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2. Relational Aggression - is indirect or covert - is intentional damage to peer relationships and individual reputations - is quiet, insidious, and difficult to detect
Relational AggressionIncludes behaviors such as:*spreading rumors*exclusion/isolation*gossiping*backstabbing*taunting*ignoring/shunning*hostile body language*making fun of clothing, lifestyle, or appearance
3 Types of Bullying 1 Direct Bullying 2 Relational Aggression 3 Cyber-Bullying
Cyber-Bullying DefinitionThe use of information andcommunication technologies todeliver deliberate, repeated andhostile messages to an individualor a group.Also referred to as: Online social cruelty Electronic bullying
Cyberbullying >Composed of both direct bullying as well as relational aggression<Can be done without adult knowledgeIs a cowardly form of bullyingIs anonymousCan attack a wide audienceNo tangible feedback to the aggressorOften outside legal reach of schoolHome is no longer a refuge can happen any time, any place
Different Means ofCyberbullyingMany ways that people bully Through Email Through Instant Messaging (IM) Through Social Networks Through Text Messages Through Websites
EmailBullies use this to send harassing and threateningmessages to the targets.
Instant Messaging (IM) This type enables you to create a private chat room with another individual and harass them by saying mean things to hurt their feelings
Social Networks One of the most popular ways to bully others Using Social Networks such as: Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Youtube to bully others by posting nasty comments or even pictures about them for others to read at their own leisure Cyber bullies use this method to post abusive messages on your profile wall, add rude comments to a picture, put a video or photo on their own profile that makes fun of someone
Text Messages Receiving abusive calls and/or text messages on your phone that are meant to be hurtful Scary Phone Calls: receive abusive phone calls from someone who uses threats of violence to scare them. Often they choose to stay silent on the other end. Abusive Text Messages: send text messages that try to scare, upset or hurt someone on purpose. Offensive picture messages: sending pictures of you that have been taken without your knowledge. Also, posting pictures that a person does not want made public – often used to embarrass the target.
Websites Create web sites that mock, torment and harass others Post rude or abusive words, pictures or videos of others
Statistics Have cyberbullied others (lifetime) Cyberbullying Offenders Have cyberbullied others 4% 4% 5% Used one or more forms, two or more times 24% 6% Posted mean or hurtful comments about someone online Spread rumors about someone online, texts, or emails6% Threatened to hurt someone through texts7% Threatened to hurt someone while 11% online Pretended to be someone online and was mean and hurtful 8% Posted a mean or hurtful picture online of someone 14% Posted a mean or hurtful video online 11% of someone Created a mean or hurtful web page about someone
Forms of Cyber bullying There are 6 forms of cyber bullying: Harassment Denigration (put-downs) Flaming Impersonation Outing and Trickery Cyber Stalking
HarassmentWhat is it? When you repeatedly send offensive, rude, and insulting messages Make take several and often multiple forms online Repeatedly sending unwanted text or instant messages Using public forums such as message boards or chatrooms Tracking targets by using spyware Sending viruses
Denigration What is it? When you distribute information about another that is derogatory and untrue through posting it on a Web page, sending it to others through email or instant messaging, or posting or sending digitally altered photos of someone
Flaming What is it? When online “fighting” using electronic messages with angry, vulgar language This most aggressive and abrasive form of intimidation Use capital letters, images and symbols to add emotion to argument
Impersonation What is it? When you break into an email or social networking account and using that person’s online identity to send or post vicious or embarrassing material to/about others Most elaborate form of cyberbullying
Outing and Trickery What is it? When you share someones secrets or embarrassing information, or tricking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information and forwarding it to others.
Cyber Stalking What is that? When you repeatedly send messages that include threats of harm or are highly intimidating, or engaging in other online activities that make a person afraid for his or her safety (depending on the content of the message, it may be illegal) Victims believe that cyber stalking may escalate to real stalking
Why do you think cyber bullies bully others?They do not think it’s a big deal.Don’t think about and are not aware of theconsequences.May be encouraged by friends.Don’t think they will get caught.They may think that everyone cyber bullies.May not even realize they are cyber bullyingsomeone.
Effects of CyberbullyingSome affects of Cyber Bullying include: Undermining confidence, self-esteem, and sense of security. Lower performance and attendance in school. Cause of stress that can affect your health. Fuelling prejudice in certain areas such as race, religion, and sexuality. Can lead to suicidal thoughts. Can effect you for the rest of your life.