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B.sc. agri i bo a unit 4 women in agriculture

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women in agriculture

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B.sc. agri i bo a unit 4 women in agriculture

  1. 1. Course: B.Sc. Agriculture Subject: Basic of Agriculture Unit :4 Women in Agriculture
  2. 2. “Women play a significant role in agriculture, the world over. About 70% of the agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, and 10% of those who process basic foodstuffs are women and they also undertake 60 to 90% of the rural marketing; thus making up more than two-third of the workforce in agricultural production (FAO, 1985). In West Africa, up to 80% of the labour force in all trade is female. Yet, the role of women in these activities, so important economically, has remained obscure for long because women seldom played any major roles in political activities or decision making processes. Despite the fact that women produce much of the food in the developing world, they also remain more malnourished than most men are. In many rural societies, women eat less food than men do, especially when the food is scarce, such as just before the harvest, or when the workload increases without a corresponding increase in the food intake." Women in Agriculture
  3. 3. Indian Women in Modern Times Categories of employment (2001) Female Male Agricultural laborer 46.3% 23.0% Cultivator 34.6% 39.9% Household industry 3.5% 2.1% Non-household industry 3.8% 8.8% Services 8.3% 10.8% Other categories 3.5% 15.5%
  4. 4. Role of Women in Indian Agriculture 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Key Facts • Indian population is 48.1% women and 51.9% men • Female illiteracy is 62% whereas the male illiteracy rate is 34% • The labour force participation rate of women is 22.7%, less than half of the men's rate of 51.6% • In rural India, agriculture and allied industrial sectors employ as much as 89.5% of the total female labour 6
  7. 7. Key Facts • Women have extensive work loads with dual responsibility for farm and household production • Women's work is getting harder and more time- consuming due to ecological degradation and changing agricultural technologies and practices • Women have an active role and extensive involvement in livestock production, forest resource use and fishery processing 7
  8. 8. Key facts • Women contribute considerably to household income through farm and non-farm activities as well as through work as landless agricultural labourers. • Women's work as family labour is underestimated • There are high degrees of inter-state and intra-state variations in gender roles in agriculture, environment and rural production 8
  9. 9. Multi-Dimensional Role of Women Agriculture : Sowing, transplanting, weeding, irrigation, fertilizer application, plant protection, harvesting, winnowing, storing etc.
  10. 10. 10 winnowingFertilizer application Sowing
  11. 11. 11 Domestic: •Cooking, •child rearing, •water collection, •fuel wood gathering, • household maintenance etc.
  12. 12. 12 water collection child rearing fuel wood gathering fuel wood gathering
  13. 13. 13 Allied Activities: •Cattle management, • Fodder collection, • Milking etc
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Mainly rural women are engaged in agricultural activities in three different ways depending on the socio-economic status of their family and regional factors. They are work as: (i) Paid Labourers (ii) Cultivator doing labour on their own land and (iii) Managers of certain aspects of agricultural production by way of labour supervision and the participation in post harvest operations.
  16. 16. National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (NRCWA). 16 The Indian Council of Agricultural Research established the NRCWA in the month of April 1996 at Bhubaneswar and has since been upgraded as the Directorate of Research on Women in Agriculture (DRWA) from the year 2008. DRWA is carrying out basic, strategic and applied research on various gender related issues in agriculture and allied sectors with thematic approach in creating a repository of gender disaggregated data and documentation; technology testing and refinement; drudgery assessment and reduction; gender sensitive extension approach; capacity building of scientists and functionaries; efficient resource management; and gender mainstreaming.
  17. 17. Summary • The women is the backbone of agricultural workforce and are a vital part of Indian economy. • Over the years, there is a gradual realization of the key role of women in agricultural development and their contribution in the field of agriculture, food security, horticulture, dairy, nutrition, sericulture, fisheries, and other allied sectors. 17
  18. 18. Following are the key points,which will help in creating respectable role of women in Indian agriculture 1. Skill empowerment. • By training in the area of various operations : – i. Field operations – ii. Conservation of biodiversity – iii. Nutritional bio-security – iv. Vocational training – v. Organic farming 18
  19. 19. 2. Technology development for women Designing of tools for various field operations b. Animal husbandry i. Artificial insemination. ii. Veterinary knowledge c. For side income i. Mushroom cultivation ii. Floriculture 19
  20. 20. 3. Creation of self help groups a. For financial support b. For generation of employment 4. Projection of contribution of women by collecting and analysing data a. Collection and display of data b. Projection of successful women in agriculture c. Representation of their contribution in economic terms 5. Providing Financial Powers a. Giving representation in land holdings 20
  21. 21. These were lack of work assurance and insufficient payment resulting in family problems, bad communication and support, and mutual respect in collective, daily and hourly contact with sick animals, owners, clients, buyers, suppliers, dealers, etc. Most of them expressed aggressive behaviours toward one another, increased quality requirements at decreased number of personnel and frequent organisational changes, high responsibility at less autonomy. Second were the factors, related to the work process The most important place in this group was covered by factors of work management – defects of personnel management, bad definition of work tasks, dictatorial decisions, and unexpected changes in the organisation. Inconvenient work pose was a leading risk factor by significance for tractor- drivers, milkman, and field workers. Thirty percent of them think that the monotonous and continuously repeated work was a stress factor because of the need of high concentration and responsibility. Work stress Factors
  22. 22. Second was the factor “work difficulty” in quantitative (tractor-drivers, animal breeders) and qualitative (vets, zoo engineers, agronomist, veterinary technicians) aspects. The problem of systemic extension of work time and absence of a physiological regime of work and rest, and conditions for changing and alternation of the activities was taken seriously. Forty five percent of interviewees reported that they faced frequent interruptions at their primary sites of work resulting in inability to conclude effectively their daily routines. This situation was particularly true among the animal breeders, tractor drivers and fieldworkers. Tractor drivers faced the problem of obsolete tractors, bad roads, infringement of traffic regulations, necessity to work on difficult terrains.
