First aid kit Opened First aid kit COMPONENTS OF THE FIRST AID KIT AND THEIR USES Components of the First Aid Kit and their uses Items Picture/Diagram Uses 1. First Aid Manual Contains guidelines on how to use the items in the first aid kit. 2. Plaster or adhesive bandage Covering small cuts or wounds
  22. 22. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 18 of 68 3. Sterile gauze Covering wounds to protect them from dirt and germs 4. Antiseptic Cleaning wounds to kill germs 5. Soap Washing hands, wounds and equipment. 6. Scissors or razorblade Cutting dressing materials 7. Safety pin Securing bandages 8. Bandage Keep dressings in place 9. Cotton wool Cleaning and drying wounds 10. Thermometer Taking body temperature 11. Petroleum jelly Smoothing chopped skin
  23. 23. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 19 of 68 12. Liniment Reducing muscle pain 13. Torch Source of light 14. Whistle Blown to call for help 15. Pain killer Reduce pain 16. Gentian violet (GV) used as an antiseptic to clean wounds. 17. Safety pins used for holding/securing bandages. 18. Iodine tincture or spirit Clean wounds and reduces bleeding. 19. A pair of tongs holds pieces of bandages when cleaning the wounds. FIRST AIDER This is a specialist who gives first aid.
  24. 24. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 20 of 68 QUALITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER 1. Must be able to assess the problem and give immediate and appropriate help. 2. Should be able to act quickly, quietly, calmly. 3. Should be sympathetic to the victim. 4. Should be able to recognize dangerous signs and give immediate help for example detecting immediately if -breathing has stopped or is failing -there is severe bleeding-poisoning-fractures 5. Should be able to help the injured person without unnecessary movement. SAFETY DURING THE FIRST AID The First Aider should assure his/her safety against the victims infection; such as HIV infection. Therefore, first aider should: 1. Wear protective gloves to avoid contact with blood 2. Wear eye protection 3. Wear masks and gowns. PROCEDURES OF GIVING FIRST AID TO VARIOUS VICTIMS 1. Snake Bites Sign and symptoms (i) Immediate pain and swelling after the bite (ii) The skin becomes purple (iii) One or two punctured points may be seen where the fangs passed through the skin Treatment (i) Calm and reassure a relief to victim (ii) Lie or sit down a victim (iii) Tightly tie the area above the bite to slow venom spread. (iv) Keep wound at heart or lower level to reduce venom spread to other body parts. (v) Remove jewellery and tight clothing from the injured limb. (vi) Wash the wound using soap and water to remove venom from the bite. (vii) Do not apply ice or cut the wound. 2. Scorpion Bite Scorpions are armed with a single curved stinger in the tail. Through this, they inject powerful venom that may produce convulsions and temporary paralysis. The affected area feels burn signs like that of a hot spark. Treatment
  25. 25. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 21 of 68 (i) Apply tourniquet (ii) Put ice on the injured area to relieve pain and prevent spread of the poison (iii) Treat for shock (iv) Rush the person to the hospital 3. Dog Bite When someone is bitten by a dog, keep the dog under observation to see whether it has rabies. If the dog has rabies, it will become restless, excitable, refuse to eat and barking tone will change. Later the dog then starts barking excessively. How to help a victim of dog bite (i) Wash your hands well with soap and water (ii) Remove the dog’s saliva using soap and running water. (iii) Cover the wound with clean gauze. (iv) Bandage it carefully (v) Take the victim to the hospital. 4. Insect Bites (i) Spider bites: the black spiders are dangerous to man. The injured person becomes weak and dizzy, feels nauseated and the muscles of the stomach may become hard especially in children. (ii) Black and fire ants, bees: these insects cause immediate severe pains. The person may be shocked, itching and swelling may follow. A victim of spider bite can be helped by attending to the hospital. How to help (i) Remove the insect’s sting (ii) Apply household ammonia and ice cubes. (iii) Treat for shock 5. Chocking It is caused by lodging of food in the windpipe. First notice if a person can talk, breath or cough. If so stay with that person until the air way is cleared by coughing. Do not slap the person on the back. The slapping may cause the food to become more deeply ledged in the wind pipe. If a person cannot talk or cough and appears to have a difficult in breathing, apply quick abdominal thrusts as follows; (i) Stand behind the chocking victim
  26. 26. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 22 of 68 (ii) Put your arms around the person, placing your firsts just below the breast bone as shown above. (iii) Give a series of quick, sharp upward and inward thrusts (iv) These thrusts push in on the diaphragm and the thoracic cavity suddenly decreasing its volume. Air pressure is exerted below the obstruction which projects it forcefully from the windpipe. 6. Electric Shock How to help (i) Switch off the electricity immediately. (ii) If not possible to switch off the electricity, take the victim away from the source of electricity using a dry wooden material or rope. (iii) Loosen any tight clothes (iv) If the person is unconscious, apply mouth to mouth respiration. (v) Treat for shock (vi) Take the person to the hospital immediately 7. Bruises A bruise is an injury beneath the skin. Bruises can be identified by pain, swelling or a mark under the skin. How to treat bruises (i) Wash your hands using water and soap. (ii) Wash the bruised part. (iii) Apply cold clothes or ice immediately to reduce pain and swelling. (iv) If swelling continues take the victim to the hospital. 8. Vomiting Vomiting is an involuntary ejection of substance from the stomach through the mouth. Possible causes of vomiting (i) Allergic reactions (ii) Diseases such as malaria (iii) Physiological condition; for example, pregnancy (iv) Food poisoning (v) Unpleasant smell or taste (vi) Drinking a lot of water when thirsty.
  27. 27. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 23 of 68 How to help (i) Give the person a rehydration drink or oral rehydration salts solution. (ii) Allow the person to have a complete rest (iii) If vomiting continues, take the patient to the hospital. 9. Muscle Cramps These are sudden, involuntary and painful contractions of muscle (s). it is caused by poor coordination of muscles during an exercise, cold, excessive loss of salts body fluid through sweating, diarrhea and vomiting. How to help (i) Lay the victim down. (ii) Massage the cramped area gently. (iii) Apply some anti-cramp ointment to the affected area. (iv) If the problem persists seek for a medical help. 10. Bleeding How to help the victim (a) Light bleeding 1. Calm and reassure the victim. 2. Lay the victim down. 3. Raise the injured part and support it in position. 4. Do not move the injured part if pains the victim. 5. Wash the wound from the middle outwards in case it is dirty. 6. Cover the wound with sterile dressing and clean its surroundings. 7. Dry the skin with sterile dressing. 8. Dress the wound and firmly bandage it. 9. Take the victim to the hospital in case of more bleeding. (b) Severe bleeding 1. Use finger to apply direct on the bleeding area. 2. Gently, press together sides of wound. 3. Lay down the victim in comfortable position. 4. Raise the injured part and support it in position. 5. Carefully remove unwanted object from the wound if possible. 6. Dress and cover the wound with soft dress. 7. Bandage the wound. (c) Nose bleeding usually occurs near the tip of the nose. The bleeding may be a result of diseases such as:-
  28. 28. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 24 of 68 1. High blood pressure 2. Rheumatic fever Or 3. Injury How to help 1. Let the victim sit quiet. 2. Let the victim lean the head slightly backward or make him/ her lie down on his/ her back. 3. Press on the side of the nose where the blood is flowing for about 10 minutes. 4. Allow the victim to breath through the mouth 5. Apply cold, wet compression over the nose and face. If this does not work take the victim to the hospital 11. Burns and Scalds A burn is caused by dry heat. A scald is caused by a steam or boiling water. Treatment (i) Remove any wet clothing in scald’s injured part. In case of burns, clothing should be left in place. (ii) If clothes are burning cover the victim with a heavy blanket to cut off the air supply. (iii) Dip the burning limb into clean cold water or press the affected area gently with an ice block. (iv) Do not break the blisters. (v) Cover the injured area against bacterial infection. (vi) Take the victim to the hospital immediately in case of serious situation. 12. Chemical Burns (Acids and Alkalis) Treatment (i) Strip off all clothing contaminated by the chemical. (ii) Wash the affected area with plenty of water. (iii) Apply moist packs soaked in a weak solution of baking soda. (iv) Use vinegar in case of alkaline burns. 13. Hiccups These are short, repeated, noisy intakes of air. Treatment (i) Pulling out the tongue. (ii) The victim may swallow finely crushed ice. (iii) Hold a breath for a long time.
