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Gender Equality in Rural Africa

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Gender Equality in Rural Africa

  1. 1. Gender Equality in Rural Africa: Key note Address From Commitments to Outcomes
  2. 2. From Commitments to Outcomes •Mind The Cracks Why
  3. 3. From Commitments to Outcomes
  4. 4. From commitments to Outcomes Sleeping Giant (2012) • History repeats itself because people study history but do not learn from it But most importantly, “History in rural Africa does not repeat itself, it has refused to leave.
  5. 5. From Commitments to Outcomes Several well meaning commitments have not resulted into lasting outcomes People keep falling through the cracks
  6. 6. From Commitments to Outcomes Gender Equality and Equity Resul t Process Process Process
  7. 7. Gender Equality and Equity Equality in the process many fall through the cracks Equity in the process reduces the danger of cracks Those who have, more is addend; those who do not have, even the little is taken away
  8. 8. Gender Equality OR Equity • Equity gives people what they need so all can attain the same results (Equality) • Equity is in the process; an approach • Equality is a Result
  9. 9. What is the reality with ReSAKSS? • Even in well meaning programs, outcomes vary for people • Some end up falling through the cracks
  10. 10. Gender Equality and Equity How do people fall through the cracks with regard to gender? • Adopting a narrow working definition of Gender • Under estimating the role of institutions • Focusing on removing constraints and not the root causes • Under estimating rural African
  11. 11. Adopting a narrow working definition of Gender • The working definition must work for you… • Each organization serious about gender have a working definition
  12. 12. Gender Gender is a social construct of prescribed (pre-arranged) roles, responsibilities, expectations, characteristics, behaviors, rights, privileges and exclusions assigned to people based on their multiple identities • Gender is the niche that society curves out for people Adopting a narrow working definition of Gender
  13. 13. What are multiple identities? • Multiple identities are best described by the term intersectionality • Intersectionality is the complex, cumulative manner in which the effects of different forms of discrimination combine, overlap, or intersect to inform the experiential reality of individuals and groups of people, Adapted from The Secret Life of Dictionaries by Kory Stamper Adopting a narrow working definition of Gender
  14. 14. Multiple Identities Sex: Male or Female Generation: Silent, boomers, X, Y, Z Livelihood: Crop, Pastoralists, Fisher Folk Class: Royal, wealth, educated, Profession Race: African, Asian, Caucasian Ability: Normal, blind, deaf, dumb, lameAge: Baby, child, youth, adult, mature, elderly
  15. 15. Multiple Identities • This concept of gender does not consider any identity as homogeneous • Keeps probing, “which men, women, youth, trader, professional, etc” • People fall through cracks when important identities are over looked in program design, delivery, M&E, impact assessment
  16. 16. Born Before Computers?BBC
  17. 17. Position in the Family
  18. 18. Child Mothers; Biological roles?
  19. 19. Disabled?
  20. 20. Generations
  21. 21. • Fifty percent of the world’s population is under the age of 30. This is the highest youth population in history! • Africa by 2050 will account for 29% of all people on earth aged 15-24! • Which Rural Africa youth falls through the cracks? Generations
  22. 22. By our working definition, we create cracks that affect the progress and achievement of outcomes
  23. 23. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions
  24. 24. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions • Formal and informal rules, practices and norms which shape social perceptions and interactions between people and resources around them • It is the institutions that define the niche we call gender
  25. 25. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions Formal laws • Are based on written, agreed upon and official laws of governments or legal entities • The constitutions • Byelaws • Contracts and agreements • Protocols
  26. 26. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions Informal laws • Are often not written, based on cultural beliefs and values; but are strong and held in high regard by people • Values • Practices • Norms
  27. 27. Institutional set up in Rural Africa Formal Informal  These seek to level the ground o Privatization of extension services across developing countries  Become too broad for local reality o The little interaction some rural farmers had with extension was removed  Context specific – may be unique to one community Upon the Father’s death, the first son become heir irrespective of age. In TZ, must marry as part of the process, even at 15 yrs  Hardwired and the default mindset o Youths and children do not buy or own sickles (ET)
  28. 28. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions Before colonization gender was purely cultural Traditional Attepts to super impose the formal Colonial era Mixed grill Current
  29. 29. History – colonial era Institutional set up in current Rural Africa Separated formal and informal • Land tenure – Cultural and lease hold – the cities Super imposed the formal over the informal • Livelihood strategies to include commercial commodities Formalized tradition • Power of local chiefs • Staples Formal • Resources access in protected areas • Export Market dynamics Mixture • Acquisition of resources – can be cultural or formal • Role of Kings and chiefs Formalized Tradition • Inheritance • Dues to local chiefs
  30. 30. Under Estimating the Role of Institutions Rural Africa lives with and between two worlds Formal conventional World The informal traditional world Formalized tradition
