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Surrealism (new)

  1. 1. SURREALISM Revision
  2. 2. Origin • It was an artistic movement that brought together artists, thinkers and researchers • They were involved in a hunt of sense of expression of the unconscious • They were searching for the definition of n – New aesthetic – New humankind – New social order
  3. 3. Origin • Their forerunners were the Italian Metaphysical painters • It came into being after the French poet Andre Breton 1 published Manifeste du Surrealisme • Breton suggested that rational thought was repressive to the powers of creativity and imagination and thus inimical to artistic expression • Breton admired Freud and its concept of the subconscious
  4. 4. Beginnings • It is closely related to some forms of abstract art • At the end of World War I Tristan Tzara, leader of the Dada, wanted to attack society through scandal • He believed that society that creates the monstrosity of war do not deserve art so he decided to create an anti-art, full of ugliness instead of beauty.
  5. 5. Beginnings • Tzara wanted to offend the new industrial commercial world of the bourgeoisie. • His victims did not feel insulted • They saw this art as a reaction against old art • The result was the opposite to its original one because anti-art became art.
  6. 6. Beginnings • One group of artists did not follow Tzara´s ideas • The Surrealist movement gained momentum after the Dadaá • It was led by Breton • The artists researched and studied the work of Freud and Jung • Some of the artists expressed themselves – In the abstract tradition – In the symbolic tradition
  7. 7. Groups • The two forms of expression formed two distinct trends: –Automatism –Veristic • There are two different interpretations of Freud and Jung
  8. 8. Automatists • Artists interpreted it as referring to a suppression of consciousness in favour of the subconscious • They were more focused on feeling and less analytical • They understood Automatism as the automatic way in which the images of the subconscious reach the conscience. • They believed that images should not be burdened with meaning.
  9. 9. Automatism • They saw the academic discipline of art as intolerant of the free expression of feeling • They felt form which had dominated the history of art, was a culprit in that intolerance • They believed abstractionism was the only way to bring to life the images of the subconscious.
  10. 10. Automatism • Coming from the Dada tradition, these artist: – Linked scandal – Insult – Irreverence toward the elite´s with freedom • They continued to believe that lack of form was a way to rebel against them.
  11. 11. Veristic Surrealists • They interpreted automatism to mean allowing the images of the subconscious to surface undisturbed so that their meaning could be deciphered through analysis • They wanted to faithfully represent these images as a link between: – The abstract spiritual realities – The real forms of the material world.
  12. 12. Veristic Surrealists • To them the object stood as a metaphor for an inner reality • Through metaphor the concrete world could be understood, not only by looking at the objects, but also by looking into them.
  13. 13. Veristic Surrealists • They saw academic discipline and form as the means to represent the images of the subconscious with veracity • The images would easily dissolve into the unknown • They hoped to find a way to follow the images of the subconscious until the conscience could understand their meaning.
  14. 14. Veristic Surrealists • The language of the subconscious is the image • The consciousness had to learn to decode that language so it could translate it into its own language of words. • Later they branched out into three other groups.
  15. 15. Struggle of Surrealism • For the automatists the approach to the mystery of nature is to never become conscious of the mystery • The Veristic Surrealist quest is none other than the one described by Breton as the cause of freedom and the transformation of man´s consciousness
  16. 16. Struggle of Surrealism • In the works of surrealist we find – The legacy of • Bosch • Brueguel • William Blake • The Symbolic painters of the 19th century – The perennial questioning of philosophy – The search of psychology – The spirit of mysticism
  17. 17. Struggle of Surrealism • It is a work based on the desire to permit the forces that created the world to illuminate our vision • They must allow us to consciously develop our human potential.
  18. 18. Struggle of Surrealism • Veristic surrealist recognize the difficulties that their movement has faced during the second half of the twentieth century as it attempted to become a major cultural force • The United States wholeheartedly embraced abstraction and modernism.
