The next medium, whatever it is- it may be the extension of conciousness- will include television as it's content, not as it's environment, and will transform television into an art form. A computer as a research and communication instrument could enhance retrieval, obsolesce mass library organization, retrieve the individuals encyclopedic function and flip into a private line to speedily tailored data of a saleable kind ( Marshall McLuhan 1962 ).
Great ideas emerge, sink and re-emerge <ul><li>Three main trends: </li></ul><ul><li>DECENTRALISATION </li></ul><ul><li>JOBS TO ROLES </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE TO SOFTWARE </li></ul>
From Atoms to Bits ( Nicholas Negroponte ) Being Digital: In the information and entertainment industries, bits and atoms often are confused. Is the publisher of a book in the information delivery business (bits) or in the manufacturing business (atoms)? The historical answer is both, but that will change rapidly as information appliances become more ubiquitous and user-friendly. Right now it is hard to compete with the qualities of a printed book.
Kelly: bee hive metaphor <ul><li>Swarm creativity is like a beehive or ant colony, it may look chaotic from the outside, but everyone has a job, knows what to do, and does it. </li></ul><ul><li>The marvel of "hive mind" is that no one is in control, and yet an invisible hand governs, a hand that emerges from very dumb members. </li></ul>
David Weinberger et al <ul><li>"A powerful global conversation has begun. Through the Internet, people are discovering and inventing new ways to share relevant knowledge with blinding speed. As a direct result, markets are getting smarter—and getting smarter faster than most companies.” The Clue-Train Manifesto </li></ul>
From Kevin Kelly to Peter Gloor Specifically, to reap the benefits of swarm innovation, companies must (1) gain power by giving it away, (2) share with the swarm and (3) concentrate on the swarm, not on making money.
Benefits of the Swarm Systems <ul><li>Adaptable -- what is required is a swarm -- a hive mind. Only a whole containing many parts can allow a whole to persist while the parts die off or change to fit the new stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolvable -- Systems that can shift the locus of adaptation over time from one part of the system to another (from the body to the genes or from one individual to a population) must be swarm based. Noncollective systems cannot evolve (in the biological sense). </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient -- Because collective systems are built upon multitudes in parallel, there is redundancy. Individuals don't count. Small failures are lost in the hubbub. Big failures are held in check by becoming merely small failures at the next highest level on a hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty -- Swarm systems generate novelty for three reasons: (1) They are "sensitive to initial conditions" -- a scientific shorthand for saying that the size of the effect is not proportional to the size of the cause -- so they can make a surprising mountain out of a molehill. (2) They hide countless novel possibilities in the exponential combinations of many interlinked individuals. (3) They don't reckon individuals, so therefore individual variation and imperfection can be allowed. In swarm systems with heritability, individual variation and imperfection will lead to perpetual novelty, or what we call evolution. </li></ul>
The Era of the tag The soul of the internet is the tag It is only emerging to consciouness now All messages on the Internet are divided into “packets”, series of 01 with a protocol to address and order it for reconstruction at the other end of the conversation Every packet on the Internet has its own unique tag and that allows it to find its destination with absolute precision instantly
Tags and devices Rfid (Radio Frequency Identification Device) Rfid is an automatic method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices “Rfid-tag” or transponders. Rfid-tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, or person for the purpose of identification using radiowaves. Antenna Rfid-tag Database
Rfid - Tag Pets Office Sanity Stores Home Vehicles I.D. Public Transportation
The third decade of the Web <ul><li>A period in time, not a single technology but many small pieces loosely joined that bring people, networks and technologies together (David Weinberger) </li></ul><ul><li>How to enrich the structure of the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of search, collaboration, publishing, advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables applications to become more integrated and intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to transform Web from fileserver to database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinktag.org </li></ul></ul>
Tags and digital identity Tagging allows people to organize their own content <ul><li>Individually: </li></ul><ul><li>Show Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Profile identity </li></ul><ul><li>His own semantic and slang </li></ul><ul><li>Socially: </li></ul><ul><li>Community Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Social identity </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic track </li></ul>
The answer to ubimedia: “the cloak of data invisibility” (Usman Haque)
Commercial examples of Tag Power The Digg community published the decrypt-code of the new HD DVD and Digg gave up trying to stop the users. The web community decided to keep it public. Facebook released API and the users began to create thousands of new applications that can integrate together social networking as well. Technorati became one of the biggest comunities where social tagging shows exactly what blogosphere is about.
