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ASSESSMENT OF LINGAP PANGKABATAAN PROGRAMS TO THE LITERACY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY LEVEL AS PERCEIVED BY THE LEARNERS IN CUBAO’S POOREST COMMUNITY (YEAR 2012 – 2013)
CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDIES According to Nelson Mandela, “Education is the most powerful weapon that you can useto change the world”. It is essential to social andhuman development for it is in education that our lives will transform.
In the first few years, According to UNICEF, oneUNESCO announced that of UNESCO program, because of poverty, children there are more than 900 fail to develop critical million illiterates in the thinking and learning skills. developing countries. They’ve developed aBehind these numbers are program called Early Childsome 113 million children Development (ECD), it creates awareness in who have no access to families and communities as primary education, these partner in uplifting livesare the children who lived against poverty and also to in poverty. provide basic education among children.
IN THE PHILIPPINES, ILLITERACY HAS GROWN INTO 15MILLION IN THE LAST 6 YEARS (EDECIO DELA TORRE, PRESIDENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY NETWORK FOR EDUCATION REFORMS) In pursue of illiteracy As stated in the reduction, Education for Philippine Constitution ofAll Movement (EFA) was 1897, education is the established in 1990. It is right of everyone. In a global commitment to pursuant to this law, there provide basic education are many organizations for all and contribute to in our country that the global pursuit of the provide services in eight Millennium reducing the number of Development Goals illiteracy in our country (MDGs), it was adopted due to poverty, one ofby 189 countries and with these is Lingap UNESCO as the leading Pangkabataan institution. Incorporated (LPI)
In the Field Theory of Kurt Lewin, the people, their surroundings and conditions dependclosely on each other, thesociety has great effect in human development. LPI, is a social development organization committed themselves in providingbasic education and also developing children to become an effective member of the society. They works with street- working children in Cubao’s poorest community.
They developed two programs, Child-focused Community-based Development Program (CCDP) and SituationOriented Approach to Early Childhood Education(SOAECE). CCDP aims to strengthen the communitywhile SOAECE is based on UNICEF Early Child Education Program whichto provide basic education among children who lives under poverty.
LPI. adopted Lewin’s Social Responsibility Theory in correlation with his Field Theory and the main purpose of this research is to identify the impact of LPI programs, SOAECE and CCDP in reducing illiteracy among children as well as to appraise if these programs have an effect to their recipients in becoming a socially responsible person.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In Kurt Lewin’s theory known as the Field theory, it stresses the effect of the society to human development, especially on behavior. In psychology, it is a conceptual model of human behavior.
His mathematical Lewin drew from physics representation of life space and mathematics to also accounted for construct his theory. From directions of pathways physics, he borrowed the toward a goal and amount concept of the field as of attraction or repulsion psychological field or “life toward a given object in the space”, it is the locus of a space. He also postulated person’s experiences and that persons strive to needs. In geometry, he maintain equilibrium withadopted topology to map the their environment; a tensionspatial relationships of goals (need) will stimulate and solutions contained in locomotion (activity) to regions within a life space. reinstate the equilibrium.
Since there is an idea of “need and activity” and its forces affects the latter, itshows that human behavior, influences by the majorforces from its society, willcreate its values in life and will see the ideal society,there for creating their own force to be part of the society and executing their responsibility.
