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OWNERSHIP OF THE UK
RADIO INDUSTRY
The Office of Communications commonly known as Ofcom, is the
government-approved regulatory and competition authority for ...
Ofcom's duties are to examine specific complaints by listeners of UK radio,
about programmes broadcast on the stations tha...
National Radio is radio that which is broadcast and can be received nationally
through conventional broadcasting technique...
As shown in my previous post, within the UK, the BBC, responsible for Britain’s
National radio services isn’t privately ru...
It guarantees the BBC’s independence and
provides a framework for what the BBC
does, due to there not being one definitive...
As the BBC exists to serve the public, its mission is to inform, educate and
entertain them. Due to the BBC’s National Rad...
The BBC Executive Board, chaired by the Director General, is responsible for
the overall operational management of the BBC...
Therefore the BBC has an obvious monopoly over the radio stations broadcast
nationally within the UK, however, there are o...
I agree that the BBC National Radio Stations should be owned by the Public,
and disagree with those that aren’t, such as L...
Regional radio stations are radio stations available
in specific areas or geographical regions of the
country only.
- They...
Global Radio is a British media company
formed in 2007. They owns a large number of
commercial Regional Radio Stations in ...
Celador is a global entertainment company that owns the regional
stations: The Breeze Network radio and the SAM FM Radio
s...
This company exposes the media industry becoming fragmented through poor
ownership. As a result of the BBC still monopolis...
Local radio stations only broadcast to specific, small
local areas, not regionally or nationally. Most counties
in the UK ...
BBC LOCAL RADIO
An example of this is the BBC Local
radio services. Although collectively
it is classed as a regional serv...
These individual local stations are
evidently owned by the national
BBC. As it is owned by a national
company the BBC Loca...
It surprised me to learn that the BBC had such a monopoly over
the Local Radio industry in the UK in addition to National
...
Is an example of a local radio station,
owned via a merger, with the company
Media Sound Holdings. The merger
involves the...
Digital Radio Stations are those accessible to listen to via a digital signal. The
UK currently has the world's biggest di...
Regional, local and national licenses are awarded by OFCOM for digital radio
broadcasting. Ensembles of existing stations ...
How it works: In each area, a number of stations are broadcast together in
something called a ‘multiplex’. The multiplex o...
Digital One is a national
commercial digital radio multiplex
in the United Kingdom, owned
by Arqiva. As of March 2010, the...
The BBC also broadcasts its national stations on digital radio, including Radio
6 Music, 1Xtra, Radio 4 Extra, 5 live spor...
Two companies operate regional
multiplexes in the UK – MXR Digital
and SwitchDigital.
MXR operates a regional multiplex in...
Switchdigital is responsible for the regional multiplex in Central Scotland. It is
owned by UTV Radio and the Carphone War...
There are a number of local multiplex operators in the UK. These include:
UTV DAB, which is responsible for a number of lo...
This proves that those who own the multiplexes that carry the DAB
Broadcasting of the stations are more powerful and impor...
It surprised me that the majority of companies that are in consortiums for
DAB Multiplexes, own the non-DAB broadcasting t...
Community radio stations are non-profit radio stations,
that cover a geographical radius of up to 5km with its
broadcastin...
Community radio licences can be provided by OFCOM, to registered
companies only, not individuals. Also, no company or orga...
Angel Radio is a designated non-profit making radio station on the Isle of
Wight and is an example of a community radio st...
All the music Angel Radio plays is also donated,
many from old record collections! Each old 78, 33 or
45 has been put on a...
Internet only radio stations are generally amateur run radio stations, broadcast
solely on an online platform. As a result...
Internet only radio stations are reliant upon a reliable Wi-Fi signal to
broadcast upon. This means the majority of the st...
An RSL (Restricted Service License) is granted to radio stations that have the
intention to serve the local community for ...
An example of an RSL radio station is Worthy
FM, which is broadcast for one week only during
The Glastonbury Festival. It ...
