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Primary Maternal Care: Skills workshop screening tests for syphilis

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Primary Maternal Care addresses the needs of healthcare workers in level 1 district hospitals and clinics who provide antenatal and postnatal care, but do not conduct deliveries. It is adapted from theory chapters and skills workshops from Maternal Care. This book complements the national protocol of antenatal care in South Africa. It covers: booking for antenatal care, assessing fetal growth and well being, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour, important medical conditions.

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Primary Maternal Care: Skills workshop screening tests for syphilis

  1. 1. 1D Skills workshop: Screening tests for syphilis SYPHILIS RAPID TEST Objectives The syphilis rapid test is a specific test for When you have completed this skills syphilis and will become positive when there are antibodies against Treponema pallidum workshop you should be able to: (the organism that causes syphilis) in the • Screen a patient for syphilis with the blood. The test result corresponds to that of syphilis rapid test and the RPR card test. a TPHA or FTA test which are also specific • Interpret the results of the screening tests for syphilis. tests. A Equipment needed to perform a syphilis rapid testSYPHILIS SCREENING 1. The Abbott Determine TB Whole Blood Essay. Each kit contains 10 cards with 10At the first antenatal visit each woman should tests. The Chase Buffer (2.5 ml bottle) isbe screened for syphilis. This can be done at the supplied with the kit.clinic with the syphilis rapid test (Determine 2. EDTA capillary tubes marked to indicateSyphilis TP) or RPR card test. If syphilis is 50 μl, lancets, alcohol swabs and sterilediagnosed the patient must be informed and gauze swabs. These are not supplied withtreatment must be started immediately at the the kit.antenatal clinic. Positive rapid screening testsmust be confirmed with a laboratory RPR or The kit needs to be stored at room temperatureVDRL test. The syphilis rapid test or RPR card between 2 °C and 30 °C. Storage in a fridge istest can be used in any antenatal clinic as no required during summer time. The kit mustsophisticated equipment is required. not be used after the expiry date.
  2. 2. SK ILLS WORKSHOP : SCREENING TESTS FOR SYPHILIS 53B Performing the syphilis rapid test syphilis or was infected in the past and no longer has the disease.1. Clean a fingertip with an alcohol swab and 2. A negative test indicates that a person allow the finger to dry. does not have antibodies and cannot2. Remove a test trip from the foil cover. have syphilis, either in the present or3. Prick the skin of the finger tip with a past, unless the person was infected very lancet. Wipe the first drop of blood away recently and has not yet formed antibodies. with a sterile gauze swab.4. Collect the next drop of blood into the EDTA tube. Either side of the tube can be E Management if the syphilis used to collect blood. Fill the tube from the rapid test is positive tip to the first black circle (i.e. 50 μl blood). 1. Explain to the patient that the screening Avoid the collection of air bubbles. test for syphilis is positive but that this5. Apply the 50 μl of blood from the EDTA should be confirmed or rejected by a tube onto the sample pad marked with an laboratory test (RPR or VDRL test). arrow on the test strip. 2. It is advisable, however, that treatment with6. Wait until all the blood has been absorbed penicillin be started immediately so that into the sample pad and then apply one the fetus can be treated while waiting for drop of Chase Buffer. The bottle must the result of the laboratory test. be held vertically (upside down) above 3. Ask the patient to return in one week for the test strip when a drop of the buffer is the result of the laboratory test. dropped on the sample pad.7. Wait a minimum of 15 minutes and then F Interpretation of the RPR or VDRL test read the result. The maximum waiting time when the syphilis rapid test is positive for reading the test is 24 hours. After 24 hours the test becomes invalid. 1. If the RPR or VDRL is negative the patient does not have syphilis. Treatment can beC Reading the results of the syphilis rapid test stopped. 2. If the RPR or VDRL titer is 1:16 or higher1. Positive the patient has syphilis and must be A red bar will appear within both the treated with a full course of three doses Control window and the Patient window of benzathine penicillin (Bicillin LA of on the test strip. Any visible red bar in Penilente LA). the Patient window must be regarded as 3. If the RPR of VDRL titer is 1:8 or lower positive. and woman and partner have been fully2. Negative treated in the past three months, treatment A red bar will appear within the Control can be stopped. Otherwise a full course of window but no red bar is seen in the three doses of benzathine penicillin must Patient window. be given.3. Invalid If no red bar appears in the Control window, even if a red bar is visible in the THE RPR CARD TEST Patient window, the result is invalid and the test must be repeated. The RPR card test is a non-specific test thatD The interpretation of the syphilis rapid test will become positive if the patient has syphilis. The result corresponds to that of a laboratory1. A positive test indicates that a person has RPR and VDRL test which are also non- antibodies against syphilis. This means that specific tests for syphilis. the person either has active (untreated)
