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RAMYA DEEPTHI PULI
VIJAY MARIE COLLEGE OF NURSING
Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes
a bowing or rounding of the back, which leads
to a hunchnack or stouching posture.
There are three main
types of kyphosis.
It is the most common type of kyphosis.
More common in girls than in boys which is typically noticed in
It is caused by poor posture and weakening of the muscle, ligaments
in the back (paraspinous muscles)
The vertebrae are typically placed in postural kyphosis.
It progressively gets worse with time.
These people will have symptoms of pain and muscle fatigue.
It is also first noticed
It is a result of structural
It commonly develops
Reasons are not well
It is the least common type of abnormal kyphosis.
It is caused by abnormal development of the
vertebrae prior to birth
Occurs due to fusion of many vertebrae together.
It can occur at any age
Very rare at birth
Postural kyphosis occurs
as a result of poor posture
and weakening of muscle
occurs as a results of
improper development of
vertebrae or fusion of
Treatment depends upon the cause of disorder
Congenital kyphosis requires corrective surgery
at early age.
Scheuemann’s disorder is treated with braces
and physical therapy
Kyphosis caused by tumors needs surgical
Scheuemann’s disorder in adolescents stops once
their growth stops.
If the disorders occurs due to degenerative types,
then they may need a surgical correction.
Decreased lung capacity
Neurological symptoms including legWeakening
Round back deformity.
A normal spine when viewed from behind
appears straight .
Lordosis is a medical term used to describe an
inward curvature of a portion of the lumbar
and cervical vertebral column.
Cause of lordosis has been linked to
achondroplasia and spondylolisthesis
Lordosis is also associated with poor posture,
a congenital problem with the vertebrae,
neuromuscular problems, back surgery or a
In children rickets may also leads to lordosis.
Prominence of buttocks
Pain down the legs
X- rays: done to measure and evaluate curve.
Bone scans: to evaluate degenerative or
arthritic changes.Also helps to find out bone
MRI: to rule out associated problems
Early detection of Lordosis is important for
proper and successful treatment
Childs age, overall health, medical history,
cause and extent of the condition.
Goal of treatment is to stop the progression
of the curve, prevent deformity
Simple exercises are sufficient , If Lordosis is
associated with poor posture
Prognosis depends on child's age, amount of
Requires frequent examination by the
physician to monitor curve as the child grows
Early detection helps in proper management.
Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine.
As the spine curve, the vertebrae rotate, pulling
the ribs along.
Generally a sideway curvature greater than 10
degrees is considered scoliosis.
Depending on the etiology, scoliosis is of 3
Embryologic malformation of spine during 3rd to
Localized or generalized deformity:
1. Hemivertebra ( only half formed)
2. Failure in segmentations (vertebra segments do not
3. Rib fusion
Secondary or neuropathic (polio myelitis,
cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele) which
results in imbalance.
Initially flexible, become rigid a sit progress.
Long C- Curvature generalized
neuromuscular disease with severe muscle
S- Curve similar to idiopathic scoliosis occurs
as a result of localized muscle imbalance.
Occurs n first years of life
Associated with intrauterine position
Boys are more affected
Usually left thoracic curve is seen.
Occurs in middle childhood
Usually around 6 years
Usually right thoracic curve
Both sexes are equally affected.
Occurs between age 10 and skeletal maturity
Sven times more common in girls.
Various curves are possible
Majority are left curved.