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AS Media Ownership of the UK Radio Industry - Olivia Garner

AS Media Ownership of the UK Radio Industry Powerpoint

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AS Media Ownership of the UK Radio Industry - Olivia Garner

  1. 1. OWNERSHIP OF THE UK RADIO INDUSTRY
  2. 2. The Office of Communications commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries in the UK. They have overuling judement of the UK Radio stations. It has a duty to represent the interests of the public, by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material in these industries. OFCOM
  3. 3. Ofcom's duties are to examine specific complaints by listeners of UK radio, about programmes broadcast on the stations that it has licenced. It does not oversee unlicensed stations broadcast to UK listeners. When Ofcom receives a radio complaint, it asks the broadcaster for a copy of the programme, it then reviews the specific radio programme’s content to see if it is in breach of the radio broadcasting code. Ofcom requests response from the broadcaster to the complaint and so, Ofcom will mark the complaint as either ‘upheld’ or ‘not upheld’, or alternatively simply ‘resolved’ dependent upon their response. It also helps protect the radio spectrum from abuse nationally, (from stations such as pirate radio stations.) WHAT THEY DO FOR RADIO:
  4. 4. National Radio is radio that which is broadcast and can be received nationally through conventional broadcasting techniques (not internet only for example.) Their ability to broadcast nationally proves that these stations notably have the largest audience listening to their stations, mainly due to the vast area they cover in comparison to regional stations, but also as the stations have built up reputations within the industry across the years, fundamentally proving their places as national radio broadcasters in the UK. WHAT IS NATIONAL RADIO?
  5. 5. As shown in my previous post, within the UK, the BBC, responsible for Britain’s National radio services isn’t privately run. Everyone in the UK who watches or records TV programmes at the same as they are shown on TV pays the Government for a TV licence annually. Part of the cost of the license is spent on the BBC Radio sector. This means that the BBC can’t broadcast advertisements as it gains its funding for the radio sector from this license, and so it isn’t ‘owned’ specifically by one person as it is a publically funded service. This ensures that the service will never become privatised and as long as a licence fee is being collected, its services, including its vital national radio stations will remain under public ownership. However, although it’s publically funded, there is a Royal Charter document that first allowed the BBC to exist, as it changed the body running/owning it from a collection of individuals into a single legal entity. Once incorporated by Royal Charter, amendments to the Charter and by-laws require government approval. THE NATIONAL BBC RADIO
  6. 6. It guarantees the BBC’s independence and provides a framework for what the BBC does, due to there not being one definitive owner (somewhat a constitutional basis for the BBC,) but most importantly, it outlines what the BBC needs to do to serve the public effectively (its ‘public purposes’.) This therefore means that its radio services main goal is to serve the public interest. It must remain ‘independent in all matters concerning the content of its output, the times and manner in which this is supplied, and in the management of its affairs.’ WHAT DOES THE CHARTER DO?
  7. 7. As the BBC exists to serve the public, its mission is to inform, educate and entertain them. Due to the BBC’s National Radio Stations being publically owned, it requires a body of management within the service to ensure the highest quality service is provided for the public. Therefore, The BBC Trust exists –it is the governing body of the BBC, that ensures the BBC delivers that mission. Their jobs are to essentially get the best out of the BBC Radio for licence fee payers and ensure, even though there is no individual ownership of the company, that its radio quality is great. The Trust governs each BBC radio service with a service licence. If the BBC Executive Board wishes to make any change to the stated commitments within the service licence, this must be approved by the Trust. WHO OWNS IT THEN?
  8. 8. The BBC Executive Board, chaired by the Director General, is responsible for the overall operational management of the BBC with priorities laid down by Trust. The Board member directly concerned with radio is Helen Boaden, thus she has overall responsibility for BBC Radios 1, 2, 3, 4, and the BBC digital radio stations 1Xtra, 6Music, BBC Radio 4 Extra, and Asian Network (all the network and digital channels as well as the Radio Drama, BBC Proms and audio across TV and radio. ) THE BBC EXECUTIVE BOARD
  9. 9. Therefore the BBC has an obvious monopoly over the radio stations broadcast nationally within the UK, however, there are other nationally broadcast radio stations that which are owned by individual radio or media based companies. These include, Bauer Radio that owns that nationally broadcast stations: - Absolute radio, - Kiss FM - Planet rock And Global Radio that owns the national stations: - Classic FM - LBC Radio - Radio X OTHER NATIONAL STATIONS?