  3. 3. 54 PRIMAR Y MATERNAL CAREG Collecting a blood sample one drop falls onto the centre of the circle. If the serum of more than one patient isA 3 ml sample of venous blood is needed tested at the same time, the test tube offor the test. Place the blood in a test tube for clotted blood must be numbered and theclotted blood (red topped tube). same number must be written on the card with a soft pen. Make sure that the numberH Equipment needed to on the test tube always corresponds to theperform a RPR card test number on the card.1. The carbon antigen suspension. 5. Using the flat end of the stirrer, spread the2. The antigen dispenser to which must be drop of serum over the whole area within attached the special calibrated needle with the circle. a blunt tip. 6. Shake the antigen dispenser containing the3. The special stirrers (Dispenstirs). antigen suspension well. Use the dispenser4. The white RPR card. with the attached calibrated needle to place5. The test tube holder. one drop (50 μl) of antigen onto the serum in the circle.Except for the test tube holder, all the necessary 7. The card must now be gently rocked byequipment comes with the RPR card kit. hand so that the serum and the antigenIf many tests are to be done each day and the suspension are well mixed, while the fluidcontainer with the carbon antigen will be on the card remains within the circle. Ifused up within 3 weeks, it is not necessary to available, an electrical rotator can be usedkeep the container in a fridge. However, the to rock the card.container should be kept in a fridge if it is to 8. After 4 minutes of hand rocking or 8be used for more than 3 weeks. minutes of electronic rocking the test can be read. NOTE A number of different commercial companies manufacture RPR card tests. (A RPR kit can be obtained from DAVIES J Reading the results of the RPR card test DIAGNOSTICS at the toll free number 0800 110 509 in South Africa). 1. A positive test. Obvious clumping takes place (flocculation). Definite black particles formI The method of performing which are clearly seen with the naked eye.the RPR card test While the particles cover the whole area of1. Keep the test tube containing 3 ml of the spread-out droplet, they tend to gather clotted blood in an upright position. It is around the edge of the droplet. important to remove the stopper when the 2. A negative test. blood is placed in the tube. No clumping takes place. The small black2. Place the test tube in the test tube stand particles of the carbon antigen tend to for 30 minutes so that the serum can be collect at the centre of the spread-out expressed from the clotted blood. droplet where they form a black dot.3. Use the special stirrer to transfer one drop They do not collect around the rim of the of serum from the test tube to the card. droplet as is seen in a positive test. Squeeze the hollow stirrer between your thumb and forefinger while the tip of the K Interpretation of the results stirrer is in the serum. Now relax your of the RPR card test grip on the stirrer and a sample will be 1. A positive test. sucked up. Explain to the patient that the screening4. Place the tip of the stirrer above the test test for syphilis is positive but that this card and again squeeze the stirrer so that should be confirmed or rejected by a
  4. 4. SK ILLS WORKSHOP : SCREENING TESTS FOR SYPHILIS 55 Edge of droplet clearly outlined Edge of droplet not clearly outlined POSITIVE NEGATIVEFigure 1-4 A: Examples of positive and negative tests laboratory test. It is advisable, however, If it cannot be decided whether clumping that treatment with penicillin be started of particles is present or not, a sample immediately so that the fetus can be of the patient’s blood must be sent to treated. If possible, send a sample of clotted the laboratory for a VDRL test. The blood to the laboratory for a RPR or VDRL patient must be seen again as soon as the test and ask the patient to return in one results are available so that the correct week for the result. management can be given. If the patient2. A negative test. cannot come back for the result or if it is The patient can be reassured that she does not possible to get a laboratory VDRL, not have syphilis. No treatment is needed. start treatment immediately. However, it is advisable that 1 out of every 20 negative RPR tests be checked with a laboratory VDRL test in order that quality control can be observed.
  5. 5. 1E Skills workshop: Screening tests for HIV gauze swabs. These are not supplied with Objectives the kit. The kit needs to be stored at room temperature When you have completed this skills between 2 °C and 30 °C. Storage in a fridge is required during summer time. The kit cannot workshop you should be able to: be used after the expiry date. • Screen a patient for HIV using the HIV rapid test. B The method of performing • Interpret the results of the screening test. the HIV rapid test • Record the results of the HIV rapid test. 1. Clean a fingertip with an alcohol swab and allow the finger to dry. 2. Remove a test trip from the foil cover.HIV SCREENING 3. Prick the skin of the fingertip with a lancet. Wipe the first drop of blood away with aAt the first antenatal visit each woman should sterile gauze swab.be offered screening for HIV. An HIV rapid 4. Collect the next drop of blood with thetest can be used in any antenatal clinic as no EDTA tube. Either side of the tube can besophisticated equipment is required. Prior used to collect blood. Fill the tube fromto testing, provider-initiated counselling and the tip to the first black circle (i.e. 50 μl ofconsent must be obtained. blood). Avoid the collection of air bubbles. 5. Apply the 50 μl of blood from the EDTA tube onto the sample pad marked with anA Equipment needed to arrow on the test strip.perform an HIV rapid test 6. Wait one minute until all the blood has1. The Abbott Determine HIV-1/2 Whole been absorbed into the sample pad and Blood Essay. Each kit contains 10 cards then apply one drop of Chase Buffer. The with 10 tests. The Chase Buffer (2.5 ml bottle must be held vertically (upside bottle) is supplied with the kit. down) above the test strip when a drop of2. EDTA capillary tubes marked to indicate the buffer is dropped on the sample pad. 50 μl, lancets, alcohol swabs and sterile

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