  23. 23. The following were shown as factors of work environment: •noise, vibrations and dust (tractor drivers); •noise and dust (animal breeders); •work with biological hazards (vets, zoo-engineers and veterinary technicians) A large part of the interviewees (about 65%) thought that stress at work was one of the essential factors for the occurrence of some diseases of the cardio-vascular system(infarctions, hypertonic disease, etc), digestive system (ulcer, colitis) and some nervous disorders (depression, neurosis). Subjective complaints varied from light tenseness, anxiety, and poor co-ordination to different psychosomatic diseases. The vegetative changes are typical, manifested by rapid pulse, sweating of the palms, feeling of weakness, restlessness, emotional instability, pale skin, tremor of limbs, etc.
  24. 24. The commonly performed agricultural activites in India were weeding, cutting/ uprooting, transplanting, threshing, mannuring. Drudgery is generally conceived as physical and mental strain, agony, monotony and hardship experienced by human beings while all of women in the is regard is alarming as they continue to be constrained by illiteracy, malnutrition and unemployment. Drudgery Reduction
  25. 25. Based on the needs, the drudgery reduction measures introduced for women include: •Creation of safe drinking water sources closer to their houses •Maternal and child health and family welfare •Strengthening of traditional health care practices •Training of midwives and upgrading the skills of local healers •Awareness on health, hygiene and sanitation •Training of local youth as health guides for first-aid •Establishment of community grain banks and promotion of nutrition gardens •Promotion of energy conservation devices: improved woodstoves, biogas, solar devices and energy plantations •Establishment of Anganwadis and awareness of girl’s education
  26. 26. Strategy for Drudgery Reduction among Women Farmers The proposed activities of the proposal when achieved will provide additional income which will help to reduce the women farmers’ drudgery. Presently women are involved to earn merger income for their subsistence and this whole process is full of hardships and resultant drudgery. After the proposed project inputs, proper training and capacity building their knowledge as well as risk bearing capacity will increase and they will become capable to earn more income by adopting quality measures. Further special care will be taken to find out such activities in their daily routine as well as work circle which involves drudgery.
  27. 27. S. No. Task Role of Woman Technology application Impact on Drudgery Reduction A Agriculture Operations 1 Sowing (SRI) Maintain proper distance and space Marker application Proper distances maintained in less time and effort 2 Weeding Manually using hands and bare feet Cono-weeder Physical effort is reduced drastically 3 Mulching Manual operation by women with bare hand and feet shoes and gloves It saves vital body parts by protecting 4 Spray of pesticide/insectici de Manually mixing with hand and spray by hand Spray pump Easy to operate more output, saves from harmful inorganic products 5 Irrigating/water management Manually through wells and ponds using buckets Low cost irrigation application Saves lots of time and effort and proper water management
  28. 28. 6 Harvesting of crop Manually with old instruments Improved sickle Easy operation using less labour B Household chores 1 Routine home work Improper light and fuel source makes it hell Transparent roof sheet, Solar light Low cost, easy to operate, help children study and health enviroment 2 Kitchen Routine cooking task Improved smokeless chullah Easy to operate, help in health improvement 3 Fetching water from wells Manually fetched Ball bearing Easy to operate, less physical power 4 Fetching potable water from far away Manually fetched Hand pump or water cleaning devices saves time and energy and improves health 5 NTFP/fuel wood collection Manually fetched by head load Cycle or small pulling device Less energy much more output and more money
  29. 29. Draw weeder This weeder is best suited to dry areas. It consists of a toothed, double- edged blade attached to a long handle. The sharp-toothed blade cuts weeds just below the soil surface.
  30. 30. V-blade hand hoe This tool, designed for light weeding, consists of a long wooden or bamboo handle joined to a sharpened, V-shaped blade. The blade cuts through soil, cutting weeds just below the soil surface.
  31. 31. Khurpa-cum-sickle This sickle is best suited for harvesting wheat and rice crops. It has a wooden handle with a special hand grip shaped to make harvesting easier. The sickle blade, made of serrated carbon steel, is riveted to a 12-mm wide, Ushaped strip which is fixed to the handle. Ten women using naveen sickles can harvest I ha in 1 0 hours.
