2. Introduction to Wine
• Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented
• Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes
using various types of yeast.
• Types of wines
– Red wine
– White wine
• Classification of wines
– Sparkling wine
– Desert wine
– Ice wine
– Fortified wine
– Table wine
• Health benefits
4. Wine Production
Factors which inflence grape’s flavor:
•climate of the vineyard’s region
•drainage around the vines
•humidity of the region
5. 2. Harvesting
•Grappes are picked up by hand or
•Descision of harvest informed by level of
sugar and acid
6. 3. Stemming/Crushing
Stemming is the separation of the stems and
grapes (which are sends to the press)
Crushing: A horizontal press squeezes
the broken grapes, separating the
fresh juice (must) from the skins
After crushing starts the fermentation
7. 4. Fermentation
•sugar and acids that naturally
react with wild yeasts
•Vineyard adding their own
•fermentation can take from 10
to 30 days to convert natural
sugar to alcohol.
Liquid wine is drained from the vat without being pressed and go into
barrels (free-run wine). The remaining pulp retains about 20% of the
8. 6. Pressing
The remaing pulp, after draining, is pressed to
squeeze out the press wine.
The free-run wine and press wine, always from the same source, are mixed
together in appropriate ratios to obtain the desired balance.
9. 8. Clarification
Stabilisation of fermentation.
Remaining solids are removed.
Clarification done in numerous ways:
3. Siphoning the liquid off the top of the fermenting vats after the
solids have settled to the bottom
10. 9. Aging
• The final stage in vinification is
aging the wine.
• At this point, the clarified
wine is transferred into either
wooden barrels or metal vats in
which the wine is allowed to
further mature and develop
11. 10. Bottleing
• A dose of sulfite is added to help
preserve the wine and prevent
unwanted fermentation in the
• The wine bottles then are
traditionally sealed with a cork,
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture.
The press wine tends to be dark, harsh and unpalatable, and is mixed with free-run wine to produce something decent.
Fining, a process that calls for the addition of substances that cause the solids in the liquid to adhere to one another and sink to the bottom of the vat Filtration- Running the liquid through coarse and fine filters
While this can add body to some wines, keep in mind that the “woody” flavor isn’t suited to all types of wine, hence the use of metal vatsIf a winemaker chooses to age the wine in wooden casks, he will be allowing the wine to pick up flavors from the wood, adding greater depth to its flavors..
although alternative wine clossure such as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming increasingly popular.