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Teacher: Oral Johnson
Module 1: Population and Settlements
School: Hydel Group of Schools
Population Policies (Pro-natalist and Anti-natalist) Natalism (also called pronatalism or the pro-birth position) is a belief that promotes human reproduction. The term is taken from the Latin adjective form for "birth", natalis. Natalism promotes child-bearing and parenthood as desirable for social reasons and to ensure national continuance. Natalism in public policy typically seeks to create financial and social incentives for populations to reproduce, such as providing tax incentives that reward having and supporting children. Adherents of more stringent takes on natalism may seek to limit access to abortion and contraception, as well. Economic prosperity has been linked with having a good population size, lots of workers, lot of consumers. Countries like Sweden have adopted pro- natalist policies. Iran also had it because of the devastating loss in their population after the Iran- Iraq war. Now, due to this, 75% of their entire population is under the age of 30. On the other hand countries may implement anti-natalist policies to reduce a growing population for example Chinas one child policy. Anti-Natalist policies are policies that are against human reproduction. These policies created to solve demographic problems such as overpopulation, famine and depletion of energy resources. An influential rationale for antinatlist policies was provided in a study by Ansley Coale and Edgar Hoover (1958), who argued that high births ages of population growth jeopardized long term economic development by diverting resources from growth enhancing investments to the mere maintenance of population . Reduced fertility rate on the other hand, could speed economic development by freeing more resources for investment in productivity - enhancing activities.
Why are population policies in place???? Governments become concerned when birth rates fall too far. For example, Italy’s current population of 56 million is expected to decline to around 41 million by 2050 likely to create problems with: too few consumers and skilled workers to keep the economy going decreasing tax revenues and increasing pension and health care costs as the population ages. Germany provides another good example of having a declining population. Without an increase in the current birth rate of 8.25 per 1,000 (or increased immigration), the German workforce will fall by 40%over the next 50 years. Since growing workforce is one of the important factors in generating a country’s overall wealth, it is likely that Germany’s prosperity may be damaged. Even if the birth rates to be doubled overnight, it could take at least 20years for a country such as Germany to turn around the negative impacts of declining population. From predictions like these, it is necessary to implement population policies, because it may lead to a future economic crisis, with the limited working population. PRO-NATALIST POLICIES FRANCE France was a country with concerns that professional women were choosing not to have children. The government were worried that the population was not going to replace itself over time. France and most other European countries have a birth rate that is lower than its death rate which means its population is declining (ageing population). This can have severe consequences as it strains government resources. Therefore they need a working class to ensure there is economic stability and also to support the elderly hence the implementation of pronatalist polcies. History of France's Population Policy France first introduced this political policy "Code de la Famille" in 1939 which banned the sale of contraceptives, provided subsidized holidays and offered cash incentives to mothers who stayed at home with children.
A prediction showed that France's population would only be around 68 million. France's population at this time is around 60.8 million; however by 2050 over 21% would be over 60 years old. France recent pro natalist policies (to encourage three child families) Mothers in France, can be paid almost €1,000 (£675) a month, to stop work for a year and have a third child. There is also a €512 monthly grant for both mother and father who put work on hold to raise a second or third child. Maternity leave can vary, from 20 weeks for the first child and up to 40 weeks for the third child. There is also a 26 month parental leave France also provides cheap, high quality child care for parents who work, the maximum price of €500 a month Nursery School is free for every child from the age of three, 8:30 am- 4:30 pm. Some families can get a monthly allowance of £180 for a family of three, which raises once they turn 11. Tax benefits and tax breaks are given to families, up to the age of 18. France spends around $40 billion a year on family care ‘carte famille nombreuse’ which allows 30% off trains and half price on metro as well as free entrance to swimming pools and other amenities. The 'carte famille nombreuse' is a high (large family card), giving large reductions on train fares income tax based on the more children the less tax to pay France's birth rate is 1.9 to each woman, which is one of the highest in Europe, as well as high immigration. France has one of the highest employment rate of women within the European Union, approximately 81% in the ages of 25- 49, 75% with two children, 51% with more than two. France’s population France's population continues to grow. A prediction of 75 million by 2050, (62 million today JAPAN
Why are Japan pro- natalist?
Japan has a low birth rate (8.23 births / 1000 population) and a low death rate (9.27 deaths / 1000 population) placing them in the fourth stage of the demographic transition model.Japanese
woman now have an average of 1.34 children, one of the lowest rates in the world and below the 2.8 needed to replenish the population. Japan birth rate is low due to several factors including:
Working and raising a family in Japan is almost impossible because the amount of commitment needed in their jobs
The biggest single cause of the declining birth rate is the growing number of people opting to stay single in their twenties and thirties (woman have become the new driving force in the economy, many have well paid jobs and are opting to stay in work in their thirties)
Both men and women are marrying later than ever and even when they do, many are having just one or less
Cost to raise children (It is estimated that it costs on average Y15 million to support a child from birth through to graduation from university)
Japan has an ageing population (in 1989, 11.6% of the population were over 65, it had increased to Over 20% the highest in the world) Japan also has a very high life expectancy. This could lead to s decline in population from 127.8m to 95.2m by 3050, a 25% decrease.