  29. 29. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 25 of 68 (iv) Children can be given a teaspoonful of a weak solution of sodium bicarbonate or lemon juice. SAFETY AT HOME AND SCHOOL COMMON ACCIDENTS AT HOME AND SCHOOL An accident is unexpected situation that may cause injury or death. Accidents may be difficult to predict and prevent. The following are an accidents that might happen at home or school. 1. Bites; for example, snake bite, insect bite, scorpion bite and dog bite. 2. Burns caused by hot liquids, cooking pot, lamps, hot food, steam, burning wood, charcoals and those caused by corrosive chemicals such as concentrated acids and strong alkalis. 3. Falls, such as wall falls, tree falls, bed falling, etc. 4. Cuts and scratches caused by knives, hoes, razor blades and other sharp objects. 5. Choking caused by drinks, food or objects 6. Electric shock due to unguarded electric outlets and lightning. 7. Poisoning caused by taking chemicals and excessive intake of medicines. 8. Foreign bodies in the eye, ear and nose 9. Drowning which may occur in very small amount of water such as baths, ponds, pit latrines, wells and water tanks. 10. Nose bleeding, bruises, suffocation, fainting etc. WAYS OF PREVENTING ACCIDENTS AT HOME AND SCHOOL 1. Medicines and potential poisonous chemicals should be out of children. 2. Children should be monitored closely when playing. 3. Sharp objects like broken bottles, razor blades and laboratory equipment should be well disposed of. 4. Laboratory chemicals should be labeled with appropriate warning signs. 5. One should not take medicine unless prescribed by the doctor. 6. Clean bushes and tall grasses around the house to avoid harbouring snakes, bees and other dangerous animals. 7. Students should observe and adhere to laboratory rules. 8. Dismantle walls and trees that are at a risk of falling down. 9. Keep Flammable substances properly. 10. Burry pits around the house.
  30. 30. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 26 of 68 11. Avoid using charcoal to warm oneself during night when sleeping as continued inhalation of carbon monoxide from the charcoal may lead to death 12. Burning candles should be put off when sleeping. 13. Players should adhere to game rules. 14. Laboratory doors should open outwards for easy exit in case of fire. 15. Equipment like hoes, axes and knives should be properly kept 16. Turn off all the gas taps after experiment. WAYS OF MAINTAINING PEACE AND SAFETY AT HOME AND SCHOOL 1. Avoid risk behaviours such as playing near deep ponds, playing with knives, alcoholism etc. 2. Keep away from children dangerous things such as drugs. 3. Report any dangerous event that someone engages in. 4. Be positive and supportive to each other. 5. Social problems occurring at home or school should be solved keenly. 6. Parents should give their children education on how to live and interact with others.
  31. 31. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 27 of 68 WASTE DISPOSAL Waste – Wastes are materials that are no longer needed. Waste contaminates water, pollute water and air. SOURCES OF WASTES Wastes come from four different areas: 1. Construction (construction wastes) – these include wood, metals, bricks, plaster, roofing materials and glass. 2. Agriculture (agricultural wastes) – they include herbicides, insecticides and empty containers such as that of fertilizers. 3. Industries (Industrial wastes) – they include waste water sludge and metals. 4. Domestic (domestic wastes) – they include food wastes, Kans and others. TYPES OF WASTE (a) CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE ACCORDING TO PHYSICAL STATE (i) Solid wastes (ii) Liquid wastes (iii) Gaseous wastes (i) Solid wastes - are wastes comprising 73% solid wastes. Examples include vegetable remains, scrappers, plastics, syringes and soiled dressings. (ii) Liquid wastes - are wastes in liquid form. Examples include water from sinks, wash basins and baths. (iii) Gaseous wastes - are wastes in gases form. Examples are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. (b) TYPES OF WASTES ACCORDING TO THEIR IMPACTS (i) Hazardous waste (ii) Non- hazardous wastes (i) Hazardous wastes – are wastes posing immediate threat to health. Some examples include paints, used syringes, lead and mercury. (ii) Non-hazardous wastes - are less dangerous wastes to organism’s health. Examples include packing materials, papers, plastics, cans and water from basin.
  32. 32. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 28 of 68 (c) TYPES OF WASTES ACCORDING TO RECYCLING (i) Recycled wastes (ii) Non - recycled wastes (i) Recycled wastes - are wastes useful to manufacture new products (recycled wastes). Examples include metals, glass, papers, cow dung, beer bottles and plastic bags. (ii) Non - recycled wastes – are waste cannot be used again. Example, soiled papers and cotton wool. WASTE DISPOSAL This is a way of removing wastes from the environment. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF WASTE DISPOSAL 1. Reducing – this involves the reduction of the amount of wastes produced. For example, avoid buying plastic bags. 2. Re-using – involves the use of wastes for other purposes. For example the use of empty cans to store kerosene or petrol. 3. Recycling - is the change of wastes into new products. For example, the use of paper wastes for charcoal manufacturing. METHODS OF WASTE DISPOSAL (i) Burying – is a covering of soil on the wastes. This method is of different forms such as pit latrine (hole in the ground), tipping and landfills, incinerating and recycling. (a) Pit latrines – is a hole in the ground covered by wood or concrete. The pit is used as latrine. (b) Tipping and landfills – tipping is a creation of dumping sites such as a dustbin, dumps e.t.c. (c) A landfill is a place to burry solid wastes in the ground. A landfill is of two types: 1. An open hole is a ground where waste is put and later buried 2. A sanitary landfill is a structure built into the ground to isolate waste from environment using a clay or plastic liner. (ii) Incineration - is the complete destruction of waste through burning. It is carried out in an incinerator.
