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  1. MOTIVATION T H E T H E O R Y O F X, Y, and Z
  2. Douglas McGregor Dr. William Ouchi “Theory X and Y” “Theory Z”
  3. Theory X subscribes to the position that employees dislike and try to avoid work, so management needs to control, motivate and closely supervise the workforce. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibility. THEORY X
  4. In an organisation where theory X is followed, the management too follows an authoritarian style. There is little delegation of authority from the management. On the other hand, companies who follow theory Y have a more decentralized approach, which means that the authority is distributed among employees. This keeps them motivated.
  5. Theory Y maintains the outlook that under conducive conditions employees are self- motivated, enjoy work and will seek opportunities to excel. It also emphasizes the average person’s desire to be self-directing and to seek responsibility, and his capacity to be creative in solving business problems. THEORY Y
  6. Theory X works on the idea of punishing people to keep the work going, while under theory Y, promotions, rewards, and recognition play an important part. This keeps employees motivated to work hard towards achieving goals of the organisation. THEORY X AND Y
  7. Theory Z derives from theory Y, promoting employee loyalty, concern and security, both in and out of work. Theory Z assumes that employees have strong loyalty and interest in their teams and organization. Therefore, a combination of job security, holistic concern for employees, collective decision-making and individual responsibility motivates employees to be productive and realize their true potential THEORY Z
  8. Here are the different features of Theory Z that highlight those assumptions: 1. MUTUAL TRUST Trust, integrity and openness are instrumental in driving efficiency in an organization. Increased trust reduces friction and conflict among employees, leading to better cooperation, teamwork and collaboration. The theory also suggests that there is no need for a formal structure as perfect teamwork and cooperation can drive changes effectively. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF THEORY Z OF MOTIVATION
  9. 2. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT To improve commitment toward goals and performance levels, it’s essential to involve employees. It means that employee participation in the decision-making process, especially in matters affecting them, generates a greater sense of responsibility and interest. 3. STRONG BOND To increase loyalty and commitment toward the organization, there must be a strong bond between the organization and employees. In other words, the organization must make active efforts toward career advancement. For example, promotions and long-term employment measures ensure a conducive work environment where people feel encouraged to do better.
  10.  An Organization Can’t Exist Without A Structure. While Mutual Trust, Cooperation And Perfect Teamwork Sound Good In Theory; It’s Difficult To Rely Solely On Interpersonal Relationships For An Organization’s Efficiency. Without Structure, There Will Be Chaos And A Lack Of Accountability And Responsibility.  Participation Of Employees In Decision-Making Isn’t Easy To Implement. Managers May Not Enjoy Such High Levels Of Involvement. Not Every Employee Will Be Comfortable Voicing Their Opinions And Ideas. It’s Highly Likely That The Involvement Of All Employees Will Slow Down The Decision-Making Process. LIMITATIONS OF THE THEORY Z OF MOTIVATION
  11.  Long-Term Career Planning And Employment Measures May Not Be Always Feasible. While It May Provide Job Security, It May Fail To Improve Loyalty Among Employees. Especially In Today’s Job Market, Employees Are Quick To Leave Organizations For Better Opportunities. Provision For Lifetime Employment May Be Ineffective. Moreover, Organizations Will Be Forced To Retain Poorly Performing Employees Permanently
  12. Theory X, Y & Z of employee motivation have been used in human resource management, organizational behaviour analysis, and organizational development. Though these theories are very basic in nature, they provide a platform for future generations of management theorists and practitioners to understand the changing dynamics of human behaviour. CONCLUSION
  14. Alderfer’s ERG theory of motivation builds on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and states that humans have three core types of need: Existence, Relatedness and Growth. These needs may be of different levels of priority for different individuals, and their relative importance for an individual may vary over time.
  15. Alderfer’s model says that all humans are motivated by these three needs. The most concrete and motivating of Alderfer’s three needs is existence, which really relates to physical and psychological survival. The next level is the need for relatedness, a sense of community and a good relationship with yourself. The least concrete, but still important, of Alderfer’s needs in the ERG model is growth, which really relates to self- development, fulfillment and the sense of achieving your potential. ERG THEORY
  16. Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Motivation states that individuals can be motivated by multiple levels of need at the same time, and that the level which is most important to them can change over time. In other words, an individual’s priorities and motivations may be fluid and can move between the existence, relatedness and growth levels of need over time. They can move upwards, and they can move downwards. HOW THE MODEL WORKS
  17. In Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, individuals need to have satisfied one level of needs before moving on to the next one hoewever, Alderfer disagreed. In his model, individuals do not need to have satisfied their existence needs before being motivated by their relatedness need. In fact, Alderfer went further and said that different individuals potentially prioritize the needs in different orders based on their life views. COMPARING ALDERFER AND MASLOW
  18. Alderfer also noted that how individuals perceive their progression in relation to each of the levels of need is important. If an individual feels they are making great progress at relatedness, they may be increasingly motivated by growth even though their relatedness need has not been fully satisfied.
