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E-textbook socio-technical regime components

icwl2016, textbook, socio-technical regime, Estonia

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E-textbook socio-technical regime components

  1. 1. A Framework for Mapping eTextbook as a Socio-technical Regime Kai Pata & Terje Väljataga Tallinn University School for Digital Technologies ICWL 2016, Rome
  2. 2. Socio-technical regimes - ‘the configurations that work’ What is e-textbook socio- technical regime?
  3. 3. Goals of the paper • Identifying the wider components of e-textbook as a new socio- technical regime for understanding how different actors and the components of the regime interrelate, where are the obstacles and challenges to sustain the new regime • Mapping the current e-textbook research in schools on the e- textbook socio-technical regime. • In this presentation the Estonian examples are provided to keep the story simple
  4. 4. Digital Artifact Ecosystem - e-textbooks as a new socio-technical regime in the society level • Moving from Gutenberg Galaxy of printed books to that of Digital Artifact Ecosystems: extensive digitization of school textbooks • E-textbook has entered to the experimental space, where the visibility of the different versions of the e-textbook regimes must be tested and validated • What functions e-textbook will replace and what new functions it may take?
  5. 5. Actors in e-textbook socio-technical regime • Geels: ‘socio-technical regime’ refers to the semi-coherent set of rules and routines carried by different social groups. • publishers, suppliers, technology producers - such as learning resource creators and license owners, service providers (e.g. supply service) in technology platforms, learning platforms and educational clouds; • e-textbook user groups – such as learners, (parents), teachers, schools; • public authorities – such as ministry of education, curriculum boards; • societal groups – such as press, social media.
  6. 6. Technology innovations, learning technologies and services, standards Techno-scientific knowledge: knowledge of learning embedded to technology Infrastructure in learning sites for using e-textbooks, hosting, maintenance, support Symbolic meaning of technology: why we teach as we teach, creating ownership of new practices, curricula User practices in e-textbook domain Textbook industries and other services Policies E-TEXTBOOK SOCIOTECHNICAL REGIME COMPONENTS
  7. 7. Technology innovations, learning technologies and services, standards Techno-scientific knowledge: knowledge of learning embedded to technology Infrastructure in learning sites for using e-… Symbolic meaning of technology: why we teach as we teach, … User practices in e-textbook domain Textbook industries and other services Policies ESTONIAN E-TEXTBOOK REGIME ekoolikott.ee Ekool.eel Stuudium.ee eopik.ee opik.ee silmaring.ee koolisysteemid.ee Cloud based cross- publisher resource discovery and content assembling Connected private services: eTextbook publisher + eDiary eTextbook and Resource provision for schools LePlanner.net Koolielu.ee Repositories Personalization, learner customization Remediation: combinable resources Meaning-making - annotation Resource sharing with group Assessment testing and management of results BYOD WIFI in schools for students Open classroom Teacher-initiative in developing digital learning activities Digital learning resource and learning scenario sharing Student-centred teaching: remediation Financial support for educational cloud and OER development Agenda for digitalized set of textbooks
  8. 8. Main dimensions (components) in the Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Industry structure • focusing on one mainstream platform (e.g. Apple iBooks Author, ePubs) -> software dependency • the publisher platforms and software with specific educational functionalities -> platform dependency • emerging Open Educational Resource cloud approaches -> e-textbook supply channels have become less publisher owned • Other connected service providers with eTextbook publishers such as eDiaries, resource providers for schools
  9. 9. Main dimensions (components) in the Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Standards, interoperability • The common national e-textbook standards for platform-independent resource- sharing still do not exist. Some eTextbook publishers created interoperability between their content platforms and eDiary type of private service providers. • One publisher uses iBook as a platform: Platform-dependent commercial standards have appeared such as in iBook Author • Several other publishers have developed their own platforms for content sharing, testing in eTextbooks • National digital learning cloud eSchoolbag (ekoolikott.ee) uses • OAI-PMH metadata harvesting protocol for bringing together educational resources • IMS LTI v2.0 APP weblink to mash together the collection materials • content embedded to iFrame or rendered by streaming (e.g. ePub, SCORM, CommonCartridge and QTI learning objects) ImplementedTo appear
  10. 10. Main dimensions (components) in the Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Technology innovations used in e-textbook provision • Technology infrastructures and e-textbook formats are tightly interwoven • Learning technologies and -services • open resource discovery • collection-making, -tending and remixing services around different learning models • social interaction and collective meaning-making technologies promoting highlighting, annotating • built-in testing, assessment and monitoring services for teachers, students and parents • resource- and learner modelling for improved sharing and recommendation services with semantic recommendation systems • adaptive support to learners • learner- and group based learning analytics ImplementedChallenges
  11. 11. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Techno-scientific knowledge • Knowledge of learning embedded in software, learning designs and technology. • Customizing content: teachers and students can modularize, remix, customize and assemble digital contents • New interactivity: Promote cognitive learning through interactivity stemming from multimedia learning principles • Individual and shared meaning-making around e-textbooks using semantic technologies • Student locus of control, remediation, branching type of interactivity: textbook as an authoring environment for students - active storytelling as a learning approach; composing digital narratives as a result of studies rather than using ready made textbooks • Personalized learning with adaptive support: From unified test-based assignment such as sending real-time assessment data from textbooks to teachers for immediate or delayed use towards supporting personalized learning administering formative assessments through the book interface