  33. 33. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 29 of 68 (iii) Composting – decaying all biodegradable wastes such as plants and animals into useful fertilizers. (iv) Recycling – is a turning of waste into usable products. For example, waste paper is used to make tissues or charcoal. PROPER WAYS OF DISPOSING WASTE (i) Recovery – is the change of waste into other categories. For example changing cow dung into biogas. (ii) Recycling – is a change of products into new usable products. (iii) Reduction at use – this involves the minimize of waste expected materials into the environment. (iv) Safe waste disposal – is a disposal of waste in a place designed for waste. WASTE DISPOSAL AS A PROBLEM Waste disposal has become a major problem due to the following factors:- (i) Improper waste disposal. For example, dumping waste on footpaths and throwing wastes from vehicles. (ii) The failure by cleaners to remove wastes in public areas. (iii) Failure of local authorities to enforce punishment to those who litter public places. (iv) Improper management of waste; for example, recycling. IMPORTANCE OF PROPER WASTE DISPOSAL 1. It reduces the spread of infection and risk of injuries to children. 2. It enhances atmospheric condition. 3. It reduces pathogens such as mice, bed bug and others. 4. It discourages the depletion of organism from wastes. 5. It reduces environmental pollution such as, air, water and ground pollution. EFFECTS OF POOR WASTE DISPOSAL (i) Production of bad odors. (ii) Ruin the areas appearance because of the waste spread. (iii) Harming of aquatic organisms. Waste imposed or carried into water bodies might destruct aquatic plants and animals such as fish. (iv) Waste acts as an origin of stubborn organisms. This is because waste becomes a breeding area for cockroach, houseflies, rats and others. (v) Waste becomes irritant to health. For example, broken glass and discarded syringes are hazard to children.
  34. 34. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 30 of 68 (vi) Encourage bacterial breeding leading to possible infections in the area. (vii)Wastes decomposition may produce gases result into ozone layer depletion. For example, decomposition of cow dung produces methane. REDUCTION OF WASTE 1. Use cloth instead of paper to wipe surfaces. For example, wiping windows and furniture. 2. Invest in cloth or woven shopping bags. this discourages plastic and glass jars to the environment. 3. Use plastic container to store food. This is because they leak less and reduce odors in the refrigerators. 4. Avoid disposable batteries instead use rechargeable batteries. 5. Provide environmental awareness to the community.
  35. 35. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 31 of 68 PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS Personal hygiene refers to individual cleanliness. Good manner is a socially acceptable behavior. PRINCIPLES OF PERSONAL HYGIENE 1. Wash the body every day. 2. Wear clean clothes 3. Wash hands soap and clean water after visiting toilet. 4. Brush teeth at least twice a day. 5. Keep environment clean. 6. When sneeze cover mouth and nose with clean handkerchief or tissues. 7. Keep nails short and clean. 8. Avoid sharing of handkerchief, towels, and clothes. 9. Change bedding regularly. 10. Wear comfortable and well-fitting clothes. 11. Avoid touching other people’s body fluids such as blood, urine, vomits and others. 12. Relieve in a clean toilet. 13. Keep the pets clean. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD MANNERS 1. Maintain good sitting or standing posture. 2. In a conversation: (i) Speak in a clear voice. (ii) Do not shout when talking. (iii) Do not interrupt a talk. (iv) Listen attentively to others. (v) Do not engage in boring topics. (vi) Do not dominate the conversation. (vii)Respect others when disagreeing. 3. Warmly welcome visitors. 4. Be helpful to others. 5. Great people politely. 6. Be punctual when visiting others. 7. Dress properly. 8. Cover mouth when sneezing, yawning or coughing. 9. When eating:- (i) Chew while closing your mouth. (ii) Eat at a reasonable pace. (iii) Use serving spoon to serve food.
  36. 36. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 32 of 68 (iv) Avoid things that can lose appetite. (v) Serve your reasonable food. (vi) Avoid criticizing food for others. (vii)Do not waste food. 10. Say ‘please’ when questioning for others. 11. Say ‘thank you’ when given something REQUIREMENTS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS 1. Listen the advice from other people. 2. Acquire the items for cleanliness. These items are such as Towel, Soap, Comb, Brush, Basin, Toothbrush, A pair of scissors, razor blades, water and Cosmetics. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANNERS 1. Reduces chances of pathogen infection. 2. Enhances social acceptance in the society. 3. Prevents choking while eating. 4. Maintains natural body state. 5. Maintains personality of an individual in the society. 6. Enhance respects of one by others. 7. Maintains health of the body and mind. WAYS OF MAINTAINING PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY Puberty is the maturity period. This period involves biological, psychological and social changes of a child. The puberty age is between 10 to 14 years for girls and 12 to 16 years for boys. Puberty leads to adolescence. Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood. WAYS OF MAINTAINING PROPER HYGIENE DURING PUBERTY CHANGES IN GIRLS AT PUBERTY 1. Body size increases rapidly. 2. Breasts develop. 3. Hair grows in the armpits and pubic area. 4. Waist narrows and hips broaden. 5. Pimple may develop on the face. 6. Menstruation begins. 7. Sweat and oil glands become more active.
  37. 37. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 33 of 68 CHANGES IN BOYS AT PUBERTY 1. Body sizes increases. 2. Reproductive organs enlarge. 3. Muscles grow. 4. Hair grows on face (beards), armpits and pubic region. 5. Voice deepens. 6. Shoulders and chest broaden. 7. Sperm production begins. 8. Wet dream begins. 9. Pimples may develop on face. 10. Sweat and oil glands become active. GOOD MANNERS DURING PUBERTY Puberty leads people to undergo: 1. Emotional changes (confusion or sadness develops). 2. Attraction to members of the opposite sex. MEASURES FOR GOOD MANNERS ACHIEVEMENT 1. Resist negative peer pressure; for example, consumption of drugs. 2. Get counseling from reliable person. For example, parents and religious leaders. 3. Apologize in case of hurting others. 4. Do not engage in sexual activities. 5. Respect to elders. 6. Involve in extracurricular activities like sports and games.
  38. 38. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 34 of 68 THE CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND IMMUNITY Health is a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing. HOW TO REMAIN HEALTHY (i) Avoid smoking (ii) Avoid unhealthy food such as chips and bottled juice. (iii) Exercise regularly. (iv) Get sufficient sleep in a well-ventilated room. (v) Relax and avoid stress. (vi) Allow time for leisure. (vii) Take medical drugs when necessary. (viii) Avoid recreational drugs such as heroine. (ix) Eat a well-balanced diet. (x) Drink plenty of clean and safe water. (xi) Keep the body clean. ELEMENTS OF PHYSICAL HEALTH (i) Nutrition: Balanced diet improves body health, growth and development. (ii) Exercise: Exercises keeps body healthy and fit. (iii) Rest and sleep: Help to overcome fatigue and restore energy to the body. (iv) Cleanliness: Cleanliness prevents the growth of bacteria and other germs that can cause diseases. (v) Medical and dental care: Regular check-ups by dentist and physician play an important role in safeguarding health. (vi) Avoiding risk behaviours: behaviours such as Smoking, alcoholism, and drug abuse have various defects to the body including cancer, affection of nervous system and addiction respectively. MENTAL HEALTH Mental health is as important as physical health and to a great extend depends on it. ELEMENTS OF MENTAL HEALTH (i) Emotional development - Experiences during childhood strongly influence a person’s mental health throughout life. Children remain dependent for many years. At this period, they learn certain guidelines
  39. 39. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 35 of 68 for relating to other people. Thus, children develop the knowledge necessary to deal with difficult situations in life. (ii) Handling stress - Stress handling is essential for avoiding both mental and physical illness. Feelings of stress are the body’s response to any threatening or unfamiliar situation. (iii) Social relationships - Close personal relationships with friends and relatives provide opportunities for communication, sharing and emotional growth. Such relationships also provide strength and support for dealing with challenging situations or personal problems. IMPORTANCE OF GOOD HEALTH 1. Enables people to enjoy life and have opportunity to achieve their goals. 2. Sets someone free from attack by diseases. 3. Enables people to work effectively and efficiently. 4. Good health helps people to participate in social issues. 5. Enables mothers to deliver healthy babies. 6. Raises the family economy, which in turn ensures peace and security within the family and the surrounding community. Immunity – is the ability of the body to resist infection and diseases. It is influenced by the body immune system. Immune produces antibodies to fight against antigens (cause of disease and infection). TYPES OF IMMUNITY 1. Natural immunity 2. Artificial immunity 1. Natural Immunity - Is an inherited body resistance against diseases. TYPES OF NATURAL IMMUNITY (i) Natural active immunity – present before or after infection. For example, when a person gets wound the body produces antibody to prevent wound from antigens. (ii) Natural passive immunity – is a mother to child immunity obtained through pregnancy and breast- feeding. 2. Artificial immunity–is an induced body resistance against diseases. It is obtained through vaccine.