  20. A leadership style is a way in which a leader accomplishes their team’s objective by motivating employees to work towards the common goal and focusing on their well-being. Understanding leadership style is imperative for a team to work together and also keep growing while embracing changes. WHAT IS A LEADERSHIP STYLE?
  21. DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEADERSHIP • Basic Leadership Styles: - Democratic Leadership - Autocratic Leadership - Laissez-faire Leadership - Bureaucratic Leadership • Other Leadership Styles: - Transformational Leadership - Transactional Leadership - Creative Leadership - Corrective Leadership - Change Leadership - Intelligence Leadership - Multicultural Leadership - Pedagogical Leadership - Servant Leadership - Bridging leadership - Purposeful Leadership
  22. Basic Leadership Styles
  23. A democratic leader makes decisions based on their team’s opinion and feedback. In simpler words, they get everyone involved in the decision- making process. Here are some scenarios in which you can adopt a democratic leadership style: New project that requires constant brainstorming Solve complex business problems Tight-knit or small organisations like start-ups, etc. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
  24. WHEN: Not enough time to get everyone’s input  Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision  Can’t afford mistakes  Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership  Staff safety is a critical concern SHOULD NOT BE USED
  25. This is precisely the opposite of democratic leadership. The opinions of team members are not considered while making any business decision. Instead, leaders expect others to adhere to their decisions, which is not sustainable in the long run. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
  26. Sometimes the most effective style to use WHEN:  ‰ New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow  ‰ Effective supervision provided only through detailed orders and instructions  ‰ Staff do not respond to any other leadership style ‰ Limited time in which to make a decision  ‰ A manager’s power challenged by staff  ‰ Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization NOT ALL BAD
  27. WHEN: ‰ Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful ‰ Staff expect their opinions heard ‰ Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions ‰ Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage SHOULD NOT BE USED
  28. Laissez-faire means “let them do”. This leadership style is the least intrusive and ensures that the decision-making authority lies with the team members. This leadership style empowers team members and holds them accountable for their work. This motivates many team members to put their best foot forward, improving the organisation’s efficiency and productivity. LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP
  29. WHEN:  Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager  The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing  Managers unable to thank staff for their good work  The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her SHOULD NOT BE USED
  30. This kind of leadership style sticks to the rules. For example, they might listen to their team members’ opinions while deciding. If not covered by the book (rules), referred to the next level above. BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP
  31. WHEN:  ‰ Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful  ‰ Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers  ‰ Staff do only what is expected of them and no more INEFFECTIVE
  32. Other Leadership Styles
  33. Creates and sustains a context that maximizes human and organizational capabilities;  Facilitate multiple levels of transformation; and  Align them with core values and a unified purpose TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  34. Make change happen in:  Self,  Others,  Groups, and  Organizations Charisma a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership; extremely powerful, extremely hard to teach. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  35.  Emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo (the current situation).  In opposition to transformational leadership.  “By the book" approach - the person works within the rules.  Commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
  36. Ability to uniquely inspire people To generate shared innovative responses and solutions To complex and readily changing situations CREATIVE LEADERSHIP
  37. Empowers staff to facilitate collaborative and synergism (a type of "when is one plus one is greater than two" effect). Working with and through other people instead of bowing to authoritarianism CORRECTIVE LEADERSHIP
  38. Endorses alteration.  Beyond thinking about individuals and individual organization, single problems and single solutions. Rethinking systems to introduce change on parts of the whole and their relationship to one another. CHANGE LEADERSHIP
  39. To navigate the future by embracing ambiguity and reframing problems as opportunities. A proactive stance in taking their organizations into uncharted territory. INTELLIGENCE LEADERSHIP
  40. Fosters team and individual effectiveness Drives for innovation by leveraging multicultural differences Teams work harder in an atmosphere of understanding and mutual respect MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP
  41. Paradigm shift from leader/teacher centered "orientation" to an interactive, connective organizational system using a democratic learning and communicative style An alternative to instructional leadership by enabling the learning and intellectual growth of those led PEDAGOGICAL LEADERSHIP
  42. A practical philosophy focusing on people who choose to serve first and then lead as a way of expanding service Servant leaders are "servants first" with the object of making sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served  Leaders put the needs of their followers first; these leaders rare in business SERVANT LEADERSHIP
  43. Fostering synergy and reinforcing behavior and motivation through the use of communication to create climate of trust and confidence. Projection of confidence on the face of a difficult challenge. BRIDGING LEADERSHIP
  44. Leader and the community share a common purpose to develop or provide the drive, authority and commitment to undertake projects PURPOSEFUL LEADERSHIP
  45. Varying Leadership Style Three factors that influence which leadership style to use: 1. The manager’s personal background: What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work? CONCLUSION
  46. 2. Staff being supervised: Staff individuals with different personalities and backgrounds; The leadership style used will vary depending upon the individual staff and what he or she will respond best to. 3. The organization: The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the organization influence how a manager acts.
  47.  Should leaders be more task or relationship (people) oriented.  Leaders have a dominant style, one they use in a wide variety of situations.  No one best style - leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led.  Many different aspects to being a great leader - a role requiring one to play many different leadership styles to be successful. DETERMINING THE BEST LEADERSHIP STYLE