Field theory in connection Now, education is every with social responsibility, Filipino’s right, it will pertains to the effects of stabilize their status in the forces that constitute to the society. In these theories individual in the society presented, the idea of should have resulted to entwining the two is having participated and anchored to the Philippine executing its responsibility Constitution of 1897, to the society for this will Article XIV, The Education, balance the equilibrium Science and Technology, between the society and the Arts, Culture and Sports. people.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will be a significant endeavor in the improvement of literacy rate as well as the values formation of the poorest children or street-working children in Cubao specifically in the barangay of E. Rodriguez. This research will also be helpful in serving as guide in the assessment of the effects of LPI programs to help uplift the lives of these children. For others, the study can be a source of valuable up-to- date information which can be very valuable for their own similar studies on the subject matters well.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The main purpose of this research b. Family background is to determine if the two b.1. Father’s educational programs of the Lingap Pangkabataan (SOAECE and background and occupation? CCDP) helps reduce the illiteracy b.2. Mother’s educational level and building a better social responsibility especially among background and occupation? children of three barangays of b.3. Parents’ marital status? Cubao’s poorest community, specifically in E. b.4. Number of siblings? Rodriguez. Basically, the 2. What is the level of literacy of the proponents intend to solve the following problems: learners as assessed by the1. What is the profile of the respondents? respondent in terms of : 3. What is the level of sociala. Personal background responsibility of the learners as a.1. gender? assessed by the respondents? a.2. age? 4. Is there a significant relationship a.3. number of months in the between the levels of literacy and program? social responsibility?
CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND OTHER STUDIES In this study, Field Theory will be used where in the social environment is the dynamic field which have great impact, in an interactive way, with human consciousness in solving social problems. United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) saw the importance of this theory. It created the program Early Child Development (ECD), that was designed on how different sectors can work together. It aims to promote child development through the support of families and communities.
In our country, the KAAKBAY CDI, said that poverty here has reached a point where education is no longer a right but a privilege. The public school system was further found to have failed in teaching the requisite competence in order for the young age to become responsible, productive, and self-fulfilling human beings. Linggap Pangkabataan Inc., is an organization that had perceived this social problem. Being funded by UNICEF, it also created a program based on ECD, the Situation-oriented Approach to Early Childhood Education (SOAECE) and Community-based Development Program (CCDP) Since it is the moral obligation of everyone to help, by giving poor children a head start in life, LPI, UNICEF and its partners, aim to obtain the balance between society and people.
FIELD THEORY AND THE SOCIETY Field theory is a psychological theory which examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the environment. It tackles about human behavior as a function of both the person and the environment in which the behavior takes place, including the social parameters. There’s a dynamic interaction of elements in the field and these are the organized perceptions of an individual that are being laid upon the field/society.
LINGAPPANGKABATAAN LingapPangkabataan Incorporated, as a social development organization, has touched the life of more than 18,000 Filipino children including their families. It is directly assisting 2,500 children and youths in Metro Manila and other selected provinces and reaching out to more than 3,000 children- at-risk through their various programs implemented by local project partners nationwide. Lingap aims to give needy children in the poorest communities a good start in life ensuring basic education as well as community development program to the families of the children.
In this framework, the Field Theory of Kurt Lewin was used to conceptualized the impacts of the Lingap Pangkabataan Inc. Programs to Cubao’s poorest community, and understand the effect of the program in illiteracy reduction for better social responsibility by the use of Social Responsibility Theory.
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In order for the researchers to seek for the answers to the problems stated in this research specifically in problem number 4 in the Statement of the Problem, the proponents used two hypotheses, namely, the null hypothesis H0, and the alternative hypothesis H1. That is, H0: There is no significant relationship between the literacy level and social responsibility level of the learners of Lingap Pangkabataan in Barangay E. Rodriguez Sr. H1: There is a significant relationship between the literacy level and social responsibility level of the learners of Lingap Pangkabataan in Barangay E. Rodriguez Sr.
VARIABLES In his research, we denoted the LPI educational programs as independent variables, a driving force that reduces the illiteracy rate of the street children of Cubao. The illiteracy rate as the dependent variable and the effect of the said programs to the literacy and social responsibility of the said subject of this study.
CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Descriptive Statistics: The proponents used the descriptive method in summarizing the properties and behavior of the sample data. This method includes the measures of central tendency (the weighted mean), measures of variability (standard deviation), tabular method, percentage and rank. The proponents used questionnaires to gather data that they needed in this research. The response of the respondents was quantified using a scale that is introduced in the remaining section of this chapter.