  40. 40. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 36 of 68 TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY (i) Artificial Active Immunity – is the immunity obtained through vaccination using vaccines. This vaccine weaken or kill antigens. Vaccine can be taken orally or injected. (ii) Artificial Passive Immunity Is the injection of one’s antibodies into another individual. It provides instant response but it is short lived in the body. It also applicable in fatal disease such as tetanus. COMPONENTS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM Human immune system consists of: (i) White blood cells. (ii) The lymphatic system. (iii) Spleen. (iv) Thymas. (v) Skin and the bone marrow. These component need to be kept in good condition for adequate immunity FACTORS AFFECTING IMMUNITY (i) Poor Nutrition – imbalanced diet with improper quantities of nutrients influences body attaction by diseases. (ii) Lack of Vaccination – lack of vaccination to human body influences infection. (iii) Genetic Disorders – these are inborn conditions affecting immunity. For example, albinos are bon with their skin less resistant to sunrays; hence, they are vulnerable to skin cancer. (iv) Incomplete Treatment - incomplete treatment dosage influences infection or diseases and affect immunity. For example, consuming 2 instead of 3 tablets results to incomplete treatment. (v) An Attack by Pathogens – these are microorganism that attack and destroy body cells. (vi) Extreme Stress – extreme stress lowers body immunity and hence triggers infection and diseases attack. (vii) Skin Damage – this allows free entrance of antigens into the body and weakens the immunity. INFECTION AND DISEASES This is an infection that occurs when pathogens invade the body. Pathogens - are microorganisms that cause disease.
  41. 41. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 37 of 68 A disease – is a condition that interferes body health. It can be caused by:- (i) Infection. (ii) Inborn condition. (iii) Environmental factors. Note: infection is an entrance of pathogens into organism’s body; while, a disease is a condition of feeling unhealthy. NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF DISEASES 1. body weakness 2. Increased cost of health care. 3. Increase of stress to the victim and family. 4. Reduced productivity due to inability of work. 5. Permanent damage to the body. 6. Death. CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (i) Communicable diseases (ii) Non-communicable diseases (I) COMMUNICABLE DISEASES These are diseases that spread from one person to another. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses bacteria and protozoa. The pathogens can be spread in the following ways:- 1. Droplet infection – infected secretions from the north or mouth to another person. Secretions are produced in form of droplets through sneezing, spitting, coughing, or speaking. 2. Through Contact – infection is spread when a person come into contact with infected skin, clothing, combs or dressing. Measles is one among the diseases spread by contact. 3. Through Sexual Intercourse – unsafe sexual contact results to transmission of diseases like gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS. 4. Through Contaminated Food and Water This is the transmission of pathogens through contaminated food or water. 5. Vectors Vectors are organisms that spread pathogens. These organisms are such as fleas, mosquitoes and lice.
  42. 42. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 38 of 68 CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Communicable diseases are classified according to their occurrence. 1. An epidemic disease – It affects a large number of people in a short period. Examples, meningitis, tuberculosis and plague. 2. Pandemic Disease – is a widespread disease over the geographical area. For example, HIV/AIDs has spread all over the world. 3. Endemic Disease – is a disease that occurs constantly in a given area. For example, malaria and bilharzias occur in stagnant water. 4. Sporadic disease – occurs occasionally and at random intervals. TABLE: COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND INFECTION. Disease Cause/transmission Signs/sym ptoms effects Prevention/control Cholera Vobrio cholerae/contaminated food or water Diarrhoea, vomiting, weight loss, Wrinkled skin, muscle cramp.  Dehydration  Weight loss  Wash hands after toilet  Boil/treat water.  Wash hands before eating.  Wash fruits before eating.  Eat hot food.  Vaccination.  Medical treatment. Menengitis Bacteria and virus spread through droplets after coughing, sneezing or kissing.  Feaver  Headache  Vomiting  Seizure  Stiff neck  Delirium  Brain damage  Poor movement coordination.  Deafness  Paralysis  Isolation of patients  Vaccination  Medical treatment Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Spread by droplets from coughing or sneezing.  Prolonged cough.  Blood- stained sputum.  Fever  Poor appetite  Weight loss.  Lack of energy.  Night sweats.  Lung damage.  Kidney damage.  Bone infection.  Hunchback  Damage to the immune system.  Vaccination.  Nose and mouth coverage during sneezing.  Medical treatment. Plague Yesinia pestis Spread by fleas from rats.  Lymph node inflammation .  Fever.  Internal bleeding.  Anaemia  Pneumonia  Vaccination  Elimination of rats and fleas.  Medical treatment.
  43. 43. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 39 of 68  Body aches.  Coughing and shorteness of breath. Bilharzia/sch istosomiasis  Caused by Blood flukes Spread by water snails.  Blood- stained faeces and urine.  Abdominal pain.  Diarrhoea.  Fever.  Tiredness.  Enlarged liver and spleen.  Anaemia.  Kidney failure.  Liver damage.  Brain damage.  Spleen damage.  Killing mosquitos.  Use treated mosquitos.  Drain stagnant water.  Slash long grass.  Anti-malaria drugs. Scabies Caused by microscopic mites. Spread by skin-to-skin contact or sharing clothing, towels and bedding.  Intense itching.  Rashes and burrows on the skin.  Sores on the skin.  Persistent skin rashes.  Good personal hygiene.  Wash contaminated clothes.  Avoid sharing personal items especially clothes and towels.  Medical treatment. Rabies Caused by bites or saliva from animals. Spread by organ transplants from infected people.  Fever  Pain at the site of the bite.  Difficulty in swallowing  Restlessness.  Muscle spasms.  Convulations  Loss of feeling.  Drooling.  Foaming at the mouth.  damage to nervous system.  Brain damage.  Paralysis.  Vaccination.  Medical treatment. (II) NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES These are diseases that do not spread from one person to another. Examples are such as kwashiorkor, obesity, sickle-cell, anaemia and diabetes. They may be caused by: (i) Deficiency of nutrients. (ii) Pollutants such as smoke or radiation. (iii) Food poisoning. (iv) Genetic defects. (v) Body overweight.
