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Infectious Coryza Vaccination
Purpose of Vaccination
1. Prevent egg production drops
2. Prevent mortality, morbidity, losses in body weight and flock
un...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Antigen Level
The sole published study to date on the influence of antigen
level established that 10 log 8 colony forming ...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Inactivating Agent
 Several studies have confirmed that thiomersal is effective
(Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1975; Davis et a...
Inactivating Agent
Thiomersal Vs Formalin
 There have been 3 direct comparisons of vaccines for which
the antigen and adj...
Cont. …
 In all 3 of these comparisons formalin reduced the efficacy of
the vaccines although there was evidence that the...
Cont. …
 In one of these direct comparisons, the use of formalin
compared with thiomersal resulted in a reduction in the
...
Cont. …
 Overall, the evidence is that, while vaccines containing
formalin as the inactivating agent can be protective, i...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Adjuvant
Adjuvant may be:
1. Mineral oil
2. Aluminum Hydroxide Gel
Various vaccines were reviewed from the view of both:
1...
Aluminum Hydroxide Gel
Efficacy
 A number of studies have confirmed that aluminum
hydroxide gel is an effective adjuvant ...
Cont. …
All the studies that have evaluated aluminum hydroxide gel
vaccines for adverse reactions have reported either no ...
Mineral Oil -
Single Emulsion Type
 Water-in-oil emulsion.
Double Emulsion Type
 Water-in-oil emulsion in an outer water...
Mineral Oil/Egg-Propagated
Efficacy
Clack and Godfry (1961) found that egg-propagated, mineral oil-
containing vaccines:
1...
Cont. …
 It is possible that the relatively low efficacy of this particular
vaccine could have been due to factors other ...
Mineral Oil/Broth-Propagated
Efficacy
In case of broth-propagation, there is still disagreement over the
efficacy of miner...
Cont. …
In contrast, the direct comparison performed by Davis et
al. (1976) resulted in no great difference between miner...
Mineral Oil Vs Aluminium Hydroxide
Safety
Another important aspect of mineral oil-based vaccines is the
safety of the prod...
Mineral Oil – Double Emulsion Type
Safety
 In the initial evaluation (Blackall, 1988) of this type of vaccine
was found t...
Cont. …
Recent work with double emulsion systems has given far more
encouraging results.
1. Very effective and have given ...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Route Of Administration
 Inactivated infectious coryza vaccines may be administered by
IM or SC route (Matsumoto and Yama...
Cont. …
It has been reported that better protection is induced if
aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine is given into the leg m...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Duration of Immunity
 Matsumoto and Yamamoto (1975) demonstrated that a single
dose of aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine g...
Cont. …
 Blackall and Reid (1987) reported that aluminum hydroxide-
based vaccines can give some degree of protection for...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Live Infectious Coryza vaccine
 The cross-serovar protection associated with natural
infections (Rimler and Davis, 1977) ...
Cont. …
 The use of virulent H. paragallinarum strains is clearly a
dangerous practice which should only be performed und...
Plan of Talk
 Antigen level
 Inactivating agent
 Adjuvant
 Route of administration
 Duration of immunity
 Live infec...
Vaccination Program
A successful program is always “Tailor Made”
 If early challenge is suspected.
1. The first coryza va...
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Infectious_coryza_vaccination

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Infectious_coryza_vaccination