POPULATION AND SAMPLING The respondents of this research are the LPI’s learners of barangay E. Rodriguez under the programs of SOAECE and CCDP. The age bracket of the respondents is from 5 years old and above. The population is composed of the biggest barangay namely E. Rodriguez. The population comprises of 118 students with 51 boys and 67 girls as of February 2013. Table 3.1 shows the summary of the population of LPI learners in Barangay E. Rodriguez.
To get the respondents for this study, the proponents selected the50% of the population or 59 individuals that was chosen randomlyusing the Quota Sampling technique. Table 3.2 shows the result ofthe quota sampling method. As stated from above, the proponentscomputed the 50% of the population or 59 individuals. Out of 59samples, 26 or 44.07% are male and 33 or 55.93% are female.
DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENTS This consists of the students’ assessment on how effective is the SOAECE and CCDP programs. The questionnaire is composed of two parts: Part 1 is about the Profile of the Respondents in terms of their name, age bracket, gender; and their parents’ profile and their respective educational attainment, employment status, marital status, and the respondent’s number of siblings., and Part 2 is the Self-assessment of Pupil Competencies, it contains two sub-parts, the learners’ Assessment of Basic Competencies and the learners’ Assessment of Acquired Values and Social Responsibility.
VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT The data gathering instrument was derived from the unpublished field study research paper of Lingap Pangkabataan Inc. in SOAECE last 2010. The statistical tools used in their research paper were designed to measure and evaluate the pupil competencies and the pupil’s parent involvement. The proponents adopt some of the parts of the questionnaires of LPI SOAECE research and modify it for the purpose of data gathering. The said instrument from SOAECE was said to be standardized and therefore it was proven to be effective measuring tool for assessing the students’ level of literacy as assessed by both the respondents and their program facilitators.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES In gathering data, the proponents scheduled an initial visit to Lingap Pangkabataan Inc. located in Ermin Garcia Street, Cubao, Quezon City. Written reports and list of current students where provided by LPI coordinator. After the finalization, questionnaires were given to LPI students randomly who have direct bearing of the study. There were also home visitation in Barangay E. Rodriguez and questionnaires were provided to respondents who have benefited to LPI programs.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA Frequency and Ranking Method: Percentage Distribution Table Method: where: where: R1 – the rank of oneP = percentage for a category variable as arranged inf = frequency or number of chronological order response per category R2 – the rank of the otherN = total number of respondents. variable.
Weighted Mean: Likert Scale: was used in this research to interpret or describe the computed weighted mean for each question. Standard Deviation: where:f = frequency or number of responsesx = weight of responseN = total number of respondents.
TO INTERPRET THE RESULT OF COMPUTED R, TABLE 3.5 WAS USEDTO GIVE A GENERALIZATION BETWEEN THE SETS OF LEVELS OFLITERACY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY .
CHAPTER 4PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, ANDINTERPRETATION The test of relationship between the Profile of the Respondents in computed weighted means of the Terms of Gender assessment of basic literacy competencies and the assessment of acquired values and social awareness, the following hypotheses were tested: H0: There is no significant relationship between the literacy level and social responsibility level of the learners of Lingap Pangkabataan in Barangay E. Rodriguez. H1: There is a significant relationship between the literacy level and social responsibility level of the learners of Lingap Pangkabataan in Barangay E. Rodriguez.
Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Profile of the Respondents in Terms ofAge. Numbers of Months Spend in LPI
Profile of the Respondents in Profile of the Respondents in Terms ofTerms of Their Father’s Their Father’s Employment Status.Educational Background
Profile of the Respondents in Profile of the Respondents in Terms ofTerms of Their Mother’s Their Mother’s Employment StatusEducational Background
Profile of the Respondents in Profile of the Respondents in Terms ofTerms of Their Parent’s Marital the Number of Siblings.Status
SUMMARY OF THE ASSESSMENT OF THERESPONDENTS REGARDING THEIR LEVEL OFLITERACY
SUMMARY OF THE RESPONDENTS REGARDINGTHEIR LEVEL OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
COMPUTATION OF CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THELEVELS OF LITERACY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYUSING THE MICROSOFT EXCEL™ Result of computation for the relationship between the set of weighted values of the levels of literacy and social responsibility
CONCLUSION 1. Profile of the a.2. age respondents in terms Out of 59 respondents, 2 of: or 3.39% are from age Personal background bracket 5 and below, 13a.1. gender or 22.03% are from 6 – 8 age group, 35 or 59.32% Out of 59 are from 9 – 12 age respondents, 26 or bracket, 6 or 10.17% are 44.07% composed of from 13 – 15 age group, male.33 or 55.93% are and 3 or 5.08% are from female. The figures show 16 and above age group. that the female These figures show that respondents are most of the respondents dominant than the male. are from the age group of 9 to 12 years old.