The government introduced pro-natalist laws like the ‘child care’ and ‘family care leave laws’ in which parents can receive:
8 weeks paid leave from work
Shorter working hours
A maximum of 24 hours overtime a month
Economic incentives, e.g. Yamatsuri a town of 7000 just north of Tokyo. Offer parents 4600 for the birth of a child and 460 a year for 10 years.
Bandai the toy company is offering its staff Y1 million to have a third child, and the same amount for each subsequent baby
Daihatsu and the administration of Ikeda city, in western Japan, jointly offered municipal residents a Y200,000 incentive for a fourth child, plus free rental of a car for a year
Business have been urged to give their employees more time off to procreate
Shops offer discounts to larger families
Until the 1970s, families of up to five children were common in Italy. However, the birth rate is now 1.3 per 1,000 and is the second lowest in Western Europe. Italy’s population is also quickly ageing. While just over 20% of Italians are currently over 65, this number is likely to double by2050. The government introduced a pronatalist policy in 2003 called the‘baby bonus’. Couples having a second child received a ‘bonus’ of about £600.
ANTI-NATALIST POLICIES Singapore
The government introduced a massive family planning scheme in the late 1960's. The main objectives were: 1) To establish family planning clinics ad to provide contraceptives at minimal charge 2)To advertise through the media the need and advantages of smaller families 3)To legislate so that under circumstances both abortions and sterilization a could be allowed 4)To introduce social and economic incentives such as paid maternity leave , income tax relief , such as paid maternity leave , income tax relief , housing priority , cheaper health treatment and free education which would cease as the size of the family few
By the early 1990s the policy had been so successful that the country had an insufficient supply of labor to fill the growing number of job vacancies and fewer young people to support an inceasingly ageing population - hence the changed family slogan of stop at three if you can afford three. Signapore now start to implement pro-natalist policies
The government was worried that that the middle class elite were having the fewest children. A social development unit was set up to encourage graduates to meet on blind dates hoping that the result would be marriage. Female graduates are encouraged to have three or more children through financial benefits and large exemptions. Even so the average female graduate has only one child so that she can pursue a career and live in a more expensive house. Low-income non graduates only receive housing benefits if they stop at two CHINA ONE CHILD POLICY China is one of the most well known anti- Natalia's countries In 1953 the population of China was 583 million, in 2010 the population of China was 1.335. Births rate 12.25 births per 1000 population Death rate 7.31 deaths / 1000 population . State family planning programmed was introduced in the 1970’s. By 1975 the average family size had fallen to three children but this was still regarded as being too many. The state began an
advertising campaign for wan-xi-shao, later longer fewer (later marriages, longer gaps between children and fewer children) the state decided to play it safe in 1979 and introduce a rigorous one child per family policy. 1) Incentives including free education, priority housing, pension and family benefits. 2) Not only were this lost after a second child is born but fines of up to 15 percent of the family income were imposed. 3) The marriageable age for men was set at 22 and for women at 20 with couples having to apply to the state for permission to marry and later to have a child. 4) Couples who had more than one child was subjected to economic penalties, women pregnant for the second time have to do abortions, sometimes quite late, persistent offenders might be offered sterilization , 5) Work places and homes were subjects to visits, from family planning officials and the infamous granny police would try to ensure that families under their charge did not break the rules. 6) Contraceptive advice and devices were pressed upon the people and over 80 percent of China’s women had access to contraception, a tremendous achievement given China's lack of development, huge size and largely rural population. After 1987 China had relaxed their rigid policy .Complications result from the difference between rural areas and urban areas as well as the Han majority (who account for 92% of the total population 1)The Han are allows one child only , unless the first child is mentally or physically handicapped or dies under these circumstances lithe parents may apply to have a second child In many rural areas farmers can have a second child if their first born happens to be a girl , if the second is a girl then hard luck !! 2) Personas living in rural or underpopulated areas can have up to four children 3)People working for a state firms are likely to be made redundant should they have a second child 4)Han people living in rural areas who have a second child may be allowed to keep it on the payment of a fine. The fine varies and can range from very low to very high
CAPE PAST PAPER 2012 Section B 2) With reference to a named country a) describe the policy implemented to deal with its rapidly growing population b) outline 2 benefits and two problems resulting from the policy described above