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Facing Change in Organizations

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Facing Change in Organizations

  1. 1. OPA Board Retreat September 2013 Robin L. Graff-Reed, Ph.D
  2. 2. “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.” ∼Charles Darwin
  3. 3. “They always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself.” ∼Andy Warhol
  4. 4. Change would be easy if an organization were not made up of people! ∼Anonymous
  5. 5. Change is stressful – even positive change
  6. 6. Change is stressful – even positive change
  7. 7. Change is stressful – even positive change
  8. 8. (Based on: Beckhard & Harris, 1987) Defining the desired FUTURE STATE Describing the CURRENT STATE Facilitating & managing the TRANSFORMATION STATE Developing PLANS to get from here to there: Determining the work to be done WHY CHANGE? Determining the need for change Determining the degree of choice about whether to change
  9. 9.  Determining WHY change is needed • Determining WHAT to change  • Determining WHO to change • Determining HOW to change
  10. 10. “Before we build a better mousetrap, we need to find out if there are any mice out there.” ∼Yogi Berra
  11. 11. • Are there serious risks if we do NOT change? • Are there serious risks if we DO change? • Can we make sufficient time to search for and deliberate about an optimal strategy for planning and managing the change? • Can we take the risk of offering alternatives that differ from leaders’ apparent preferences?  (Janis, 1989)
  12. 12. The first step in any innovative process is an ACT OF DESTRUCTION
  13. 13. Complex systems change is experienced by some involved parties as a threat of destruction of familiar, comfortable conditions where they felt competent and confident
  14. 14. • Compelling, attractive, desirable • Achievable, realistic • Understandable • Meaningful to champions, planners, implementers, affected parties • Beneficial to organization, subsystems, stakeholders, individual employees
  15. 15. • How is the Current State different from the Desired State? • How is the Current State similar to the Desired State? • What resources that are needed to achieve Desired State are already present? • What requisite resources are missing?
  16. 16. • Single or mixed strategy • Action steps • Responsible parties • Time lines • Resource allocation • Project management • Cost and schedule management
  17. 17.  Communicate!  Communicate!  Communicate!
  18. 18. Change Styles Conservers Pragmatists Originators
  19. 19. Conservers ◦ Deliberate, disciplined, and organized ◦ Prefer change that maintains the current structure ◦ Enjoy predictability ◦ Honor tradition and established practice
  20. 20. Pragmatists ◦ Practical, agreeable, flexible ◦ Prefer workable outcomes ◦ More focused on results than structure ◦ Open to both sides of an argument ◦ More team-oriented
  21. 21. Originators ◦ Challenge the current structure ◦ Challenge accepted assumptions ◦ May be impractical ◦ Visionary
  22. 22. The Change Agents ◦Articulate the need for change ◦Are accepted as trustworthy and competent ◦Can take multiple perspectives ◦Motivate people to change
  23. 23. The Resistors ◦Active or Passive ◦Always see change as a potential loss
  24. 24. Change masters have dealt with resisters in different ways over the years.
  25. 25.  Better ways: ◦ Start by identifying people who have something to lose and try to anticipate how they will respond ◦ Learn from the resisters…they may have a point! ◦ Communicate the “why” of change to potential resisters
  26. 26. ◦Emphasize the benefits of change to potential resisters ◦Help resisters find new roles ◦Remember that loss of control encourages resistance. Make potential resisters active partners in the change program
  27. 27. Change and the process of changing create uncertainty that is experienced as a threat and is felt at individual cognitive, organizational, and political levels -- simultaneously
  28. 28. Remember the WIIFM Principle
  29. 29.  Direct the Rider  Motivate the Elephant  Shape the Path
  30. 30. How many psychologists does it take to change a light bulb?
  31. 31. Planning Phase  Planning occurs before  implementing change.  Understand the impetus for change (opportunity, crisis, etc.).  Develop the mission, vision, and strategies to achieve change. ◦ Is the need for change clear? …compelling? …shared?  Secure leadership commitment to change (partners in change).  Mobilize energy by communicating the vision with staff. Address Reactions of Uncertainty/Hesitation ◦ Connect the vision for change to what people value. ◦ Use data, stories, and emotional appeal to communicate need. 35
  32. 32. 36 Implementing Phase  Start change at the periphery.  Communicate the change – what is the destination and why is it worth it.  Reinforce a supportive culture of change. ◦ Ensure a psychologically safe workplace for staff to express concerns ◦ Help staff build the capabilities to implement change ◦ Engage staff in implementing change and in sharing the vision Address Reactions of Doubt and Resistance ◦ Communicate at all levels of the organization. Ask for input. Use it. ◦ Listen and understand objections. Hold people accountable. ◦ Break down the change into small steps (specific actions vs. ‘big picture’).
  33. 33. 37 Enhancing Phase  Recognize and reward employees helping to implement change.  Continue to mobilize (and communicate) energy and support.  Celebrate improving positive outcomes (performance, relationships).  Continue to eliminate barriers  Move Reactions Toward Acceptance ◦ Provide staff with the systems or resources to support change. ◦ Mobilize leadership in modeling positive change behaviors. ◦ Communicate positive changes through feedback on relationships, functions, and performance.
  34. 34. 38 Sustaining Phase  Institutionalize success by making connections between new behaviors and organizational success.  Monitor change and adjust strategies, as needed.  Continue to build and encourage positive habits Move Reactions Toward Engagement ◦ Use performance measurements and accountability systems to provide feedback on change. ◦ Stay engaged with those affected by the change – seek to improve.
  35. 35.  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=fW8amMCVAJQ
  36. 36.  Beckhard, R., & Harris, R.T. (1987), Organizational transitions: Managing complex change, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.  Freedman, A.M. (1997). The undiscussable sides of implementing transformational change. Consulting Psychology Journal, 49(1), 51-76.  Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decision: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New York: The Free Press  Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Harvard Business School Press.  Kotter, J.P. (2007). Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business Review, Januay 2007.  Yukl, G., Falbe, C. M., & Allen, J. (2001). Patterns of influence behavior for managers. Group & Organization Management, 18, 5-28.