  44. 44. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 40 of 68 (vi) Stress and age. TABLE: NON-COMMUNICABLE Diseases Cause Signs/Symptoms Effects Prevention/Control Diabetes  Insulin disorders  Genetic disorders  Excessive body weight.  Fatique.  Weight loss.  Excessive thirst.  Excessive hunger  Poor healing of wound.  Frequent infections.  Altered mental status.  Frequent urination.  Blindness  Kidney failure.  Nerve damage.  Damage to arteries.  Impotence in males.  Control body weight.  Regular exercise.  Stop alcohol consumption.  Stop smoking.  Diet restrictions.  Insulin injection. Rickets  Calcium or vitamin D deficiency.  Bone pain or tenderness.  Bowed legs/knock knees.  Muscle spasms  Bone deformities.  Adequate foods rich in vitamin D and calcium.  Exposure to morning sunshine. Kwashiorkor  Diet with low protein.  Swollen abdomen.  Reddish hair.  Lack of energy  Change of skin colour.  Weight loss.  Retarded mental development.  Retarded physical growth.  Adequate protein intake. Cancer  Mutations or carcinogen such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, infectious agents such as viruses, heredity from parents.  Swellings(tumours)  Bleeding  Pain and ulcers  Enlarged liver and lymph nodes.  Coughing  Weight loss  Poor appetite  Excessive sweating  Infection of lung, prostate gland, breast, cervix, and blood.  Avoid carcinogens(tobacco smoke and radiations).  Surgery to remove swellings.  Radiation therapy (x- rays)  Immunotherapy (input of new antibodies)  Hormonal therapy (enhance or block hormonal functions) Glaucoma  Old age  High pressure in eyes.  Diabetes  Eye pain  Blurred vision  Nausea  Vomiting  Blindness  Decreased vision.  Regular eye check- ups.  Pressure lowering eye drops.
  45. 45. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 41 of 68 STIS, STDS, HIV AND AIDS Introduction  STIs – Sexually Transmitted Infections.  STDs – Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is a pathogen that weakens the immune system.  AIDs – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. STIS AND STDS STIs are infections and STDs are diseases spread through sexual intercourse or sexual contact. Both are sometimes known as venereal infections or diseases. Disease/Infectio n Cause/Trans mission Signs Effects Prevention Gonorrhea  Caused by Bacteria  Spread by Sexual intercourse; item sharing such as towels, and under wears; mother to child at birth.  Penis/vagina yellow discharge.  Pain when urinating.  Urine retention in males.  Private parts itching.  Irregular menstruation.  Infertility  Swollen and painful joints.  Abstain from sex. Avoid sexual contact. Avoid sharing personal items. Medical treatment. Syphilis  Caused by bacteria spread by sexual intercourse; mother to her foetus in womb and blood transfusion.  Occurs in three stages such as 1st stage (3 – 4 weeks after infection) sex organs painless sore in a week. 2nd stage (8 – 14 weeks after infection); fever, join pains, rashes, raised humps on skin and swollen lymph nodes. 3rd stage (2 years after infection) effects of syphilis are noticed.  Damage to bones, teeth, skin, digestive system, eyes and nervous system.  Mental instability  Blindness  Stillborn babies.  Hearing problems.  Death. Abstain from sex. Avoid sexual contact with infected people. Use safe blood for transfusion. Testing and treating pregnancy women. Medical treatment. Trichomoniasis  Protozoa spread by sexual intercourse, sharing personal items such as towels and  Frothy smelly yellow discharge from the vagina, vaginal itching, pain when urinating.  Men show no symptoms.  Low birth weight of babies.  Premature births. Abstain from sex. Avoid sexual contact with infected people. Do not share personal items such as towels. Medical treatment.
  46. 46. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 42 of 68 underwear. Genital herpes  Viruses spread by sexual contact.  Recurrent fever.  Ulcers or blisters around the penis or vagina.  Pain in or around the sex organs.  Headache.  Recurrent painful ulcers.  Death of babies. Abstain from sex Avoid sexual contact with infected people. Medical treatment. Hepatitis B  Viruses spread by sexual intercourse, infected mother to her baby at birth.  Abdominal pain.  Skin and eyes yellowish.  Dark urine.  Pale-coloured stool  Nausea and vomiting  Whole body itching.  Feeling tired.  Liver damage.  Liver cancer. Abstain from sex. Vaccination. Avoid sexual contact. Avoid sharing clinical needles and blades. Use safe blood for transfusion. Medical treatment. Chlamydia  Bacteria spread by sexual intercourse, infected mother to child during birth.  Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse.  Bleeding between menstrual periods.  Lower abdominal pain.  Pain during urination.  Penis/vaginal discharge.  Pain in the testicles.  Infertility Abstain from sex Vaccination Avoid sexual contact with infected people. Medical treatment for both partners Candidiasis  Fungus spread by sexual contact, sharing personal items such as towels and underwear.  Thick white discharge from the vagina.  Vaginal itching  Thick white patches in the mouth.  Inflammation of the penis glans.  Skin rashes.  Infection of the blood stream. Abstain from sex. Avoid sexual contact with infected person. Do not share personal items. Medical treatment. HIV AND AIDS HIV is a deadly disease, which attacks white blood cells essential for immunity. CAUSE Is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).The Virus attack the body's immune system weakening it and making it more susceptible to infections and some cancers. It is important to realize that, infection with the HIV virus does not necessarily result in AIDS. As with other diseases, some people remain symptomless and are said to be carriers.
  47. 47. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 43 of 68 TRANSMISSION OF HIV The virus is found in the body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, tears, saliva, urine and breast milk. Semen, blood and vaginal fluids have high concentrations of viruses. Sweat, saliva and tears have low concentrations of the virus. HIV SPREAD HIV can be spread by: (i) Sexual intercourse with an infected person. (ii) Blood transfusion from an infected donor. (iii) Organ transplants from an infected donor. (iv) Breast feeding from infected mother to child. (v) Use of infected sharp tools for example blades, needles and scalpels. (vi) Sharing toothbrushes, shaving blades or nail cutters with infected people. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AIDS STAGES OF HIV AND AIDS (a) Primary Stage or window stage - in this stage the HIV test is negative and a person looks healthy. (b) Asymptomatic stage – it has no symptoms but the HIV test is positive. The person looks healthy. (c) Symptomatic sage – it is characterized by severe damage of immune system. (d) Full-blown AIDS – a person becomes very ill and weak. The following signs and symptoms may be noticed during the symptomatic and full-blown stages:-: 1. Fast loss of weight 2. Persistent fever 3. Chest pain 4. Diarrhoea for no obvious cause 5. Coughing for more than one month 6. Shortness of breath getting worse over several weeks 7. Itchy skin rashes 8. Thrush in the mouth and throat 9. Loss of hair 10. Genital rashes 11. Swollen glands especially in the neck and armpits.
  48. 48. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 44 of 68 EFFECTS OF HIV AND AIDS (i) Chest infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis. (ii) Brain infections (mental confusion) (iii) Stomach infections leading to diarrhea. (iv) Skin cancer. For example, Kaposi’s Sarcoma. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HIV/AIDS (i) Use the ABC method to prevent the disease: Whereby: A-Abstain from sex B- Be faithful to your only partner C- use Condom. (ii) Avoid sharing sharp tools with the infected individuals. (iii) Use safe blood during blood transfusion. (iv) Pregnant should attend clinic for treatment. (v) Avoid risk behaviours and practices such as drug abuse, prostitution, rape, anal sex, oral sex that may enhance HIV transmission. MANAGEMENT OF STIS AND HIV/AIDS Ways to avoid risk behaviours. (i) Abstain from sex before marriage. (ii) Applying non-penetrative sex, such as kissing and hugging. (iii) Delaying technique; for example, I am required at home just now let’s meet tomorrow. (iv) Discouraging/negative words; for example, I am HIV positive (v) Discouraging peer pressure. (vi) Engaging in sports and games which distract one’s mind from concentrating to sex. (vii)Showing a sense of dislike to express the way you are by wearing T-shirts, caps with various messages such as ‘say no to sex’, ‘practice safe sex’, ‘AIDS kills’ and others. NECESSARY SKILLS FOR AVOIDING RISKY BEHAVIOURS, PRACTICES AND SITUATIONS 1. Avoid sexual intercourse. It is possible to live a healthy normal life without having sexual intercourse. 2. Use a condom correctly, every time you have vaginal sex. 3. Avoid multiple partners. 4. Avoid alcohol and drug abuse as they affect decision-making.