  12. 12. Search and assembling the textbook from OER eKoolikott.ee
  13. 13. Assembling the textbook collections from OER
  14. 14. eTextbooks provide usually linked resources eõpik.ee
  15. 15. eTextbook is enhanced with multimedia from national repositories
  16. 16. Annotating eTextbook while learning alone
  17. 17. Sending replies from eTextbook
  18. 18. eTextbook is orcehestrated with eDiary services
  19. 19. Assigning customized tasks in etextbook
  20. 20. Assigning tasks and automatic assessment of tasks in eTextbook
  21. 21. Adding materials to publisher textbook opik.ee
  22. 22. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Schools infrastructure: • Most schools in Estonia have wifi available for students in school and some also outdoors close to schools, but schools have to find resources and means how to provide wifi and internet. • Schools use different policies for students mobile devices: parents have to buy the devices- no device requirement is set to parents; restricted usage of own devices - approved BYOD; mobile classroom sets, open classrooms, data projectors and internet access in every classroom • The support systems for BYOD, open classroom approaches is developed and available in some innovative schools • Schools still lack the policies and means how to get access or rent eTextbooks and other digital resources and services, books and digital learning resources are both in use but no resources for both Challenges
  23. 23. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Hosting, maintenance, support • Different publishers’ resources available in public Educational clouds is not yet achieved, publishers’ content is not provided, recruiting user-generated content is not scaled up among teachers • Support services around eTextbooks for users (customization, provision of related technologies) is available at eTextbook publishing houses • Cross-provider services are available between eTextbook publishers and eDiary service providers Challenges
  24. 24. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Symbolic meaning of technology: Epistemological aspects - why we teach as we teach • Hakkarainen & Paavola: Trialogical learning - digital artifacts take the role of the emergent interactional resources, which mediate between individual learning, group cognition and community knowledge building, structure the shared work and reflective practices, may be versioned and iteratively transformed during long term knowledge creation, leading to form cultural knowledge and practices. • Responsive teaching: formative assessment and differentiated instruction introduced together with learning analytics support in e-textbooks • Distributed and embodied cognition approaches when developing how information provision and activities are designed in the e-textbooks Challenges
  25. 25. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Creating, taking ownership of new practices. • Teacher-based and School based training approaches: Creative classrooms for innovative teachers and Digital turn of whole schools to ensure right infrastructure and polices to support teaching • The commercial eTextbooks rather promote ready made lesson scenarios or adding to these, eSchoolbag platform allows only combining resources but not associating these with activities, tasks and learning outcomes • Need for scaling up innovative digital learning scenario practice communities, one approach is with LePlanner.net • Instructing is “outsourced” also to students while learning with digital resources and tools
  26. 26. Learning scenario sharing communities lePlanner.net
  27. 27. Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook • Curricula • There is the need for curricula innovations: more time is needed to allow longer knowledge building cycles around themes • User practices in e-textbook domain • the preference for printed books has not changed, but there have emerged some new digital learning habits with eTextbooks • Few teachers experiment with students content creation ending with the student-customized textbook rather than to start with one fixed information source
  28. 28. • Markets, business models: distribution, purchasing, customer services, licensing • The e-textbook market in school e-textbook publishing and related services has emerged. • The publisher platforms are local, but some explore international opportunities. • The public educational cloud is developed in synergy with Finland as a cross-country initiative • Cross-service connections are creating new value for publishers and eDiary companies • Approaches for remixing and sharing contents with different licensing rules must be developed Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook
  29. 29. • Policies • National agendas and funds support OER content development and sharing, and support the eSchoolbag development. • National agenda for digitalizing the textbooks at all levels has been announced. • We need more surveys knowing, how effective is learning with digital textbooks and small mobile devices compared with traditional learning? How to deal with the balance in eTextbook models: time- consuming creative freedom in innovative learning scenarios and determined textbooks how to teach and learn? Main dimensions (components) in Estonian socio-technical regime of eTextbook
  30. 30. Final thoughts – will the eTextbook regime be small change in existing regime or big step to change how we learn? • Have we considered: • Sustainability threats and waste of labour caused by digital mass overproduction • Digital divide caused by unequal access to rapidly changing devices and software versions • There is the need to de-scale digital resource production and tying it with the feedback loop to the innovative usage practices - new customer feedback services around resource usage might descale resource provision Thank you!