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What can a corpus tell us about pragmatics?<br />ChistophRühlemann<br />
1	Marina Mateo Fernández<br />2	Alejandra Menchón Barreras<br />3	FelixMontealegre Ramón<br />4	Carlos Ortuño Campillo<br ...
Outline<br />1. What is pragmatics?<br />2. Pragmatic restrictions made by a corpus<br />2.1. Possible solutions for corpo...
1.What is pragmatics?<br />Study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. <br />Subfiel...
The relevance of corpus linguistics in pragmatics<br />How does a corpus restrict the study of pragmatics?<br />
2.Pragmatic restrictions made by a corpus<br />Reliable textual record:<br />Unreliable textual record:<br />TEXTUALLY GOO...
3. Pragmatic phenomena studied by corpora<br />On the basis of POS-tagged corpora we have:<br />- Conversational organisat...
3.1. Conversational  organisation<br />The heart of pragmatic research.<br />Conversation has proved to be a highly struct...
Conversational organisation<br />- Sometimes these turns can be allocated by…<br />Overlaps<br />Backchannels<br />Turn In...
Conversationalorganisation<br />Overlaps: tendtoaffectturnbeginnings and endings<br />E.g.: PS1D1> : {How’s}<br />        ...
Conversationalorganisation<br />Backchannel: small response tokens.<br />E.g.: - Single-wordbackchannels: “Mm” or “Yeah”.<...
Conversationalorganisation<br />Turninitiators: theveryfirstformwithwhich a speaker starts a new turn in conversation.<br ...
3.2. Discourse markers<br />Connectors – types of linkers<br />How discourse “relates” to other discourse as a:<br />   -C...
Discoursemarkers<br />Contributetodiscoursecoherence<br />Facilitatelistenerscomprehension<br />E.g.:PS0HM>:Howmuchdid he ...
3.3 Speechactexpressions<br /><ul><li>Itdealswithutterances as performingactions
3 types of acts:</li></ul>- Locutionaryact(permormingtheactOFsayingsomething)    <br />      - Illocutionaryact(performing...
Speechactexpressions<br /><ul><li>Speechacts can be:</li></ul> - REPRESENTATIVES (committhe speaker tothetruth of a propos...
COMMISSIVES (committhe speaker tosomefuturekind of action)
EXPRESSIVES (whichexpress a phychologicalstate)
DECLARATIONS (effectimmediatechanges in theinstitutionalstate of affairs)</li></li></ul><li>Speechactexpressions<br />Expr...
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Corpus linguistics and pragmatics

NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LOS ESTUDIOS INGLESES
Practice session 3
Group B. Pascual Pérez-Paredes

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Corpus linguistics and pragmatics

