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Semiotic 1+2

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Semiotic 1+2

  1. 1. design theory. 7mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  2. 2. mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  3. 3. 2mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  4. 4. Introduction to Semioticsmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  5. 5. Semiotic, from form to Gestalt to design Designers are among those professionals who have shown a first and continued interest in the modern revival of semiotics. In search of a theory for a field of human practice characterized by a lack of conceptual discipline, designers, especially those formed in the Ulm School tradition, were willing to adopt semiotics as their theory. Maldonado (1967) undoubtedly deserves credit for being receptive to semiotics and making it part of his own design concept. This happened when Europe discovered Charles S. Peirce; when Bense, continuing his search for a scientific foundation of aesthetics, arrived at sign theory (1970, 1971). On the American continent, designers interest in semiotics was expressed quite late through students and scholars from Ulm or by contamination from other fields—predominantly from literary studies.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  6. 6. Semiotic, Semiology (theory of signs) Term "semiology" (from Greek semeion "sign", and logoes " speech, knowledge ") was proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure (Courts of general linguistics), and the discipline that it indicates defines as studying " the life of signs within the social life ". Semiotics, or semiology, is the study of signs, symbols, and signification. It is the study of how meaning is created, not what it is.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  7. 7. Semiotic, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) The founder of American semiotic. Pierce was interested in how signs signify meaning, and examined the power of images and the ways in which we read them. His work can help us understand how images function symbolically in different ways. He was a tireless and brilliant thinker whose extensive writings have received international attention for over a century.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  8. 8. Semiotic, Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Swiss linguist. One of the founders of modern linguistics, he established the structural study of language, emphasizing the arbitrary relationship of the linguistic sign to that which it signifies. Saussure distinguished synchronic linguistics (studying language at a given moment) from diachronic linguistics (studying the changing state of a language over time); he further opposed what he named langue (the state of a language at a certain time) to parole (the speech of an individual). Saussures most influential work is the Course in General Linguistics (1916), a compilation of notes on his lectures.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  9. 9. Semiotic, Max Bense (1910-1990) Founder of what became known as the "Stuttgart School", probably more a thought direction than a coherent semiotic movement, Bense was an extremely controversial scholar and teacher. His entire work is shaped by his formative years of study in physics, expanded, not accidentally, in mathematics, chemistry, and geology.. For the reader aware of this background, Bense as writings, in philosophy, aesthetics, semiotics, text theory, and even his atheistic literature, political articles, and his poetry, appear as a continuation of his scientific work. Indeed, his ambition was to establish a scientific foundation for those areas of the humanities in which he became interested.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  10. 10. Semiotic, Algirdas Julien Greimas (Tula, Russia, 1917 - Paris, 1992) French linguist of Lithuanian origin. Its research relates to general semantics, the application of the methods of the phonological analysis to semantics, and on semiotics. Emigrated into France on the eve of the war, Greimas becomes, in 1949, a doctor in letters in Sorbonne (he had previously studied at the university of Grenoble), specialist of the history of the French language (he will publish moreover in 1968 a Dictionary of ancient French); he begins to be interested in semantics and plunges into the reading of the linguists: Ferdinand de Saussure, Viggo Brøndal, Roman Jakobson... His meeting with Roland Barthes in Alexandria will contribute to the interest of this last one for the linguistics.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  11. 11. Sign In the heart of De Saussure project takes place the conception of the sign as an entity in two faces: The signifier, reducible in an acoustic image or physical form of the sign, or any material thing that signifies, e.g., words on a page, a facial expression, an image. The signified (concept, reality) a mental representation of the sign, or the concept that a signifier refers to. Together, the signifier and signified make up the Sign: the smallest unit of meaning. Anything that can be used to communicate (or to tell a lie). This is fundamental linguistic unit linking a signifier to that which is signified, one of the natural units into which linguistic messages can be analyzed. Sign is intellectual concept different from signage.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  12. 12. Sign A sign stands for something to the idea which it produces or modifies.... That for which it stands is called its object, that which it conveys, its meaning; and the idea which it gives rise, its interpretant....[the sign creates in the mind] an equivalent sign, or perhaps a more developed sign. That sign which it creates I call the interpretant of the first sign. This sign stands for something, its object. It stands for that object, not in all respects, but in reference to a sort of idea which I have sometimes called the ground of that representation." C. S. Peirce, quoted in Umberto Eco (1979) The Role of the Reader 7.2.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  13. 13. Sign We perceive permanently signs: olfactory signs (a smell of roasted chicken), visual signs (the colored skin of the roasted chicken), hearing signs (the chicken Who crackle in the farmyard) tactile signs (the skin roasted of the chicken who burns fingers), gustative signs (the white flesh of the chicken which preserved all its taste on the tongue and in the palate because the animal was fed in the farmyard). All these signs, what we perceived at first, it is the signifier that is: A MATERIAL PERCEPTION.