  49. 49. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 45 of 68 5. Avoid sharing needles and other skin piercing tools. 6. Avoid contracting other STIs because they increase the chances of HIV and AIDS infection. 7. Avoid risky behaviours such as going to night clubs, negative peer pressure and taking alcohol or drug abuse. 8. Prevent mother to child transmission by encouraging the use of alternative feeding (milk) instead of breastfeeding. 9. Prevent transmission through organ and tissue transplants by screening both the donor and the patient. 10. Encourage effective treatment of the victim. CARE AND SUPPORT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) IMPORTANCE OF CARE AND SUPPORT TO PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) 1. It enables them to prolong their lives in case they are administered with ARVs. 2. It reduces fear of death. 3. It enables them to perform their daily activities without fear. 4. It reduces depression and self-dislike. NECESSARY CARE AND SUPPORT SERVICES PROVIDED TO PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN THE FAMILY, COMMUNITY AND AT SCHOOL. 1. show love, respect and support; 2. know the facts about HIV/AIDS and talking openly about the disease. 3. Help to reduce stress and stressful situations. 4. Help to provide balanced and nutritious meals. 5. Seek for support from family and friends as well as from other people who are HIV positive. 6. Encourage them to live with hope; 7. Do not stop them from doing things they like. 8. Spend time with the sick person. For example, help them to prepare their meals, clean their rooms, make their beds and take them to a walk if they can walk. 9. Encourage them to get treatment if they are sick. 10. Clean their houses, utensils, clothes, among others. 11. Try to relieve any pain the person may be feeling, for example by administering painkillers. 12. Treat them with respect and dignity making them as comfortable as possible.
  50. 50. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 46 of 68 PRECAUTIONS WHEN HANDLING PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS AND STIS 1. Do not touch body fluids such as blood, stool and urine with bare hands, instead use gloves to assure self-protection. 2. Wash the gloves or plastic bags in hot water every time after use. 3. Wash the bedding and clothes with soap. Hang them where there is a plenty of sunshine and air circulation to dry well. 4. Do not share toothbrushes, razors, skin piecing instruments, or needles. 5. Cover your wounds with a clean and sterile bandage. 6. Dispose off properly the vomits or bandages used when dressing wounds. 7. Learn about the ways HIV can and cannot be transmitted. THE EFFECTS OF DISCRIMINATION AND STIGMA TO PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS TO THE INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY AND SOCIETY 1. Loss of income and livelihood. 2. Loss of marriage and childbearing options. 3. Poor care within the health sector. 4. Withdrawal of caregiving in the home. 5. Loss of hope and feelings of worthlessness. 6. Loss of reputation.
  51. 51. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 47 of 68 CELL STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION THE CONCEPT OF CELL A cell is the smallest unit of living things or a cell is a basic unit of life. Bodies of Plants and animals are made up of cells. The cells are microscopic; hence, they cannot be seen by naked eyes. SINGLE-CELLED OR UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS These are organisms whose bodies are made up of one cell or single cell. Such organisms are like protozoa, diatoms and bacteria. MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS These are organisms whose bodies are made up of many cells. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CELL 1. Cells cannot be seen by naked eyes because of being smallest. 2. Cells are capable of dividing by mitotic process or meiotic process. 3. Cells contain structures called organelles. The cell theory - it states that:- (i) All living things compose of cells. (ii) All cells are produced from others. (iii) Cells contain inherited information which controls their activities. (iv) All cells have the same chemical composition. (v) All life processes take place in the cell. (vi) A cell is a basic unit of structure and function in living organisms. TYPES OF CELL (i) EUKARYOTIC CELL This is a cell found in organisms called eukaryotes. It can be in a unicellular (amoeba) or in multicellular organisms (animals and plants). CHARACTERISTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELL (a) They have a membrane-bound nucleus. (b) They are bigger and complex than prokaryotic cell. (c) They have Organelles surrounded by envelopes. (d) They reproduce by either sexual or asexual means. (ii) PROKARYOTIC CELLS
  52. 52. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 48 of 68 These are are cells found in unicellular organisms (prokaryotes) such as a (bacteria). CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS (a) They do not have nucleus. (b) They do not have membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria or Golgi bodies. (c) They reproduce by binary fission or by conjugation to provide two identical cells. (d) They have flagella for locomotion or pili for attachment. (e) They can be rod-shaped, spherical or spiral in shape. ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS MAIN PARTS OF A CELL 1. Cell membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Nucleus ANIMAL CELLS 1. Cell membrane (plasmalemma) This is a thin flexible membrane made of protein and lipid. It has the following functions: (i) The cell membrane encloses the contents of the cell. (ii) It is only permeable to water and gases and selectively permeable to other molecules; for example, it allows food in but keeps unwanted molecules out. Thus the cell membrane controls the substances entering and leaving the cell. 2. Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is a transparent jelly-like fluid. Cytoplasm may contain particles such as chloroplasts or starch grains or oil droplets. It is a place where chemical reactions take place. It encloses vacuoles, nucleus and mitochondria. 3. Nucleus This is a ball-shaped or oval body located inside the cytoplasm. It is made up of nucleolus and nucleoplasm fluid. It is surrounded by nuclear membrane. The nucleus is a cell control centre.
  53. 53. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 49 of 68 FUNCTIONS OF THE NUCLEUS: (i) It controls the formation and development of a cell. (ii) Controls chemical processes in the cell. (iii) Controls the functions of all parts of the cell. (iv) Determines cell size, shape and function. (v) Determine the hereditary characteristics (DNA) of a cell. 4. Vacuole This is a fluid-filled spaces bound by a membrane. It is secretes and excretes wastes from the cell and it is responsible for food storage and osmoregulation. 5. Mitochondria (mitochondrion) These are oval-shaped organelles that have two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth and the inner membrane has folds (cristae). Mitochondrion is responsible for respiration that produces energy (ATP) for cell functions. PLANT CELL Plant cell consists of cell membrane, cytoplasm, a nucleus and mitochondria. Some plants have centrioles while others do not. The functions of organelles are the same to that of animal cell. 1. Cell wall This is a strong cover made of cellulose surrounding the cell membrane. It allows the passage of water and minerals. It protects, supports the cell and gives the cell its shape. 2. Chloroplast – is the oval organelle containing green pigment (chlorophyll). It is responsible in photosynthesis of the plant.
