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Spanish grammer book

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Spanish grammer book

  1. 1. Nina Pearson<br />Spanish 3 Grammar book <br />
  2. 2. Table Of Contents<br />Conditional + Irregulars <br />Perfect Tenses<br />Present<br />Past<br />Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Subjunctive Perfect<br />Tanto y Tan<br />Impersonal ‘se’<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal affirmative<br />Informal negative<br />Informal irregulars<br />DOP/IOP placement<br />Formal affirmative<br />Formal negative<br />Formal irregulars<br />DOP/IOP placement<br />Nosotros Affirmative<br />Nosotros Negative<br />Mono Verbs<br />Subjunctive<br />Irregulars<br />Trigger phrases<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />Expressions of Emotion<br />Conjunctions of Time<br />Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Demonstrative Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Conditional<br />Conditional verbs are used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is translated as would, could, must have or probability.<br />The student said he would study one more hour.<br />To conjugate for –ar, -er, and –ir verbs<br />Also, the conditional is used to express actions contradictory to fact.<br />If I had time, I would go to the movies tonight.<br />Important to remember: if the conditional is used to express something in the present, the future tense is used.<br />
  4. 4. Irregulars<br /><ul><li>For conditional, the same verbs that are irregular in the future tense are also irregular in the conditional. Their endings are regular, but their stems change in the same way that they do in the future.</li></ul>caberyo cabría<br />haberyo habría<br />poderyo podría<br />quereryo querría<br />saberyo sabría <br />poneryo pondría<br />saliryo saldría<br />teneryo tendría<br />valeryo valdría<br />veniryo vendría <br />deciryo diría<br />haceryo haría<br />
  5. 5. Perfect Tenses<br />The perfect tense in Spanish is roughly the equivalent to have taken, have bought, etc. in English. The perfect tense expresses a past action that has relevance to the present moment. <br />The perfect tense in Spanish is formed by taking a form of the verb haber, followed by the past participle of the Spanish verb. <br />The verb "haber" is conjugated depending on who or what is doing the action as well as when, and the Spanish past participle is formed by adding "-ado" to the stem of "-ar" verbs and "-ido" to the stem of "-er" and "-ir" verbs.<br />
  6. 6. Present<br />The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “has” or “have” with the past participle. Two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb. <br />In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of “haber” with the past participle<br />The auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentence, not the object. <br />The present perfect tense is frequently used for past actions that continue into the present, or continue to affect the present. It is also often used with the adverb “ya”. <br />The auxiliary verb and the past participle are neverseperated. To make the sentence negative, add the word nobefore the conjugated form of haber.<br />
  7. 7. Past<br />The past perfect tense is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “had” with the past participle.The main verb and the auxiliary verb are required as well.<br />In Spanish, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle.<br />Again, the auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentence, not the object.<br />The past perfect tense is used when a past action was completed prior to another past action. Expressions such as "ya", "antes", "nunca", "todavía" and "después" will often appear in sentences where one action was completed before another.<br />The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated. To make the sentence negative, add the word "no" before the conjugated form of haber.<br />
  8. 8. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />
  9. 9. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Formed by the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.<br />Used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect. <br />
  10. 10. Tanto y Tan<br />Both tan and tanto are used to compare equality. So what’s the difference?<br />Tan is used to compare an adjective or an adverb while tanto is used to compare a noun.<br />Tanto can also be conjugated to agree with the noun it modifies.<br />