  32. 32. Group Dynamics A system of behaviours and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intra group dynamics), or between social groups (inter group dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behaviour, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies. Group dynamics are at the core of understandingracism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in psychology, sociology, political science, epidemiology, education, social work, business, and communication studies. A group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. Because they interact and influence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals. These processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behaviour. The field of group dynamics is primarily concerned with small group behaviour. Groups may be classified as aggregate, primary, secondary and category groups.
  33. 33. Advantages of Groups The major potential advantages of groups can be divided into three major areas: For outside individuals(extension, developmental, and research) or organisations (government and non-governmental including NGOs or commercial firms, banks, etc.) farmer groups can: improve their efficiency in working with rural people through providing a single point of contact for many farmers; improve their effectiveness in working with farmers by providing the opportunity to train several clients/people simultaneously; save repeated explanations of activities and encourage collective feedback; provide a rapid and cost-effective way of verifying and reinforcing findings from individual farmer contacts and disseminating of findings and other information;
  34. 34. increase the number of farmers that can be worked with and the number of different types of activities that can be implemented (for example, opening up the possibility of having group responsibility for paying back of loans or undertaking collective marketing of production); provide a forum in which everyone involved in rural development (farmers, facilitators, researchers, planners, NGOs, and the private commercial sector) can interact together, which is increasingly being recognised as being important if efficient agricultural development is going to take place; provide a good focal point for organizing activities (such as workshops and field days); provide a useful way of collecting and exchanging information on all types of matters
  35. 35. GROUP DYNAMICS KVK has tried various methodologies of transfer of technologies among the farming communities in the operational areas. After working on different concept of technology transfer, KVK has developed selected methodologies which found very effective and shown significant results. A brief description about these methodologies is furnished as below: Innovative Farmers Club (Prayog Pariwar) - KVK has always focused on group approach for dissemination of technology among the farming community. During the year 1996, KVK has taken steps to form the groups of innovative farmers who are adopting innovative technologies in different commodities in the district at their field. This group was named as Prayog Pariwar comprising of 712 Innovative Farmers from the district. Subgroups were formed commodity wise of the farmers in Prayog Pariwar. This group used to fine-tune the technology suitable for the particular location or farming situation. This concept helped to KVK to refine technologies for various commodities. We can quote the examples where the fine tuning was made in pruning techniques in drumstick, Fertigation techniques in grapes, planting methods in sugarcane, support system in pomegranate etc. Also technologies developed by these farmers were found very useful for its horizontal spreading among the non-member farmers. The Prayog Pariwar basically worked on exchange of ideas and experiments being carried out by them with other farmers.
  36. 36. Kisan Mandal (Farmers Club) – For faster dissemination of fine tuned technology at village level was a difficult task. To overcome this difficulty, KVK has adopted the concept of formation of Farmers Club during 2000-2001. A village level group of farmers from different enterprises were brought together under the name of Farmers Club. At present about 123 Farmers Clubs are functioning in the operational area. Each club consists of 20-25 members including farmwomen, rural youth and artisans from various enterprises like agriculture, horticulture, dairying, animal husbandry and non-farm sector. To achieve improvement in agricultural productivity and employment generation in rural areas, the Farmers Club has found very effective tool. These clubs are linked with financial institutions as well as other line departments. KVK has been carrying out various programmes and activities through these clubs
  37. 37. Keeping these clubs at center, KVK has developed concept called three-tier model. At Apex Level the members of Prayog Pariwar are involved. Whereas at middle level Farmers Clubs are playing active role and at micro level the messages are passed through SHGs. Through this model, work like planning, implementation, follow-up, monitoring, evaluation and feedback related to implemented programmes is also taken care by these clubs. These clubs are utilized for communication of technologies from KVK to grass root level. The Farmers Clubs also develop their annual action plan based on problems and needs of the respective villages and based on their action plan, KVK is planning and implementing various activities.
  38. 38. Self Help Groups (SHGs) – Women are playing very active role in the agriculture development. However their active participation in technology perception and dissemination was not visible. During the initial stage, KVK received very poor response from the farmwomen. Therefore, KVK started to establish SHGs of women from the year 2001-2002. At present KVK has established 455 SHGs in the operational areas and in each SHG 15-20 women are the members. Besides technology transfer, credit mobilization was also the main objective as they are in need of credit for adoption of technologies. All SHGs are linked with nationalized and co- operative banks. Due to credit availability from SHGs, the adoption of technologies is enhanced. SHGs are adopting agriculture technology for improving production besides starting suitable agro-based enterprises for self-employment generation.
  39. 39. Book: 1. Women in Agriculture : M.S. Randhawa Web References/ Image references: 1. http://knowledgecentre.drwa.org.in/womenagri.htm 2. http://farmech.gov.in/Women%20Friendaly%20Equipment- With%20photographs.pdf 3. http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/uk/d/Jii01ee/8.1.html 4. http://www.kvk.pravara.com/extn/gd.htm