  54. 54. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 50 of 68 3. Cell sap vacuole – this is the large and permanent vacuole in the central part of the cell. It contains a sap and surrounded by a membrane called tonoplast. A sap is filled with water helping plants retain shapes and remain upright. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CELL WALL AND CELL MEMBRANE Cell wall Cell membrane It is a non–living structure It is a living structure It is made up of cellulose It is made up of lipoprotein It is freely permeable It is selectively permeable SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ANIMAL CELL AND PLANT CELLS 1. Both have cell membranes 2. Both contain cytoplasm 3. Both have nucleus 4. Both have mitochondria 5. Both have Golgi bodies 6. Both have ribosome DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT CELL AND ANIMAL CELLS Plant Cell Animal Cell Have definite shape Have no definite shape Have chloroplasts Have no chloroplasts Have large permanent vacuoles Have small temporary vacuoles or no. Controls usually absent Controls present it moves Does not move The nucleus is located at the periphery The nucleus is centrally located Stores food in form of starch grains Store food in form of glycogen
  55. 55. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 51 of 68 CELL DIFFERENTIATION (DIVISION OF LABOUR) This is the specialization of a cell to perform a particular function within the organism. Or Cell differentiation is the process by which cells become specialized in order to perform different functions. Similarly, the special functions of mitochondria, ribosome and other cell organelles may be termed as division of labour within the cell. CELL ORGANIZATION Cells of living things are organized as follow:- Tissue – is a group of cells that perform the same function. Examples of tissues are: For animal include (i) Bon, (ii) Muscle and (iii) Skin For plant include: (i) Xylem (ii) Phloem An organ – is a group of tissues working together to perform a certain function. Animal organs include:- a. Heart b. Liver c. Brain Plant organs include: (i) Stem (ii) Flowers (iii) Roots A system is a group of organs working together to perform a certain function. For example, blood circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels working together to supply blood to all parts of the body. An organism is a collection of different systems working together. Therefore, there is a special organization from the cell to the organisms as shown below:- Cell Tissue Organ System Organism THE IMPORTANCE OF CELL DIFFERENTIATION (i) It leads to division of labour in which each cell does a specific function. (ii) In helps the body to carry out all life processes at the same time. (iii) It enables all body functions to be performed efficiently.
  56. 56. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 52 of 68 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS CONCEPT OF CLASSIFICATION This is the grouping of organisms based on their similarities and differences. Similar organisms are placed in one group. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS 1. Classification simplifies the study of living things. 2. Classification makes communication easy among biologists from different parts of the world. 3. It provides good organized system in which a newly identified organism can be easily fitted in future. 4. It makes it easier to identify organisms 5. It helps to scientific to predict characteristics of the same organisms. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS There are two types of classification 1. Artificial classification 2. Natural classification 1. ARTIFICIAL CLASSIFICATION This is the classification that groups organisms according to observable features. For example, the presence of legs or wings results to grouping of organism accordingly. ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION (i) It is easy to use since it considers observable features, such as legs, feathers and others. (ii) It is not time consuming. (iii) It is cheap as no skillful person needed. (iv) It is stable because it is not easily changing from time to time. DISADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION (i) It places related organisms into different groups instead of being grouped together. For example, a bat is grouped into birds instead of mammals.
  57. 57. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 53 of 68 (ii) Different organisms may be placed in the same group. For example, bats placed in a group of birds, worms placed with snakes in the same group. (iii) It bases on the scientist’s interest. (iv) It less accurate because of using few observable characteristics. (v) It is difficult to incorporate additional information. 2. NATURAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION This is the grouping of organism according to external and internal features. In this system organisms are grouped according to:- (i) Biological processes such as reproduction and respiration. (ii) Biochemical activities; such as photosynthesis. (iii) Development of embryos. (iv) Internal and external structure. ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION (i) Closely related organisms are placed in the same group. (ii) Unrelated organisms cannot be placed in the same group. (iii) It incorporates deep knowledge through research. (iv) It is easy to incorporate additional information. DISADVANTAGES OF NATURAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION (i) It is difficult since it considers many features. (ii) It requires high knowledge about organisms. (iii) It is time consuming. (iv) It is relatively unstable i.e. it changes from time to time. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NATURAL CLASSIFICATION AND ARTIFICIAL CLASSIFICATION Artificial classification Natural classification (i) Considers few features in common Considers many features in common (ii) Does not reflect on evolutionary relationships Reflects on evolutionary relationships (iii) It is easy to classify It is difficult to classify (iv) Not time consuming It is time consuming (v) Does not require expertise Requires expertise (vi) New information cannot be added New information can be added.
  58. 58. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 54 of 68 MAJOR GROUPS OF LIVING THINGS Organisms are classified into five major groups called kingdoms. Such kingdoms include:- 1. Kingdom monera. It also devided ito:- (i) Kingdom animalia – divides into phylum. (ii) Kingdom plantae – divides into division. Phyla or divisions divide into classes, classes form orders, orders form families and families form genera (genus). Genus subdivides into species. This rank of classification is known as taxonomic unit or taxa. The diagram to show Taxonomic Unit or taxa 2. Kingdom protoctista 3. Kingdom fungi 4. Kingdom plantae 5. Kingdom animalia CLASSIFICATION OF SOME COMMON ORGANISMS Taxonomic Unit Human Being Dog Maize Plant Eucalyptus tree Kingdom Animalia Animalia Plantae Plantae Phylum/division Chordata Chordata Spermatophyta Spermatophyta Class Mammalia Mammalia Angiospermae Magnoliopsida Order Primate Carnivore Graminales Myrtales
  59. 59. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 55 of 68 Family Hominidae Canidae graminaceae Myrtaceae Genus Homo Canis Zea Eucalyptus Species Sapience Familiaris Mays Regnans Scientific name Homo sapiens Canis familiaris Zea mays Eucalyptus regnans BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE This is the scientific naming of organisms using a name with two Latin words. Scientific name has two parts:- (a) Generic name – is the first part of the Latin name which represents genus. (b) Specific name – is the second part, which represents the species. For example, ‘Homo sapiens’ is the scientific name of human being. Homo is the ‘generic name’ and ‘sapiens’ is the specific name. RULES FOR WRITING SCIENTIFIC NAME (i) Generic name is written before specific name. (ii) Generic name must begin with the capital letter. (iii) Specific names must begin with small letter. (iv) Scientific name is italicized in published document. (v) Must be in Latin language. (vi) Specific name accompanies author’s name of a person who created it. SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF COMMON ORGANISMS Common name Scientific name Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris Cockroach Periplaneta americana Amoeba Amoeba proteus Coffee Coffea arabica Maize Zea mays Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Domestic cat Felis catus Sisal Agave sisalana Ashok tree Polyanthia longifolia Housefly Musca domestica Neem tree Azadirachta indica Flamboyant (Christmas tree) Delonix regia Tropical almond (mkungu) Terminalia catapa
  60. 60. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 56 of 68 VIRUSES, KINGDOM MONERA AND KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA VIRUS This is the smallest microorganism. The study of virus is called virology. CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES 1. They are smallest living organisms. 2. Viruses do not have cellular structures, as they do not have nucleus, cytoplasm, golgi bodies, etc. 3. They are parasitic as they reproduce inside the living cells. 4. They consist either a DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein or lipoprotein coat. 5. They are living or non-living. 6. They are highly specific to their hosts, for example, each virus recognizes only certain types of cells. 7. Viruses are capable of replicating themselves only when they are inside the host cell. VIRUSES AS LIVING THINGS 1. They possess genetic material (RNA or DNA). 2. They reproduce in the host cell (replication). 3. They are capable of identifying their hosts and attack them. 4. They undergo different changes in shape (mutation). 5. They are specific to host like other parasites. VIRUSES AS NON-LIVING THINGS 1. They crystallize outside the host. 2. They are metabolically inert in isolation. 3. They are non-cellular i.e. they lack cell organelles. 4. They do not perform necessary life processes such as respiration, excretion nutrition etc. BACTERIOPHAGE Bacteriophage is a virus that attacks and kills bacteria. Some of them have head with a tail sheath.
