World class LEAD/ZINC ore body was discovered
in India in 1977.
Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal, It is also
counted as one of the heavy metals.
zinc is one of the most important metal for
Lead-Zinc deposits in India are localized
mainly in the Precambrian formations of the
Peninsular Shield and to a smaller extent in
the lesser Himalayas.
Important deposits in India: Zawar, Rampura-
Agucha in Rajasthan.
The important LEAD mineral is galena(PbS)
The important ZINC mineral is Sphalerite(ZnS)7/10/2011 3
The chief ore mineral is galena, which is the
sulphide of lead. It is used in building
construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and
shots, weights, as part of solders, fusible
alloys and as a radiation shield etc . . .
zinc is one of the most important metal for
commercial use ,
The most important ore mineral of zinc is
It is used in batteries, alloys electrical
industries ,and also it is used for coating of
iron or steel to protect the metals against
corrosion etc. . .
The other LEAD minerals are
The other ZINC minerals are
Hemimorphite(2ZnO SiO2 2H2O)
7. Properties of galena
Very soft metal, pliable and quite heavy
It contains 86.6% LEAD
Crystallizes in Isometric system
Melting point is low, boiling point is high
It does not rust on weathering
Cannot penetrate by different rays (X-rays,
gamma rays etc)
High electrical conductivity
Specific gravity is very high-7.5
Hardness is about 2.5
Brilliant metallic luster7/10/2011 7
8. Properties of sphalerite
Brown or black in color
It is contains 60–62% zinc
Crystallizes in isometric system
Hardness is about 3.5 to 4
Specific gravity is about 4
Cavity filling deposits – formed from the
solution of minerals in rock openings, include
fissure vein, shear zone, fold crack or solution
Eg: Zawar Lead-Zinc deposits in Rajasthan
Replacement deposits- Lead ores are formed by
this method may be of different size, shape,
such as disseminations, veins and massive
Eg: Broken hill, Australia
Syngenetic and diagenetic Lead-Zinc deposits
are also found, although scarce in nature7/10/2011 11
12. The zawar lead-zinc deposit is located from 40
km south east of the Udaipur city in Udaipur
district, Rajasthan cover area about 64 sq km.
the deposits occurs in the dolomite rock of
mochia member of Tiri series, which belongs to
Aravalli system of Precambrian in age.
The other rocks of the area are mainly phyllite,
greywacke, quartzite and rarely conglomerate.
Igneous rock is also found as intrusion of
dolerite dyke, which is having no relationship
with mineralization7/10/2011 12
Geological Aspects of Zawar
The mineralogy of zawar ores is very simple the
main ore minerals are sphalerite, galena and pyrite,
which varying in proportion from place to place.
Other ore minerals are arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite
and argentite, which are presenting very minute
Sphalerite is present in the form of irregular
scattered grains surrounded by galena. Sphalerite is
also present as in the form of vein let in the gangue
mass and irregular pitches of sphalerite are also
Galena is present as main mineral forming ground
mass, in which rounded grains of gangue minerals
are present, galena also showing characteristic
triangular pits.7/10/2011 14
Galena is also present in vermicular form and
squeezed into the fractures of gangue
Pyrite is another ore mineral, which is found
in abundance in the area.
Pyrite is showing perfect cubic form and
In the sixties of the centenary most geologist
in India supported the idea that the zawar
deposit has to be classified as hydrothermal
deposits at the same time PODDAR(1965)and
CHAKROBORTY(1967) suggested that this
deposit is of remobilized type. Later an
BASU(1975,1976,1982 )and CHAUHAN
(1970,1984) proposed that the zawar deposit is7/10/2011 15
16. Indian occurrencesIn India most of the zinc ore occur in close
association with lead ore. These ores occur in
the Udaipur & Zawar district of Rajasthan
Zawar belt has been the oldest centre of lead-
zinc production in the world. The zawar LEAD-
ZINC belt extent for a distance of 20 kms
from Hameta Mogra to parshad.
The Rampura-agucha belt in the Bhilwara
district of Rajasthan is expected to meet the
countries need for LEAD-ZINC metal for more
than 40 years
LEAD-ZINC ores occur in the Vadodara
district of Gujarat and also seen in the7/10/2011 16
17. Occurrences in
Several minor occurrences are, however, known
Crystals of galena are sporadically
distributed in a of pegmatite vein set in a hard
layer of kankar at 0.5 km north of Merti,
Bellary district. Prospecting pits were located
at the contact zone of amphibolites and
intrusive granitic gneiss.
Thin veins of quartz containing patches of
argentiferous galena are seen ESE of
kurubaramardikere In Chitradurga dist.
Galena is found in small isolated pockets in
quartz vein which are neither extensive nor
persistent at depth.7/10/2011 17
18. Indications of galena are found at several
places S-E of the Belligudda hill in
The S-W flanks of the ridge half a km NE of
Gollarahatti (Chitradurga dist). show narrow
veins and stringers of quartz vein with good
show of galena.
It is reported that veins of quartz traversing
shimoga granites carry dissemination of
galena 3.5km SE of Harnahalli in shimoga
Lead and Zinc are very widely known important
They serve as good industrial raw materials.
It has varied application starting right from
household goods to massive industrial items.
India is the fourth largest producer of zinc, first
producer is china.
Zawar area is the largest producer in India
About 70% of the world's zinc originates from
mining, while the remaining 30% comes from
recycling secondary zinc.
Metallic lead does occur in nature, but it is rare.
Lead is usually found in ore with zinc, silver and
(most abundantly) copper, and is extracted7/10/2011 20
India’s Mineral Resources(second edition) by
S.Krishna swami, Published by Mohan Primlani,
Oxford & IBH Publishing co(1979) pp:288-
Mineral Resources of Karnataka by
B.P.Radhakrishna, published by Geological
society of India, Bangalore(1996)pp:339-340.
Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals An
Introduction by Anthony M.Evans(third edition),
published by Oxford Blackwell Scientific