  11. 11. Impersonal ‘se’<br />In Spanish, you add the pronoun ‘se’ in front of verbs to make a general statement. <br />Impersonal voice using ‘se’ will use a singular verb since ‘se’ can be replaced by uno ("one").<br />The Plural Impersonal (unknown "they") does not use ‘se’.<br />
  12. 12. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both saber and conocer express the idea “to know”. However, these verbs are not interchangeable.<br />Saber<br />to know a fact, to know something thoroughly, to know how to do something<br />Conocer<br />to be acquainted with a person, place, or thing<br />
  13. 13. Los Mandatos<br />Los mandatos are formal commands.<br />To conjugate:<br />Start with the ‘yo’<br />Drop the ‘o’<br />Add the following endings: <br />For –ar<br />For –er or -ir<br />
  14. 14. Informal affirmative<br />These commands are used when addressing someone familiar by using ‘tu’<br />The ‘tu’ commands use the ‘usted’ form, not the ‘tu’!<br />To form<br />Put it in the ‘yo’<br />Drop the ‘o’ <br />Add the usted ending.<br />(hablar - ar + a = habla)<br />(comer - er + e = come)<br />(escribir - ir + e = escribe)<br />
  15. 15. Informal Negative<br />The negative informal commands use the ‘tú’ form of the present subjunctive, not the usted.<br />To conjugate:<br />Put it in the ‘yo’<br />Drop the ‘o’<br />Add the opposite ‘tu’ ending<br />(hablar - ar + es = hables)<br />(comer - er + as = comas)<br />(escribir - ir + as = escribas)<br />
  16. 16. Informal Irregulars<br />These irregulars only occur with affirmative tú commands. <br />decir - di <br />salir - sal <br />hacer - haz <br />ser - sé <br />ir - ve <br />tener - ten <br />poner - pon <br />venir – ven<br />As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the "tú" form of the present subjunctive.<br />
  17. 17. DOP Placement<br />A direct object receives the action of the verb. The direct object can also be a person.<br />It answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.<br />Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.<br />In Spanish, we replace the name with these pronouns:<br />In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the direct object pronoun.<br />Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.<br />Attach it directly to the infinitive.<br />
  18. 18. IOP Placement<br />the indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.<br />When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:<br />In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.<br />In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the indirect object pronoun.<br />Place it immediately before the conjugated verb<br />Attach it directly to the infinitive<br />
  19. 19. NosotrosAffermative<br />Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea "let's + verb."<br />To conjugate:<br />Put it in the ‘yo’<br />Drop the ‘o’<br />Add the opposite nosotros ending.<br />
  20. 20. Nosotros Negative<br />To negate the verb, simply add a ‘no’ before the verb. <br />Nolevantamos…<br />No mandemos…<br />
  21. 21. Mono Verbs<br />If the verb is reflexive, you drop the final ‘s’ of the command form before attaching the reflexive pronoun.<br />Mosnosbecomes monos.<br />
  22. 22. Subjunctive<br />The subjunctive is not a tense, rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place, while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action.<br />The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.<br />“Because there must be some uncertainty or subjectivity to warrant the use of the subjunctive, you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity” (Study Spanish.com)<br />I hope<br />I feel<br />To conjugate:<br />Put it in the ‘yo’<br />Drop the ‘o’<br />Add the opposite ending<br />Important to remember! –Ar and –Er verbs stem change as normal, but the –Ir verbs change in the nosotros and vosotros!<br />
  23. 23. Irregulars<br />TEN:<br />VEN:<br />DAR: dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den<br />IR: vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan<br />SABER: sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan<br />HABER: haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan<br />ESTAR: esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén<br />SER: sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean<br />