  10. 10. I agree that the BBC National Radio Stations should be owned by the Public, and disagree with those that aren’t, such as LBC Radio. If these stations are granted the importance of national broadcasting, surely the audience should have at least part ownership of the stations, to ensure that the profits being made by these stations are being returned back into the National Radio Industry rather than being spent on things we do not have control over, that aren't in fact securing the future of the industry or helping it progress further either. MY VIEWS ON THIS OWNERSHIP
  11. 11. Regional radio stations are radio stations available in specific areas or geographical regions of the country only. - They are not broadcast nationally, but do usually cover a very large geographical region within the UK. - Like National Stations, Regional stations are usually commercial ones (driven by profit) and so, are normally owned by major media corporations or companies. - Some regional stations are a collection of smaller regional stations that broadcast a mixture of specific content for each smaller station, in conjunction with other content that is used by all the stations within the region. REGIONAL RADIO STATIONS
  12. 12. Global Radio is a British media company formed in 2007. They owns a large number of commercial Regional Radio Stations in the UK. They own many as a result of the buyouts and mergers permitted by the Broadcasting Act of 1990, meaning they could purchase and own more regional radio stations across the country. SO WHO OWNS THEM? - Capital (a radio network of eleven individual regional hit radio stations ) - Heart (a regional radio network of 21 contemporary stations ) - -Classic FM - Smooth FM - LBC - Gold - Juice FM The company bought other, smaller radio companies such Chrysalis Radio, GCap Media and GMG Radio and now owns radio giants in the regional radio industry such as:
  13. 13. Celador is a global entertainment company that owns the regional stations: The Breeze Network radio and the SAM FM Radio stations. Paul Smith CBE, is Chairman of Celador Entertainment Limited which is the umbrella company for Celador Radio, Celador Films, and the companies other ventures. CELADOR
  14. 14. This company exposes the media industry becoming fragmented through poor ownership. As a result of the BBC still monopolising national radio, many regional radio stations are owned by companies that have ownership in other media, technology or entertainment areas. Thus, this is reflective that the Radio industry is no longer being driven by a love of music, or technology, but profit and income. The companies have to have other areas that which they have ownership/business in, otherwise they wouldn’t make enough to money to continue on as company, as regional radio is reliant upon advertisement revenue, not consistent government funding, meaning the profit they aim to make could be considered unreliable. Therefore, this means that the ownership of different regional radio stations will be changed and restructured very often in comparison to that of national or community radio. WHAT DOES THIS OWNERSHIP MEAN?
  15. 15. Local radio stations only broadcast to specific, small local areas, not regionally or nationally. Most counties in the UK will have their own local radio stations, which many listeners will prefer as they will provide more accurate content to their geographical area than the national service they can listen to. As a result of the buyouts and mergers permitted by the Broadcasting Act of 1990, and deregulation resulting from the Communications Act 2003, most local stations are now neither independent nor locally owned. LOCAL RADIO
  16. 16. BBC LOCAL RADIO An example of this is the BBC Local radio services. Although collectively it is classed as a regional service, the individual, 40 stations are local ones. Each station produces most of their own programmes, however, some off-peak programming is produced from one regional station and is used by all BBC Local Radio stations in that region.
  17. 17. These individual local stations are evidently owned by the national BBC. As it is owned by a national company the BBC Local Radio stations, often faces large budget constraints as in comparison to the rest of the company, local radio isn’t a top priority or profit maker. MORE ON THE BBC LOCAL STATIONS
  18. 18. It surprised me to learn that the BBC had such a monopoly over the Local Radio industry in the UK in addition to National Radio too. They have stations nationwide, from BBC Radio Cornwall to BBC Radio Sheffield, from BBC Radio Manchester to BBC Radio Bristol therefore, it means smaller local radio stations, such as Isle of Wight Radio, broadcasting to the Isle of Wight are having its audience challenged daily by a nationally run corporation. This means that listeners may prefer to listen to a well trusted, nationally owned station, rather than a local one which may be branded mistakenly as unprofessional or of a lower quality of content, which is wrong. It further justifies the point that the BBC are monopolising the Radio industry, one sector at a time, proving it is no longer about music or entertainment, but money. THE BBC HAS A MONOPOLY!