  19. 19. Struggle of Surrealism • They shared the belief of abstract artist that – the chaos of action painting and automatism were expression of freedom and – that form, subjugation and inhibition walked hand in hand • The American art establishment looked at the image of form with mistrust until the advent of Pop Art.
  20. 20. Struggle of Surrealism • The Surrealism had to fight against: – Pop-Art – Photorealism • Veristic Surrealism is the only historical artistic expression still in want of recognition as a cultural force in the twentieth century
  21. 21. Characteristics • It was highly influenced by the psychoanalysis: – Images are as confusing and startling as those of dreams – Can have a realistic, though irrational style, precisely describing dreamlike fantasies.
  22. 22. Characteristics • They were influenced by: •Symbolism •Metaphysical Painting of Giorgio de Chirico •Dadaism
  23. 23. Characteristics • Some of them have a more abstract style. • In this case they invented spontaneous techniques, modelled upon the psychotherapeutic procedure of free association as a means to eliminate conscious control in order to express the working of the unconscious mind, such as exquisite corpse.
  24. 24. Exquisite Corpse • There were aleatoric techniques for producing visual or literally art • This activity was frequently considered as a game. • It is based upon an old parlour game in which players take turns writing on a sheet of paper folded it to conceal part of the writing and them pass it to the next player for another contribution.
  25. 25. Exquisite Corpse • This technique was used by artists to produce drawings and collages. • The first efforts are reminiscent of children’s books that allow the making of pictures with multiple ages divided at various levels, involved assigning a section of a body to each player
  26. 26. Exquisite Corpse • A majority resulted in images that only vaguely resembled the human form. • Some participants in early exquisite corpses were Tanguy, Miro and Man Ray. • Later adaptations have involved using other means of passing the work around, using different media.
  27. 27. Techniques • Surrealism has the same lack of prejudice of Dadaism both in the use of photographic procedures and object production out of their normal use. • Traditional techniques, because those can be appropriate for depicting imaginations
  28. 28. Artists • Some of the better known representatives of this movement are: • Max Ernst • Frida Kahlo • Marc Chagall • Joan Miro • Man Ray • Salvador Dali • René Magritte • Yves Tanguy • Oscar Dominguez
  29. 29. Joan Miro • He used symbolic keys to depict the unconscious. • His principle is not the organic world. • His world is simple, clear • His mythology is easy, transparent. • His painting is unstressed, freely chromatic, without equilibrium among signs and colours
  30. 30. Miró
  31. 31. Salvador Dali • His view is full of sexual connotations. • Highly rhetorical works. • Mix of lubricous and holy • He overcame cynically the bolshevism. • Ambiguous mix of reaction and anarchy. • Very complicated compositions.
  32. 32. Dalí
  33. 33. Rene Magritte • He is the artist who worked in a deepest way the lack of logic of the image. • He invented the anti-history • He discovered the non-sense of the normal. • He created with great detail and realism images of ambiguous significance that could have a double sense
  34. 34. Magritte
  35. 35. Max Ernst • He reached to the deepest critic of the form as a depiction and the style as something unitary. • He used any technique that would be useful for transmitting his ideas. He used: – Collage – Frottage • His work is frequently a pile of rubbish of bourgeois culture.
  36. 36. Hans Arp • He was previously involved in the Dadaism. • He depicted organic forms, both in painting and sculpture. • He used: – Geometric shapes – Orthogonal images – Continuously curve forms, concave and convex.
  37. 37. Yves Tanguy • He invented the anti-Nature: –Never ending landscapes, –Planet like settings –Lack of light and sun –Remains of an organic life: • Bones • Mummified fruits • Fossils and shells
  38. 38. Expansion • Other artist contributed to the expansion of the Surrealism, equally in Europe and in the United States. • Soon it appeared as a way of eluding the reality of the problems through: – Ambiguity – Paradox
  39. 39. Expansion • The movement gained prestige with the adhesion of artists such as Picasso. • The analytical cubism, discomposing the objects did a similar work as that of the Surrealism. •
  40. 40. Oscar Dominguez Tanguy
  41. 41. Chagall Frida Kahlo