a.3. number of months in the b. Family background program b.1. Father’s Out of 59 respondents, 14 or educational background and 23.73% has been participating occupation in their programs for about a Out of 59 respondents, 13 or month and below, 6 or 10.17% 22.03% have father who’ve for 2 to 3 months, 4 or 6.78% finished elementary, 34 or 57.63% have finished high school, 2 or for 4 to 5 months, and 35 or 3.39% have finished vocational 59.32% for 6 months and courses, and 10 or 16.95% have beyond. Figures show that collegiate level. Figures shows that most of the respondents have most of the respondents’ father been in the programs for 6 have only finished high school months and above. level. 54 or 91.53% have fathers who are currently working and 5 or 8.47% are unemployed. It shows that most of the respondents’ fathers are currently employed.
b.2. Mother’s educational b.3. Parents’ marital background and occupation status Out of 59 respondents, 11 or Out of 59 respondents, 43 18.64% have mother who finished elementary, 32 or or 72.88% have parents 54.24% have finished high who are married, 10 or school, 2 or 3.39% have finished 16.95% who are living vocational courses, and 14 or together and 6 or 10.17% 23.73% have collegiate level. who have divorce parents. The figures shows that most of the respondents have mother These figures show that who only finished high school most of the respondents level. belong to a complete family. Out of 59 respondents, 38 or 64.41% have mothers who are currently working and 21 or 35.59% are unemployed. These figures show that most of the respondents’ mothers are currently employed.
b.4. Number of siblings 2. Level of literacy of the Therefore, out of 59 learners as assessed by respondents, only 1 or the respondents. 1.69% said that he is the The computed grandonly child of his parents, 33 weighted mean is equal to or 55.93% said that they 4.20, it follows that the level have 2 to 4 siblings, 14 or of literacy of the learners of23.73% said that they have Lingap Pangkabataan Inc.5 to 6 siblings, 8 or 13.56% in Barangay E. Rodriguez is said that they have 7 to 8 in High Level, that is, they siblings, and 3 or 5.08% meet the standard or said that they have 9 or essential skills needed to more siblings. Most of the become literate individuals.respondents answered that they have 2 to 4 siblings.
Level of social responsibility of the learners as assessed Is there a significant relationship by the respondents. between the levels of literacy and social responsibility? Since the grand weighted mean is 4.48, The computed value of correlation therefore, it follows that the was r = -0.091397915 and its level of social responsibility of computed value has an interval 0.00 - ±0.24, therefore the the learners of Lingap relationship between the sets of Pangkabataan Inc. in Barangay weighted means of levels of E. Rodriguez is evaluated as literacy and social responsibility is Very High Level, that is, they negligible, that is, there is no exceed the standard or significant relationship between the essential skills needed to given set of variables. Thus, the become social and community levels of literacy and social responsible individuals. responsibility are independent, they do not affect the values of each other.
RECOMMENDATIONS The researcher recommends the continuous implementation of Lingap Pangkabataan programs, SOAECE and CCDP because of its effectiveness regarding illiteracy reduction and inculcating social responsibility among its recipients. We also recommend that LPI should extend its programs to other poor Metropolitan areas. In addition to these, colleges and universities should provide NSTP volunteers (National Service Training Program) to assists and help LPI in attaining their objectives.