  19. 19. Is an example of a local radio station, owned via a merger, with the company Media Sound Holdings. The merger involves the Isle of Wight Radio's shareholders taking shares in Media Sound Holdings and vice versa, so that the merged company has ownership over the Isle of Wight Radio station. It had previously been independently owned, and there were even successful buyouts of the company by management in August 2009, fighting to keep the station independently owned, but the above mentioned merger in 2012 meant it is now not independently run. The company Media Sound Holdings also owns other UK local radio stations, Splash FM and Bright FM ISLE OF WIGHT RADIO
  20. 20. Digital Radio Stations are those accessible to listen to via a digital signal. The UK currently has the world's biggest digital radio network, broadcasting over 250 commercial and 34 BBC stations across the UK. DAB radio stations in the United Kingdom are broadcast on a number of frequency blocks on VHF Band III. Most UK radio stations have a DAB sector attached to them, broadcasting their same content that they do usually via FM or online broadcasting, via DAB too. There are also nevertheless DAB ONLY Stations, that only broadcast via this format. DAB/DIGITAL RADIO
  21. 21. Regional, local and national licenses are awarded by OFCOM for digital radio broadcasting. Ensembles of existing stations formed together by companies, compete for national licenses to broadcast their stations on the DAB platform, given by OFCOM, when it advertises. The UK has 2 DAB ensembles and 48 independent and regional ensembles that broadcast DAB ensembles are groups of DAB broadcasters, transmitting multiple digital radio channels on a single transmission. DAB AND OFCOM
  22. 22. How it works: In each area, a number of stations are broadcast together in something called a ‘multiplex’. The multiplex operator holds a license and builds a transmitter network. This operator then contracts with lots of different radio stations to broadcast on its platform. As the multiplex operator pays for the running of the entire multiplex, the radio stations pay a carriage fee to the operator, for them to carry their station and to help cover their costs. HOW IT WORKS (MULTIPLEXES)
  23. 23. Digital One is a national commercial digital radio multiplex in the United Kingdom, owned by Arqiva. As of March 2010, the multiplex covers more than 90% of the population via DAB from a total of 137 transmitters. Via OFCOM licensing, it carries the stations: Classic FM, Talksport Radio and many others in a DAB format. DIGITAL ONE
  24. 24. The BBC also broadcasts its national stations on digital radio, including Radio 6 Music, 1Xtra, Radio 4 Extra, 5 live sports extra and the Asian Network on DAB. THE BBC DAB
  25. 25. Two companies operate regional multiplexes in the UK – MXR Digital and SwitchDigital. MXR operates a regional multiplex in Yorkshire. They are owned by a consortium of media companies including Global Radio, Real & Smooth and Arqiva. REGIONAL MULTIPLEXES They broadcast stations including: Capital Yorkshire, Heart London., Gold, Choice FM and many others in DAB format.
  26. 26. Switchdigital is responsible for the regional multiplex in Central Scotland. It is owned by UTV Radio and the Carphone Warehouse. Although the multiplex is in Scotland, the majority of the stations it carries are in England SWITCHDIGITAL Switchdigital’s London II multiplex broadcasts the following stations: Amazing Radio Jazz FM Kerrang! LBC London News Panjab Radio
  27. 27. There are a number of local multiplex operators in the UK. These include: UTV DAB, which is responsible for a number of local digital radio multiplexes across the country. They work with stations who wish to broadcast on DAB to one of their areas, including central Scotland, London II, Swansea and Stoke on Trent, for example, LOCAL MULTIPLEXES UTV’s Bradford & Huddersfield multiplex broadcasts the following stations: Asian Sound Capital Heart Yorkshire Pulse 1 Radio Yorkshire Sunrise Radio
  28. 28. This proves that those who own the multiplexes that carry the DAB Broadcasting of the stations are more powerful and important in the hierarchy than the owner of the actual radio stations. They can dictate whether or not to carry their station and so, decide whether it can be available on this innovative platform. It means that the ownership of the technology required to broadcast is superior to that of the stations, when concerning DAB Radio. WHAT DOES THIS PROVE ABOUT OWNERSHIP?