  1. 1. What can a corpus tell us about pragmatics?<br />ChistophRühlemann<br />
  2. 2. 1 Marina Mateo Fernández<br />2 Alejandra Menchón Barreras<br />3 FelixMontealegre Ramón<br />4 Carlos Ortuño Campillo<br />5 Ana Isabel Montiel Navarro<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />1. What is pragmatics?<br />2. Pragmatic restrictions made by a corpus<br />2.1. Possible solutions for corpora to be contextualized<br />3. Pragmatic phenomena studied by corpora<br />3.1. Conversational organisation<br />3.2. Discourse markers<br />3.3. Speech act expressions<br />4. Looking to the future<br />
  4. 4. 1.What is pragmatics?<br />Study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. <br />Subfield of linguistics.<br />Deals with speaker meaning rather than sentence meaning.<br />Key: Context<br />“The art of the analysis of the unsaid”<br />
  5. 5. The relevance of corpus linguistics in pragmatics<br />How does a corpus restrict the study of pragmatics?<br />
  6. 6. 2.Pragmatic restrictions made by a corpus<br />Reliable textual record:<br />Unreliable textual record:<br />TEXTUALLY GOOD<br />TEXTUALLY IMPOVERISHED<br />Lack of valuable contextual info:<br />Uncoded visual contextual features:<br />CONTEXTUALLY <br /> IMPOVERISHED<br />CONTEXTUALLY <br /> IMPOVERISHED<br />
  7. 7. 3. Pragmatic phenomena studied by corpora<br />On the basis of POS-tagged corpora we have:<br />- Conversational organisation<br /> - Discourse marking<br /> - Speech act expressions <br />
  8. 8. 3.1. Conversational organisation<br />The heart of pragmatic research.<br />Conversation has proved to be a highly structuredsocial activity. <br />Turn –taking: a rule-governed and it has three rules:<br /> - One party speaks at a time<br /> - Speaker change recurs<br /> - No gap/no overlap <br />
  9. 9. Conversational organisation<br />- Sometimes these turns can be allocated by…<br />Overlaps<br />Backchannels<br />Turn Initiators<br />
  10. 10. Conversationalorganisation<br />Overlaps: tendtoaffectturnbeginnings and endings<br />E.g.: PS1D1> : {How’s}<br /> PS000> : {So}<br /> PS1D1> : marriedlife?<br /> PS000> : Smashing!<br /> PS1D1> : Good!<br /> PS000> : {Yeah.}<br /> PS1CX> : {Good!}<br /> PS1CX> : itis.<br /> PS1CX> : Oh that’s {good!}<br /> PS000> : {Yeah.} I wishedI’dhavemetwhen I was…<br />
  11. 11. Conversationalorganisation<br />Backchannel: small response tokens.<br />E.g.: - Single-wordbackchannels: “Mm” or “Yeah”.<br /> - Backchannelsclusters: “Oh yeah” “Oh no” “Oh right”<br />
  12. 12. Conversationalorganisation<br />Turninitiators: theveryfirstformwithwhich a speaker starts a new turn in conversation.<br />E.g.: Mhm, uh-huh, Oh, Yeah<br />Underthisdefinition, somebackchannelsfomscount as turninitiatorstoo, althoughbackchannels are oftenregarded as listenertalkratherthan speaker turns.<br />
  13. 13. 3.2. Discourse markers<br />Connectors – types of linkers<br />How discourse “relates” to other discourse as a:<br /> -Continuation <br /> - Transition <br /> - Quotation<br /> - Elaboration<br /> - Disgression<br /> - Qualification<br />
  14. 14. Discoursemarkers<br />Contributetodiscoursecoherence<br />Facilitatelistenerscomprehension<br />E.g.:PS0HM>:Howmuchdid he cost?<br /> PS0HN >: Threehundred and fifty<br /> PS0HM >: Threehundred and fifty. No itwasn’t, itwasthree<br />hundred. Itwastwo<br /> PS0HN >: Yes, itwas. Threehundred and fifty<br /> PS0HM >: Oh anyway, itwasstillprettygoodwasn’tit? <br />
  15. 15. 3.3 Speechactexpressions<br /><ul><li>Itdealswithutterances as performingactions
  16. 16. 3 types of acts:</li></ul>- Locutionaryact(permormingtheactOFsayingsomething) <br /> - Illocutionaryact(performinganactINsayingsomething)<br /> - Perlocutionaryact( performinganactBYsayingsomething)<br />
  17. 17. Speechactexpressions<br /><ul><li>Speechacts can be:</li></ul> - REPRESENTATIVES (committhe speaker tothetruth of a proposition)<br /><ul><li>DIRECTIVES (the speaker aimstogetthehearerto do something)
  18. 18. COMMISSIVES (committhe speaker tosomefuturekind of action)
  19. 19. EXPRESSIVES (whichexpress a phychologicalstate)
  20. 20. DECLARATIONS (effectimmediatechanges in theinstitutionalstate of affairs)</li></li></ul><li>Speechactexpressions<br />Expressions can be direct or indirect <br />E.g.:Why don’t you…?<br /> - Question direct<br /> - Suggestion indirect<br />In the mayority of cases it is used as a suggestion<br />PS52K >: I don’t believe that<br />PS52C >: Why don’t you believe it? It’s a survey<br />PS1C1 >: but I’ve got nobody to go with!<br />PS1JA >: Oh! Why don’t you come with us?<br />
  21. 21. 4.Looking tothefuture<br />Cross-modal communication<br /> - Cross- modal = facetofacecommunicationi.e.communicationiscross-modal in thesensethat “signals in onemode can to a certainextentbesubstitutedfororreplacedbysignals in othermodes”<br />Multi-modal communication<br />- Patterns of interactionbetween verbal and non-verbal choices<br />
  22. 22. Lookingtothefuture<br /> Non-verbal choices. Threetypes:<br />VARIABLES OF PROSODY<br /><ul><li>Rhythm
  23. 23. Volume
  24. 24. Voicequality
  25. 25. Intonation
  26. 26. Tempo</li></ul>EMOTIONS<br /><ul><li>Happiness
  27. 27. Fear
  28. 28. Anger
  29. 29. Sadness
  30. 30. Surprise
  31. 31. Disgust</li></ul>GESTURES<br /><ul><li>Speechmarkers
  32. 32. Ideographs
  33. 33. Iconicgestures
  34. 34. Symbolicgestures</li></li></ul><li>Bibliography<br />What can a corpus tell us about pragmatics? Christoph Rühlemann<br />Yule,G.(1996) Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.<br />
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NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LOS ESTUDIOS INGLESES Practice session 3 Group B. Pascual Pérez-Paredes

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