  1. 1. Infectious Coryza Vaccination
  2. 2. Purpose of Vaccination 1. Prevent egg production drops 2. Prevent mortality, morbidity, losses in body weight and flock uniformity. 3. Reduction of medication costs – Antibiotics 4. Limit the spread of the disease
  3. 3. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  4. 4. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  5. 5. Antigen Level The sole published study to date on the influence of antigen level established that 10 log 8 colony forming units CFU per vaccine dose is the minimum needed to give good protection (Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1975).
  6. 6. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  7. 7. Inactivating Agent  Several studies have confirmed that thiomersal is effective (Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1975; Davis et al. Blackall and Reid, 1987).  Others have reported that vaccines in which formalin was used as the inactivating agent were also effective (Rimler et al., 1975 Coetzee et al., 1982).
  8. 8. Inactivating Agent Thiomersal Vs Formalin  There have been 3 direct comparisons of vaccines for which the antigen and adjuvant phases were exactly the same and only the inactivating agent differed.
  9. 9. Cont. …  In all 3 of these comparisons formalin reduced the efficacy of the vaccines although there was evidence that the effect was adjuvant specific.
  10. 10. Cont. …  In one of these direct comparisons, the use of formalin compared with thiomersal resulted in a reduction in the efficacy of aluminum hydroxide-based vaccines (Blackall and Reid, 1987).  The second study (Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1971) found that formalin, compared with thiomersal, impaired the efficacy of a vaccine containing either mineral oil or aluminum hydroxide gel. (Davis et al. 1976)
  11. 11. Cont. …  Overall, the evidence is that, while vaccines containing formalin as the inactivating agent can be protective, it is possible that a similar vaccine containing thiomersal would be even more efficient.
  12. 12. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  13. 13. Adjuvant Adjuvant may be: 1. Mineral oil 2. Aluminum Hydroxide Gel Various vaccines were reviewed from the view of both: 1. Efficacy 2. Safety (minimal adverse reactions to vaccinations).
  14. 14. Aluminum Hydroxide Gel Efficacy  A number of studies have confirmed that aluminum hydroxide gel is an effective adjuvant system;  Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1971  Davis et al., 1976  Kume et al., 1980  Reid and Blackall, 1987  Chrome alum has also been found to be effective adjuvant  Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1971  Blackall and Reid (1987) found that the use of 2 commercial brands of aluminum hydroxide gel resulted in equally effective vaccines.
  15. 15. Cont. … All the studies that have evaluated aluminum hydroxide gel vaccines for adverse reactions have reported either no such reactions or only minor reactions at the vaccination site;  Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1971  Boycott et al., 1977  Blackall and Reid, 1987  Reid and Blackall, 1987  Blackall et al., 1992
  16. 16. Mineral Oil - Single Emulsion Type  Water-in-oil emulsion. Double Emulsion Type  Water-in-oil emulsion in an outer water phase.
  17. 17. Mineral Oil/Egg-Propagated Efficacy Clack and Godfry (1961) found that egg-propagated, mineral oil- containing vaccines: 1. Didn’t offer more protection compared with unvaccinated controls. 2. Vaccinated chickens developed clinical signs but less sever than unvaccinated controls. 3. Recovery of the vaccinated chickens was quicker and the incidence of complications was lower than unvaccinated controls (Clark and Godfrey, 1961)
  18. 18. Cont. …  It is possible that the relatively low efficacy of this particular vaccine could have been due to factors other than the adjuvant system, e.g; • Use of formalin as the inactivating agent.  A later study by Matsumoto and Yamamoto (1971) of a commercial egg-propagated mineral oil-based vaccine showed similar low efficacy.
  19. 19. Mineral Oil/Broth-Propagated Efficacy In case of broth-propagation, there is still disagreement over the efficacy of mineral oil-based vaccines.  One study involving a direct comparison of vaccines based on the same antigen and different adjuvant systems, mineral oil-based vaccines conferred some protection, but much less than that given by a vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine (Reid and Blackall, 1987).  They evaluated two different concentrations of oil in the adjuvant component, but no improvement in the efficacy of the products resulted.
  20. 20. Cont. … In contrast, the direct comparison performed by Davis et al. (1976) resulted in no great difference between mineral oil-based and aluminium hydroxide-based vaccines.
  21. 21. Mineral Oil Vs Aluminium Hydroxide Safety Another important aspect of mineral oil-based vaccines is the safety of the product.  Mineral oil-based vaccines causes localized swelling in 15 of 20 (75%) vaccinated birds and granulomas in 18 of 20 (90%) birds in one study (Reid and Blackall, 1987).  The authors considered the severity of these reactions to be unacceptable for commercial poultry operations.
  22. 22. Mineral Oil – Double Emulsion Type Safety  In the initial evaluation (Blackall, 1988) of this type of vaccine was found to: 1. Give a very poor level of protection. 2. Have no evidence of adverse reactions to the vaccine.
  23. 23. Cont. … Recent work with double emulsion systems has given far more encouraging results. 1. Very effective and have given high levels of protection (Blackall et al., 1992). 2. Very few adverse reactions at the site of inoculation (breast muscle). These results indicate that the double emulsion system, provided it is formulated correctly, represents both safe and effective adjuvant system for infectious coryza vaccines
  24. 24. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  25. 25. Route Of Administration  Inactivated infectious coryza vaccines may be administered by IM or SC route (Matsumoto and Yamamoto, 1975; Davis et al. 1976).  The only direct comparison of the effect of administering one vaccine was: 1. Effective when given either SC (into the back of the neck) 2. Effective when given by IM (into breast muscle)
  26. 26. Cont. … It has been reported that better protection is induced if aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine is given into the leg muscle rather than the breast muscle (Iritani et al., 1984)
  27. 27. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  28. 28. Duration of Immunity  Matsumoto and Yamamoto (1975) demonstrated that a single dose of aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine gave significant protection up to 9 months after vaccination.  Kume et al. (1980) were able to achieve significant protection for up to 30 weeks after vaccination, although this work was performed using two doses of aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine.
  29. 29. Cont. …  Blackall and Reid (1987) reported that aluminum hydroxide- based vaccines can give some degree of protection for up to 56 weeks after vaccination with two doses of the vaccine are given  For short time period, a single dose of an aluminum hydroxide-based vaccine is as effective as a double dose.  For longer term protection, aluminum hydroxide vaccines should be given on two doses, at least three weeks a part
  30. 30. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  31. 31. Live Infectious Coryza vaccine  The cross-serovar protection associated with natural infections (Rimler and Davis, 1977) has been exploited by the use on controlled exposure in which flocks are deliberately exposed to live H. paragallinarum before onset of lay (Yamamoto, 1991).
  32. 32. Cont. …  The use of virulent H. paragallinarum strains is clearly a dangerous practice which should only be performed under limited and controlled conditions.  A live, non-pathogenic strain of H. paragallinarum should have the advantage of cross-serovar protection without the disadvantage of adverse reactions associated with the use of a virulent pathogen.
  33. 33. Plan of Talk  Antigen level  Inactivating agent  Adjuvant  Route of administration  Duration of immunity  Live infectious coryza vaccines  Vaccination program
  34. 34. Vaccination Program A successful program is always “Tailor Made”  If early challenge is suspected. 1. The first coryza vaccine dose (Gel- or Oil-based) around the 5th week of age 2. The second dose eight to ten weeks later is recommended.  In normal circumstances 1. The first dose at 8-12 week of age 2. The second dose 8-10 week later will be desired so the highest protection can last through the production period

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