  29. 29. It surprised me that the majority of companies that are in consortiums for DAB Multiplexes, own the non-DAB broadcasting the station does too. I assumed that the two would be separated and owned by different people, however the industry clearly has ownership overlaps, which could be perceived positively as it means there’s less conflict in DAB broadcasting, however many would say it limits jobs and progression in the industry, when their ownership does overlap. MY VIEWS CONTINUED
  30. 30. Community radio stations are non-profit radio stations, that cover a geographical radius of up to 5km with its broadcasting. Usually they’re targeted at whole communities but can however be for different areas of interest too - such as a particular ethnic group, age group or interest group. It is useful as the stations are able to reflect a diverse mixture of interests and cultures within a specific area in an audible and effortless way. Community stations typically provide 81 hours of original and distinctive content a week, with the majority of it being locally produced. On average, according to a BBC survey, stations operate with 74 volunteers who together give around 214 hours of their time a week. COMMUNITY RADIO
  31. 31. Community radio licences can be provided by OFCOM, to registered companies only, not individuals. Also, no company or organisation can hold more than one community radio licence, which shows there are restrictions on ownership between commercial and community radio. Although they are licensed by the government run OFCOM, any profit made by these stations has to be used for securing or improving the future broadcasting of the radio service or sometimes it can be used to fund social gain/community benefits to that specific station's target community. WHO LICENCES THEM?
  32. 32. Angel Radio is a designated non-profit making radio station on the Isle of Wight and is an example of a community radio station. It has around 30,000 listeners. A permanent full-time licence and a five-year community licence was granted for Angel Radio Isle of Wight in 2006, the seventh such licence to be issued in the UK by OFCOM. It declares that the station cannot accept advertising or professional sponsorship so the running costs (the licence fees alone costs £5,500 each year) are met entirely by donations and grants from its listeners and other sources. ANGEL RADIO IOW
  33. 33. All the music Angel Radio plays is also donated, many from old record collections! Each old 78, 33 or 45 has been put on a turntable and recorded in real time onto mini disc and catalogued by the station’s volunteer librarian, meaning there are about 130,000 songs in the library for presenters to use. It’s co-managed by Chris Gutteridge and Bev Webster, who have done so since 1999 raising funds, attending meetings, and completing forms to keep the station on air as only the local East Cowes Town Council have given them donations for running costs. CHRIS AND BEV
  34. 34. Internet only radio stations are generally amateur run radio stations, broadcast solely on an online platform. As a result of this, these stations aren’t owned by large companies and don’t have their small scale ownership overruled by those that own the machines that broadcast the station, as it is only via Wi-Fi and online. The stations are either Live Streamed via Wi-Fi/internet… Or uploaded online in a podcast format, so they aren’t listened to live but instead can be listened to whenever suits the listener (thus, this ensures its target audience can be achieved easier.) INTERNET ONLY
  35. 35. Internet only radio stations are reliant upon a reliable Wi-Fi signal to broadcast upon. This means the majority of the stations are owned by one individual person who records, presents and broadcasts the show. Internet radio stations rarely feature advertisements due to strict advertising regulations in the UK, therefore there isn’t a need for a large networked ownership of these stations as they aren’t achieving profit from advertisements within their broadcast. Therefore, there isn’t an issue surrounding their ownership, as most stations are produced by those with a love of music, or, simply due to a lack of equipment or costs to start up a local radio station. WHO OWNS THEM?
  36. 36. An RSL (Restricted Service License) is granted to radio stations that have the intention to serve the local community for a limited time, or during a special event. They are granted by OFCOM and generally last for a maximum of 28 consecutive days and can only be applied for twice in twelve months (with four month intervals in between two broadcasts at least.) They are normally used to trial a radio project, in preparation for an application for a permanent license from OFOCM, or can be used for special events, sporting events, student radio or hospital radio stations too. RSL RADIO
  37. 37. An example of an RSL radio station is Worthy FM, which is broadcast for one week only during The Glastonbury Festival. It features interviews, music, traffic updates, camping availability and more and is run by a team of roughly 30 volunteers. Although it is broadcast upon the site of the festival, the long standing volunteers who run it technically own the station, as it is only for event and entertainment information, therefore won’t generate a large profit, as it is mainly for entertainment only, so no large ownership is required. OFCOM has the right to rebuke or take away any RSL license if they feel it is being misused, therefore, they have legal ownership over which RSL stations broadcast and which don’t. WORTHY FM

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