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  14. 14. Sign Later, sometimes in the microsecond, which follows, we interpret. And in it signified, we associate one (sometimes some) meaning: that is: A MENTAL PERCEPTION.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  15. 15. Sign (for example) Signifier Signified Smell of the chicken I am hungry Texte Copper-colored skin It is appetizing Cackling chicken Produces natural Ardent skin That burns but I am hungry too much Taste of the chicken Better than the chicken packed in plasticmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  16. 16. Sign Type of Sign: It is common to divide signs into three types: Icon An icon is a sign which is linked to its object by qualitative characteristics. For example, a map is an icon because it shares some quality (spatial organisation) with its object. A photograph is iconic because it is linked to its object qualitatively (e.g. shape or colour). In language only onomatopoeic words like cuckoo and boom are iconic.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  17. 17. Sign Type of Sign: It is common to divide signs into three types: Index An index denotes its object by being physically linked to it, or affected by it. For example, smoke is an index of fire, and a knock at the door is an index of someones presence on the other side. In language, demonstrative pronouns (this and that) are indexical, as is a word such as Ow! denoting pain.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  18. 18. Sign Type of Sign: It is common to divide signs into three types: Symbols A symbol has no qualitative or physical link to its object. It is conventional; that is to say that it is defined by social convention. Most words are symbols. For example, if the word dog was replaced in English by the word cat and vice versa, there would be no change to the meanings we could convey. However it would be impossible (or at least very confusing) to use a photograph of a dog (an icon) to mean cat.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  19. 19. Sign Type of Sign: Object denoted Icon Index Symbol The Queen Texte A portrait of the Queen The Crown Princess Diannas badge A Tree A picture of a tree Part of a tree, (a leaf,) The word TREE In written texts you will mostly be analysing signs which are symbolic.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  20. 20. 2mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  21. 21. Sign A sign is anything that can be used to tell a lie. Umberto Ecomercredi, 25 mai 2011
  22. 22. This is a famous painting by Rene Magritte called "The Treachery of Images." Magrittes caption says, (in French) "This is not a pipe."mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  23. 23. Sign All of which illustrates Magrittes point, which is simply that an image or sign of a thing is not the thing itself. One could make the same point with any number of images, signs, and symbols.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  24. 24. Semiotics The process of communication The process of communication can be understood as a circuit of meaning, in which meaning is first encoded by an emitter, then decoded by a receiver, then recoded in the receivers interpretation, which can then be the object of further decoding and so on. Note that each link in the process is not transparent: the result of a decoding is not the same as what was originally encoded - the process of communication is said to be mediated (as in mass media) and this mediation affects the meaning.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  25. 25. Semiotics Simple Semiotic model This version of the semiotic model adapted from the work of Charles S. Pierce, provides a coordinated way of talking about how the thoughts in our minds can be expressed in terms of the world outside of our minds. The model contains three basic entities: the sign: something which is perceived, but which stands for something else, the concept: the thoughts or images that are brought to mind by the perception of the sign, the object: the "something else" in the world to which the sign refers.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  26. 26. Semiotics This model is most often represented as the semiotic trianglemercredi, 25 mai 2011
  27. 27. Semiotics Signification SIGN PERCEPTION CONVENTION CONCEPT OBJECT EXPERIENCEmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  28. 28. Semiotics Simple Semiotic model Notice that the sign and the concept are connected by the persons perception, the concept and the object are connected by the persons experience, the sign and the object are connected by the conventions, or the culture, of the social group within which the person lives. These connections are important to the study of how meaning arises during the daily encounters with the many signs that fill the human environment.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  29. 29. Semiotics Signification OBJECT CONVENTION EXPERIENCE SIGN CONCEPT PERCEPTIONmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  30. 30. Semiotics Signification One of the founders of semiotics was Ferdinand de Saussure. Saussure proposed a theory of signification. He argued that a linguistic sign is in fact composed of two elements: the idea being represented (the signified) and the word doing the representing (the signifier).mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  31. 31. Semiotics Signification A key insight of Saussure was the suggestion that the relationship between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary. There is no necessary or fixed link between words and ideas. Thus many different words (dog, hund, chien etc) can be used to represent the same idea. Note that Saussure always refers to the signified as an idea. The term he used for the real objects which are sometimes linked to ideas was referent. Thus a furry animal which barks is a referent, our idea of that referent is the signified and the word dog is the signifier.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  32. 32. Semiotics Signification Referent animal which barks CONVENTION EXPERIENCE Sign Signifier Signified the word the idea PERCEPTION Dogmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  33. 