  61. 61. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 57 of 68 Bacteriophage ADVANTAGES OF VIRUSES 1. Viruses are used in developing vaccines, for example, vaccines for measles, polio and rubella. 2. Viruses are used as biological weapons to kill organisms. 3. They are used as to transfer genes from one organism to another for improving or treating the defective genes. 4. They help in controlling infections and diseases from bacteria. 5. Viruses are used as weapons in wars and in pest control. DISADVANTAGES OF VIRUSES 1. They cause diseases to both plants and animals. Examples are tomato mosaic, cassava mosaic and tobacco mosaic; and animal diseases are such as measles and small pox. 2. They are difficult to destroy. KINGDOM MONERA This kingdom consists of bacteria and blue-green bacteria. The scientific study of bacteria is known as bacteriology. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KINGDOM MONERA 1. They are mainly unicellular and very small. 2. They are prokaryotic 3. They reproduce by binary fission. 4. Some are autotrophs while others are heterotrophs. 5. They have cell wall made up of protein material and sometimes lipids. 6. Some have flagella for movement. 7. They have different shape, especially during extreme conditions; For example, high or low temperatures. 8. Some are aerobes while others are anaerobes. 9. They have a DNA is scattered in the cytoplasm.
  62. 62. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 58 of 68 10. They lack internal membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts. FORMS OF BACTERIA There are four main forms with various shapes of bacteria as illustrated below. Forms Division Structure Effect Coccus(plural:cocci) Micrococcus They cause sore throat. Diplococci They cause pneumonia. Streptococci Cause sore throat. Staphylococci Cause boils, pneumonia, food poisoning and other diseases. Bacilli (singular:bacillus) Single rods (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) Cause typhoid fever. Rods in chain (Azotobacter and Bacillus anthracis) They cause anthrax. Bacilli with endospores Central (Bacillus anthracis) Causes anthrax
  63. 63. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 59 of 68 Spherical spore, terminal swollen (Clostridium tetani) Causes tetanus Sub-terminal, swollen (Clostridium botulism) Causes botulism. Spirilla(singu lar:spirillum) Cause syphilis SprrillaVibrio(Vibrio cholerae) Cause cholera. TYPES OF BACTERIA 1. Pathogenic bacteria – are bacteria that cause disease. Example of plant diseases includes leaf spot, potato blight and tobacco mosaic. Bacterial diseases for animals include tuberculosis, typhoid, tetanus, anthrax, cholera, syphilis and gonorrhoea. 2. Non-pathogenic bacteria – are bacteria that do not cause diseases. THE ADVANTAGES OF KINGDOM MONERA (i) Helps to clean environment. Since, bacteria neutralize harmful environment. (ii) Helps animal to digest food. (iii) Converts nitrogen to nitrates and provide nutrients to plant growth. (iv) Helps the decomposition of dead bodies. (v) Influences fermentation for the production of cheese, yoghurt, vinegar and alcohol. (vi) Helps to produce antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. (vii) It provides oxygen during photosynthesis vital for respiration.
  64. 64. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 60 of 68 DISADVANTAGE OF KINGDOM MONERA (i) Cause infections and diseases. (ii) Decay and spoil food. (iii) Reduces nutrients as bacteri convert nitrate to nitrogen. KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA Members of this kingdom include amoeba, paramecia, plasmodia, trypanosome and euglena. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA 1. They are eukaryotic. 2. Most are unicellular and some are multicellular organisms. 3. They live in water or moist places. 4. Some produce their own food (autotrophs) while other obtains nutrients from other organisms. 5. Some can move while others do not. 6. They can reproduce sexually or asexually. 7. Most of them have locomotory structures such as cilia or flagella. PHYLA OF THE KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA Phylum Example Rhizopoda Amoeba Apicomplexa Plasmodium Euglenophyta Euglena Ciliophora Paramecium Zoomastigina Trypanosoma THE PHYLA OF KINGDOM PROTOCTISTA 1. AMOEBA These are the free-living unicellular organisms. They are found in ponds and ditches. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMOEBA (i) Have two layers of cytoplasm. Outer layer (ectoplasm) inner layer (endoplasm). (ii) They live in salt or fresh water. (iii) They have pseudopodia for locomotion and feeding. (iv) They have temporary food vacuole. (v) Their waste product is urea and ammonia secreted through diffusion.
  65. 65. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 61 of 68 (vi) They reproduce by binary fission. (vii) They have contractile vacuole to regulate amount of fresh water. ADVANTAGES OF AMOEBA (i) Help to study cell structure and function in the laboratories. DISADVANTAGES (i) They cause diseases, such as amoebic dysentery, teeth and gum diseases; in human being. Diagram of Amoeba PLASMODIUM This is the parasite that causes malaria in human beings. It is transmitted by sandflies or anopheles mosquitos. Diagram of Plasmodium CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASMODIUM (i) They are unicellular. (ii) They are parasite. (iii) They reproduce sexually in vector and asexually in the host. (iv) They attack red blood cells and liver in man. EFFECTS OF PLASMODIUM (i) They cause malaria disease. (ii) Cause difficult vaccine development against malaria due to their changes in life cycle.
  66. 66. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 62 of 68 EUGLENA It belongs to phylum Euglenophyta. CHARACTERISTICS (i) They are unicellular. (ii) Live in both fresh and salt water. (iii) They move using flagella. (iv) They have chloroplasts for photosynthesis. (v) They reproduce asexually. ADVANTAGES OF EUGLENA (i) They produce oxygen through photosynthesis. (ii) They are food for aquatic organisms, such as fish. DISADVANTAGES OF EUGLENA (i) Euglena blooms produce toxins that aquatic organisms such as fish. Diagram of Paramecium
  67. 67. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 63 of 68 CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAMECIUM (i) They are unicellular and slipper in shape. (ii) They are heterotrophic. (iii) They live in water. (iv) They use cilia to move and feed. (v) They have oral groove as a site for feeding. (vi) They feed on bacteria and other microorganisms. (vii) They egest through anal pore. (viii) They reproduce either sexually or asexually. (ix) Have contractile vacuole to regulate water in cytoplasm. ADVANTAGES OF PARAMECIUM (i) They are used as food by small animals in water. DISADVANTAGES OF PARAMECIUM (i) They cause intestinal and balantidiasis diseases. (ii) They feed bacteria that are responsible for sewage decomposition.
  68. 68. Emanuel John Kisunte Page 64 of 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, Zanzibar (2008). Biology for Secondary Schools Forms 1 & 2. Oxford University Press. Magasi C. S. (2008). New Essentials of Biology for Secondary Schools: Book One. Nyambari Nyangwine Publishers; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Mackean, D. G. (1997). Introduction to Biology, 3rd Ed. Great Britain: John Murray Publishers Ltd. Most of the diagrams were retrieved from the following link: (https://www.google.com/search?client)
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