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3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

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This is an overview of 2012 existing and emerging technologies and opportunities with 3D printing and bio-printing.

This is a very broad field, and highly technical, thus this presentation has no pretension in covering every bits of informations, but rather present a big picture to answer the question: why does it matter?

This presentation is a slightly modified version of a face-to-face presentation I have done. In the original presentation, only the violin demo had sound, but I added sound for 2 more videos here where I thought that was necessary since I cannot speak to you.

The presentation originally lasted 15 to 20 minutes without the bonus material, which was used on request to answer questions after the presentation.

You can download the full presentation with comments and videos embedded as an ODP file at:
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bz3o2wTnXoAdWlRybGJWQjQ2ams
Size: about 25 MB

Publié dans : Technologie
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3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles

  1. 1. 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles
  2. 2. 3D Printers, bio-printers and physibles An inventory in 2012 of existing and emerging technologies and opportunities By Stephen Larroque Computer Science student at the University Pierre-and-Marie-Curie of Paris
  3. 3. Outline• Myth of Daedalus• 3D Printers• Bio-Printers• Opening to the future• Conclusion
  4. 4. Myth of Daedalus AutomatonsWings made of feathers and wax
  5. 5. 3D Printersaka additive manufacturing
  6. 6. A little history• 1980s : – Early examples – SLS, Stereolithography and FDM patented• 1995 : « 3D printing » term coined at MIT• 2005 : RepRap project is born• 2009 : – MakerBot first kits – Thingiverse• 2012 : ThePirateBay Physibles
  7. 7. Some historical constraints...• 1980s : 3D printers are big and expensive (100K$ to 1M$)• Very complicated setup• Only rapid prototyping, no final product• Used for : – industrial prototypes – Architects scale models• And that’s all !
  8. 8. Modern printers How it works• Object shaped layer-by-layer
  9. 9. What you can make
  10. 10. What you can make 2 3D printed « Stradivarius »-like violin (see next slide for video)
  11. 11. What you can make 3• Dynamic gears (all-in-one-part printing) no assembly!
  12. 12. What you can make 4• Interactive objects, sensors and circuit boards
  13. 13. What you can make 5 • Micro structures smaller than a grain of sand A 285 µm racecar St. Stephens Cathedral, ViennaLondon Tower Bridge
  14. 14. What you can make 6• Big structures (sand, car, guns, engine, aircraft, drones, metamaterials, etc..)
  15. 15. What you can make 7Areion EV: 140 KM/H
  16. 16. What you can make 8
  17. 17. What you can make 9• Food printers, in near-future meat printers
  18. 18. What you can make 10• Perfectly tailored prostheses
  19. 19. What you can make 11 • Perfectly tailored prosthesesLightweight & cheap “Magic Arms” exoskeleton made for children (next slide for video)
  20. 20. Advantages of 3D printing• Wide resolution range (micro objects to buildings)• Complex structures otherwise impossible to make• Lightweight (no joint overhead)• Cheaper than any other manufacturing solution• Stronger (all in one part = no joint failure)• Ecological: Smaller CO2 footprint• No waste of material• Advent of rapid manufacturing (vs rapid prototyping)
  21. 21. Limits ?• Still expensive• Complex to use• It’s only hype• Or is it really ?
  22. 22. The RepRap project• DIY opensource 3D printer• Self-replicating (almost)• Object duplication w/ 3D scanner (cheap)• Many forks (like Linux distributions)• Most common 3D printer• Quick propagation• « Print parties »,FabLabs, Public Libraries• Universal constructor?
  23. 23. 3D Bio-printers aka regenerative medicine
  24. 24. Quick history• The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938• 1996 : First successful real world use of a biomaterial• 2002 : Pr M. Nakamura noticed standard ink droplets ≈ size of human cells, and made the first 3D bio-printed biomaterial (with alive cells) using an Epson inkjet.• 2003 : Thomas Boland’s lab made first 2D bioprinter• 2008 : – Pr M. Nakamura invented first working bioprinter to print biotubes (blood vessel) – Organovo’s NovoGen MMX first commercial bioprinter• 2011 : New 3D bio printer technologies demonstrated by Dr Anthony Atala
  25. 25. How it works• Works similarly to 3D-printers• Use Bio-Materials scaffolds + living cells RESULT
  26. 26. How it works 2 Printing a rat’s heart
  27. 27. Printing organs• Can engineer anything: bones, ears, fingers, blood vessels, heart, lungs, bladder, skin, etc. Skin in-situ scanner+regenerator