33. Semiotics Relations of denotation and connotation The basic, most fundamental form of sign, that is, of the relation of signifier to signified, is denotation (other name for referent), roughly, the literal meaning of a sign. Denotation (not the image above, but the concept in your head) The word "rose" literally signifies a kind of flower. But semiotics starts to get interesting when it explores connotation..mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  34. 34. Semiotics Relations of denotation and connotation Because the sign is arbitrary and there is no fixed or essential relationship between the signifier and the signified, other ideas (other signifieds) can easily become attached a particular signifier. These extra meanings are called connotations. Thus a word like white denotes the colour of this sheet of paper, but connotes a range of other meanings such as purity, cleanliness and so on. In turn these connotations may themselves have further connotations. We can think of a series of linked connotations as a chain of signifiers which give the original message a whole range of additional possible meaningsmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  35. 35. Semiotics Relations of denotation and connotation Connotations involve signifying signs, signs that become the signifier for a second signified. Here the sign "rose" becomes a signifier for a secondary signified, namely . . . . . . passion. Its important to remember that this graphic representation of how signs work is itself made up of signs. The image of the rose above is not really the signified, its another sign, that Im using to signify the signified. (The signified, remember, is whats in your head.) One of the reasons semiotics can be so difficult to understand is because it inevitably involves using signs to talk about signs. So sometimes a more concrete example is helpful . . .mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  36. 36. Semiotics Signification Signifier 1 Signified 1 the word Dog Signifier 2 Signified 2 Connotationmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  37. 37. Semiotics Signification Signifier 1 Signified 1 the word Dog Signifier 2 Signified 2 Connotationmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  38. 38. Semiotics Signification Signifier 1 Signified 1 the word Dog Signifier 2 Signified 2 Connotationmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  39. 39. Semiotics Signification Signifier 1 Signified 1 the word Dog Signifier 2 Signified 2 Connotationmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  40. 40. Semiotics Signification Signifier 1 Signified 1 the word Dog Signifier 2 Signified 2 Connotationmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  41. 41. Semiotics Greimas Semiotic Square According to Greimas, the semiotic square is the elementary structure of signification, marking off the oppositional logic that is at the heart of semantic, thematic, or symbolic content. Greimas schema is useful since it illustrates the full complexity of any given semantic term (seme). Greimas points out that any given seme entails its opposite or "contrary." "Life" (s1) for example is understood in relation to its contrary, "death" (s2). Rather than rest at this simple binary opposition (S), however, Greimas points out that the opposition, "life" and "death," suggests what Greimas terms a contradictory pair (- S), i.e., "not-life" (-s1) and "not-death" (-s2). We would therefore be left with the following semiotic square :mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  42. 42. Semiotics Semiotic square Relation between Life contraries Death Relation Relation between Relation of implication contradictories of implication Relation between Not Death contraries Not Lifemercredi, 25 mai 2011
  43. 43. Semiotics Semiotic square Relation between Assertion contraries Negation Relation Relation between Relation of implication contradictories of implication Relation between Non- Negation contraries Non-Assertionmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  44. 44. Semiotics The Dürer Woodcut:mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  45. 45. Semiotics The Dürer Woodcut Square This image is of interest for one thing, the image presents an entire narrative sequence as a single pictorial representation. The story goes something like this: 1) The first "frame" of the sequence is the right-hand half of the image, in which a travelling knight is stopped by the devil, who holds up a die to tempt the knight to gamble; 2) the second "frame" is the bottom-left-hand corner of the image, where a quarrel breaks out at the gambling table; 3) the third "frame" is the top-left-hand corner of the image, where the knight is punished by death on the wheel The Greimassian square for this wordless narrative could be as follows.mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  46. 46. Relation between Forbearance contraries Temptation Relation Relation between Relation of implication contradictories of implication Restriction Relation between contraries Transgression Punishmentmercredi, 25 mai 2011
  47. 47. Semiotics The Dürer Woodcut Semiotic Square In this semiotic square, "restriction/punishment" takes the place of "non-temptation," while "transgression" takes the place of "non- forbearance," following the tendency of the contradictory term to be more than the term to which it is associated by a "relation of implication."mercredi, 25 mai 2011
  48. 48. Semiotic Square Typology of the design philosophy Referential design contrariety Mythical design Regime of the representation Regime of the construction Shape represents the Logical function Logic Shape ( re ) creates the Logical function, Endomorphic dimension of correspondence and equivalence Logic of shock and break down, Existential Exomorphic dimension Utilitarian valuation of the object Examples Valuation of the object razor Braun, Examples The toothbrush Fluocaril, iuicy Salif, robot Marie ( Moulinex) Hot Bertaa ( Starck) contra diction Substantial design contrariety Oblique design Regime of the non-construction Regime of the non-representation, Shape incorporates the Logical function Logic Shape extends beyond the Logical function, of conformation Logic of surprise, Critical Valuation of the object Playful Valuation of the object Examples La Marie ( Starck), Examples Mister Meumeu, Richard reads, Louis XX, This Perrier ( Szekely) is not a wheelbarrow ( Starck), the whistling kettle (Grave), the family " King-Kong "STARCK ( Alessi), the iMac, etc.mercredi, 25 mai 2011