  24. 24. Trigger Phrases<br />a menosque ...unless ...<br />antes (de) que ...before ...<br />con tal (de) que ...provided that ...<br />cuando ...when ...<br />convieneque ...it is advisable that ...<br />después (de) que ...after ...<br />dudarque ...to doubt that ...<br />en caso de que ...in case ...<br />en cuanto ...as soon as ...<br />esaconsejableque ...it's advisable that ...<br />esbuenoque ...it's good that ...<br />esdifícilque ...it's unlikely that ...<br />esdudosoque ...it is doubtful that ...<br />esfácilque ...it's likely that ...<br />esfantásticoque ...it's fantastic that ...<br />esimportanteque ...it's important that ...<br />esimposibleque ...it's impossible that ...<br />es improbable que ...it's unlikely that ...<br />esinciertoque ...it's uncertain that ...<br />esincreíbleque ...it's incredible that ...<br />es (una) lástimaque ...it's a pity that ...<br />esmaloque ...it's bad that ...<br />esmejorque ...it's better that ...<br />esmenesterque ...it's necessary that ...<br />esnecesarioque ...it's necessary that ...<br />esperarque ...to wish that ...<br />esposibleque ...it's possible that ...<br />esprecisoque ...it's necessary that ...<br />espreferibleque ...it's preferable that ...<br />es probable que ...it's probable that ...<br />esraroque ...it's rare that ...<br />esridículoque ...it's ridiculous that ...<br />estarcontentoqueto be happy that ...<br />es terrible que ...it's terrible that ...<br />hastaque ...until ...<br />insistir en que ...to insist that ...<br />mandarque ...to order that ...<br />más vale que ...it's better that ...<br />mientrasque ...while ...<br />negarque ...to deny that ...<br />no creerque ...not to believe that ...<br />no esciertoque ...it's not certain that ...<br />no estarconvencido de que ...to not be convinced that ...<br />no estarseguro de que ...to not be sure that ...<br />no esverdadque ...it's not true that ...<br />no imaginarseque ...to not imagine that ...<br />no parecerque ...to not seem that ...<br />no pensarque ...to not think that ...<br />no suponerque ...to not suppose that ...<br />ojaláque ...if only he would ...<br />paraque ...in order that ...<br />pedirque ...to ask that ...<br />preferirque ...to prefer that ...<br />prohibirque ...to prohibit that ...<br />puede ser que ...it may be that ...<br />quererque ...to want that ...<br />recomendarque ...to recommend that ...<br />rogarque ...to plead that ...<br />sentirque ...to regret that ...<br />sin que ...without ...<br />sugerirque ...to suggest that ...<br />tan pronto como ...as soon as ...<br />temerque ...to fear that ...<br />tenermiedo de que ...to be afraid that ...<br />
  25. 25. Impersonal Expressions<br />convieneque ... it is advisable that ... <br />esaconsejableque ... it is advisable that ... <br />esbuenoque ... it's good that ... <br />esdifícilque ... it's unlikely that ... <br />esdudosoque ... it's doubtful that ... <br />esfácilque ... it's likely that ... <br />esfantásticoque ... it's fantastic that ... <br />esimportanteque ... it's important that ... <br />esimposibleque ... it's impossible that ... <br />es improbable que ... it's unlikely that ... <br />esinciertoque ... it's uncertain that ... <br />esincreíbleque ... it's incredible that ... <br />es (una) lástimaque ... it's a shame that ... <br />esmaloque ... it's bad that ... <br />esmejorque ... it's better that ... <br />esmenesterque ... it's necessary that ... <br />esnecesarioque ... it's necessary that ... <br />esposibleque ... it's possible that ... <br />esprecisoque ... it's necessary that ... <br />espreferibleque ... it's preferable that ... <br />es probable que ... it's likely that ... <br />esraroque ... it's rare that ... <br />esridículoque ... it's ridiculous that ... <br />es terrible que ... it's terrible that ... <br />más vale que ... it's better that ... <br />ojaláque ...<br /> if only he would …<br />puede ser que ... it could be that ... <br />
  26. 26. Expressions of Emotion<br />
  27. 27. Conjunctions of Time<br />
  28. 28. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Demonstrative adjectives describe the noun they are modifying. <br />Adjectives answer the question “WHICH?” in relation to the noun they modify. <br />This and that can also function as adjectives. The same is true in Spanish!<br />Spanish has three “this and that” words while English has only two:<br />Este (this)<br />Ese (that)<br />Aquel (that one over there)<br />
  29. 29. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Pronouns take the place of the nouns they are modifying<br />este (this one - masculine)estos (these ones - masculine)esta (this one - feminine)estas (these ones - feminine)<br />ese (that one - masculine)esos (those ones - masculine)esa (that one - feminine)esas (those ones - feminine)<br />aquel (that one over there - masc.)aquellos (those ones over there - masc.)aquella (that one over there - fem.)aquellas (those ones over there - fem.)<br />