Tags and mobile NFC (Near Field Communication) NFC is a short high frequency wireless communication technology which enables the exchange of data between devices over about decimetre distance. Uses Applications <ul><li>Card Emulation </li></ul><ul><li>Reader mode </li></ul><ul><li>P2P mode </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile payment </li></ul><ul><li>Smart poster </li></ul><ul><li>Identity documents </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth pairing </li></ul>
Business and integration Marketing studies “ Everyware” The User always has an updated profile (autoprofile). Data-mining gives meaning to the abundance of data. The firms hit a precise target, optimize the strengths and improves services/products. The technology is hidden behind the common objects. The objects talk among each other. Integration systems.
The Big Opportunity… Better search More targeted ads Smarter collaboration Deeper integration Richer content Better personalization The social graph just connects people People Groups The semantic graph connects everything… Emails Companies Products Services Web Pages Multimedia Documents Events Projects Activities Interests Places
Character of the web 2.0 economy <ul><li>User-generated content </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Low-entry level </li></ul><ul><li>Prospect of great ROI </li></ul><ul><li>Non hierarchical (“consumer activist” Kryptonite on Youtube) </li></ul><ul><li>Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul>
New Web versus Old <ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>e-Pinions </li></ul><ul><li>e-Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>GoogleMap </li></ul><ul><li>Craigslist </li></ul><ul><li>Webshots </li></ul><ul><li>Friendster </li></ul><ul><li>EnCarta, Britannica </li></ul><ul><li>CNN </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional publishing </li></ul><ul><li>MapQuest </li></ul><ul><li>Want Ads </li></ul>
“ What’s the difference?” asks Don Tapscott <ul><li>Web 1.0 launched Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 built walled gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 innovated internally </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 jealously guarded data and software interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 launched vibrant communities </li></ul><ul><li>The winners built public squares </li></ul><ul><li>The winners innovated with users </li></ul><ul><li>The winners shared them with everyone </li></ul>
In any problem whatever, one in a million would see no problem. The real problem is how do you reach this person who has the answer (1974)
Marketing Dynamic of the connected economy <ul><li>“ Reputation Capital” </li></ul><ul><li>Trust (Goldcorp) </li></ul><ul><li>blogs, comments, referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Gerd Gerken community building </li></ul><ul><li>How to buy a washing machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertinence </li></ul>
From Knowledge Management to Social Network Enablement (Dave Pollard) I People-to-people People-to-knowledge Critical Connection Expertise finder, Weblog auto-publishing tool, Social software (described below) Search engines, Community of Practice and collaboration tools Key Knowledge Tools Decentralized, personal weblogs (mostly) Large, centralized repositories Where Knowledge Resides Qualify & Proxy: Use individuals' knowledge to qualify them as appropriate experts to converse with, and as a surrogate for that individual when they are not available for conversation Re-use: Find & tailor appropriate knowledge from central repositories Knowledge Use Strategy Publish your filing cabinet Submit what you know Knowledge Creation Strategy Social Network Enablement Knowledge Management
One person with one great idea is the fuel that powers the new economy. That person may be an evangelist for change inside a vast, global corporation, the leader of a high-energy startup, or the sole creator of a Web site that attracts millions of visitors. Never before in the history of business has each person mattered more -- as a talented performer, as a leader in an organization, as a consumer in the market, as a creator in the world of enterprise. (Jochai Benkler)
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