  28. 28. Printing organs 2 3D bioprinted lab grown lung
  29. 29. Opening to the future Or how 3D printing may change our lives
  30. 30. Future good scenarios• Repair/replace a damaged organ• Instant product (no delivery)• Food safer and ecological production• Shareable objects, peer-to-peer objects sharing, collective production (eg : relatives help to make a car just like building a house)• Open-source objects• Transplants abundance, no chance of rejection• May abolish manual (child?) labor• Might improve lives in resource-challenged worlds regions
  31. 31. Future bad scenarios• Identity theft (eg: 3D copy of fingerprint, or even whole hand!)• Goods counterfeiting• Weapons production (massive production or custom undetected weapons)• Terrorism and remote access (hacking your 3D printer and print a bomb or a remote drone)• Cloning soldiers?• Grey goo end-of-world scenario
  32. 32. Conclusion
  33. 33. Conclusion• 3D printing ≠ 2D printing + 1D• 3D printing is rapidly maturing• Still a lot to discover• Can save lives (literally)• May disrupt property and manufacturing processes• Ethical and law questions need to be solved• Potentially very dangerous
  34. 34. Further reading/viewing• Books – The culture of organs by Alexis Carrel & Charles A Lindbergh, 1938 – Check the comments across the presentation for more• Magazines – Make: Ultimate guide to 3D printing (Nov 2012)
  35. 35. Further reading/viewing• Videos – Anthony Atala: Printing a human kidney and Growing new organs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RMx31GnNXY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SfRgg9botI – Klaus Stadlmann - The worlds smallest 3D Printer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2IQkKE7h9I – Lisa Harouni: A primer on 3D printing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhYvDS7q_V8&feature=related – Interview of Dr Adrian Bowyer, inventor of RepRap http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ltYeNuOvLn0• Websites – 3ders.org – reprap.org – thingiverse.com – thepiratebay.se/browse/605 – euromold.com
  36. 36. References– Dr Attalan Ted Talks– Stratasys’s “Magic Arms” and turbo-prop aircraft engine– NASA’s rover– Sean Charlesworth’s Octopod– 3D printed 2D printer by students at the University of Virginia– Disney Research’s optic fibered interactive 3D printed objects– RepRap project for images– Micro printer from the TU Vienna and presented by Klaus Stadlmann– Columbia Pictures for the Skyfall movie image– Aston Martin for the DB5 model– Areion is part of the Formula Group T project run by Belgian masterstudents– Urbee team– Objet for the 3D printing videos demonstrations– DARPA’s Ostrich robot (FastRunner)– EOS for the Stradivarius like violin
  37. 37. Fun fact Aston Martin DB5 3D printed replica
  38. 38. Bonus material
  39. 39. Modern 3D printers technos• 3 established technologies : – SLS (selective laser sintering) – FDM (fused depostion modeling) – SLA (stereolithograhpy)• Newcomers : – Sand Clustering (buildings) – Contour Crafting (printing concrete buildings) – Two-photon Lithography (micro structures) – Corner Lithography (nano structures)
  40. 40. 3D printing materials• 3D printers materials : – thermoplastics, any metal alloy (including aliminium and titanium), plaster, concrete, ceramic, sand, edible (eg: chocolate, meat), etc.. – Meta materials (“invisibility cloaks”!)• Bio printers materials : – agar, gelatine, chitosan, clollagen, and alginate and fibrin. – Recently done : human stem cells.
  41. 41. 3D printing cost• 3D printers : – DIY: from 250$ – Assembled kits : from 450$ – Industrial pro 3D printers: from 1,000$ to 15,000$• 3D bio-printers : – DIY: not yet communicated, but probably low (based on standard inkjets or on RepRap) – Industrial : Bioplotter is priced 18,000$• Materials : – Thermoplastic filaments: 10$ - 40$ / kg – Other materials : usually less than what another manufacturing process would incur – Object the size of a computer mouse ≈ $2
  42. 42. 3D bioprinting methodsCurrent research goal: extend lifespan of biomaterials from 10 (1 decade) to 40years (4 decades) or more.A few people already live with engineered organs since more than 10 years.• 1st-gen method: Use a standard desktop printer, but with "ink-cells" and a depth platform.(2 chambers heart, 40 minutes, 46 hours later the muscles cells contract)• 2nd-gen method (current): 3D bioprinter• 3rd-gen method (future): Scanner + on-body printer• Next-gen method (future): CT scanner + 3d bioprinterComplexity scale of organs:• blood vessels and arteries only, and other kind of organs• hollow organs• solid organs like ears or digits, because they require a big amount of cells• highly vascularized organs such as the heart, the liver or the kidney are by far the hardest to make (ear or digits are very easy).
  43. 43. Thank you!

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