• Indexing – SCOPUS, EBSCO, ABC, IEEE
• Impact Factor – Citation/Total number ofArticles
• Cite Score – Citation in a year/Total number ofArticles in 3 years
• h Index - Most cited papers and the number of citations that they have
received in other publications
Title of the Paper
• Title should be reflect the main theme.
• Some of keywords of paper should appear in title.
• There should be no full stop after title.
• Title expects to provide answers to:
• What will be studied/researched?
• How will be researched?
• With who and where it researched?
Keys elements in Abstract
• Element 1: Start with key problem/ theme of the paper.
• Element 2: Main purpose/aim of the study
• Element 3: Importance of Study
• Element 4: Methodology used
• Element 5: Main findings/Expected findings
• Element 6: Statement of Conclusion/Implications of study
Starting with introduction
• Element 1: State broad theme or topic of the paper.
• Element 2: Academic importance or relevance (Why my paper is worth a
• Element 3: Summarize available literature and cite important studies in the
• Element 4: Main gaps of the paper or main contribution of the paper.
• Element 5: Research Questions/Context/Theoretical Framework/Method
• Element 6: Structure of upcoming sessions.
• Start with simple language without jargons.
• Keep in mind you are giving paper to unprepared reader.
• Use examples to explain technical words or concepts.
• Academic Importance = No/less previous work but enough practical
• Theoretical Core of the paper
• Critically evaluates, re-organises, and synthesises the work of other
• Digest information from various sources and present in logical and reader
Three challenges of Literature Review
• Finding suitable literature on a specific topic.
• Managing information
• Presenting logical, synthesised, reader friendly review of current
Organizing Literature Review
• Start with general/wider concepts.
• Plan headings and sub-headings.
• Write in full sentence – by using a verb.
• Write in active voice.
• Use less direct quote.
• Paraphrase and explain in your own words.
• In text citations.
Word by word; paragraph by paragraph
• The topic –The main subject matter or idea covered in the paragraph
• The controlling idea –This idea focuses the topic by providing direction to
• Demonstrate your point.
• One idea in a paragraph.
• Link previous and upcoming paragraphs.