  31. 31. Under estimating the role of institutions and
  32. 32. Gender and Resources • Resources refer to those means, possessions, assets, and wealth that are accessed, controlled or owned by individuals, families or wider communities at micro and macro levels No resource is gender neutral Formal and informal laws, norms of access, control and ownership govern the levels of interactions between an individual and resources
  33. 33. Gender and Resources (Assets) • Access – freedom to use a resources • Conflict between formal and informal • Conditional access • Control – freedom to decide how a resource is used • delegated authority • Temporary control • Decisions devoid of power to enforce
  34. 34. • Ownership – freedom to dispose of a resource • Conditional ownership • Shadow ownership (under surveillance) • Co-ownership – never joint Gender and Resources (Assets)
  35. 35. • People fall through cracks when we interpret the observable routine as actual reality • When the formal and informal conflict, most rural Africa goes by the informal Gender and Resources (Assets)
  36. 36. Focusing on constraints and not Root Causes
  37. 37. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Effects Practical needs Root causes Strategic needs
  38. 38. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Practical Need Strategic need  Access and control over productive resources  Market access  Access to decision making  Training to improve performance  Full ownership of productive resources  Knowledge and skills to innovate own solutions  Market literacy  Power to effect decisions
  39. 39. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empowermen t Transformativ e By Monica Kapiriri Practical Strategic
  40. 40. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Status quo An intervention involves people according to their gender niche • Provides for practical needs of gender groups to continue improve perform within the gender niches • Does not rock the boat • Females for domestic; males for the public • Females for staples: Men for commercial • Practical approach Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empower ment Transform ative
  41. 41. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Affirmative Action: an action or policy that eliminates selected constraints in favor of the discriminated It is a practical approach that removes observable barriers or constraints • 30% women representation • 1.5 additional points to female students in education • Women finance institutions • The core systems and structure remains the same • Practical approach Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empower ment Transform ative
  42. 42. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy, agency, and self-determination among people and in communities, in order to act on their own authority • Strengthens the disadvantaged to compete more favorably with in the existing structure and systems • Practical approach that addresses the shortcomings, weaknesses of the disadvantaged • Training in skills and knowledge to perform better • Mentoring and coaching • Resource access and control • Practical approach Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empower ment Transform ative
  43. 43. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Transformative Action moves beyond constraints, to dealing with the underlying root causes at the institutional and structural levels; the strategic needs • It assesses and appropriates the formal and informal laws, practices and norms that govern interactions between people and resources • Revision of land tenure systems • Appropriating inheritance laws • Knowledge and skills targeting mindsets Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empower ment Transform ative
  44. 44. Focusing on constraints and not the root causes Gender equality is a strategic issue that can only be achieved through • Transformative approaches • Based on gender disaggregated data Maintain/ strengthen the Status quo Affirmative action Empower ment Transform ative
  45. 45. Transformative approach Generate Gender disaggregated data SEX GENDER
  46. 46. Gender Disaggregated Data • Help monitor progress based on gender (not sex) multiple identities • Most agencies demand sex disaggregated data…
  47. 47. Sex-disaggregated Data Interventions Females Males A 67 79 B 4 50 C 17 2 D 44 14 E 2 69 Gender Disaggregated Data
  48. 48. Interventions Female Male Widows Married Women Under 35 Men Under 35 Traders A 37 25 5 38 19 23 B 17 0 0 1 0 1 C 10 11 23 4 7 3 D 7 10 27 5 5 4 E 2 0 0 10 19 40 Gender Disaggregated Data
  49. 49. From Commitments and Outcomes Under Estimating Rural Africa
  50. 50. Under Estimating Rural Africa Note: • Rural people study us more than we study them Purpose: • Maximize benefits, minimize losses
  51. 51. Under Estimating Rural Africa People fall through cracks when we fail to anticipate and deal with biases • Spatial or connectivity or accessibility bias: More aware, will fool you into believing they represent the rest • Seasonal (time) bias: Describe what is observable in that season and not the overall reality • Wealth and influence: the powerful do most of the talking, other identities may go silent
  52. 52. Under Estimating Rural Africa • Politeness bias: They tell you what they think you want to hear, not the actual truth • Expectation bias: They respond to maximize benefits. They will play along for what they expect to get
  53. 53. Conclusion • Is your definition of Gender creating cracks? • The role of institutions: have you considered both worlds and in between? • Constraints - root causes, where is your focus? • Have you considered the biases?
  54. 54. Mind the Cracks Thank you

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