5. What is project work ?
Activity: Jot down all the ideas or concepts
about Project work .
6. ''A project work is a recognizable unit of work with a
beginning, middle and end. .Through a series of
worthwhile activities, which are linked to form a tangible
end product, the children can gain a real sense of
''At the successful completion of the project, both teacher
and pupils have something they can be proud of, to show
to parents and to others in the school as an indication of
the progress they have made''.
(Phillips, Burwood, Dunford, 1999: 6)
7. ''Project work also involves emotional and personal development.
Learners should be encouraged to express their ideas, tastes and interests,
their feelings and opinions''
(Phillips, Burwood, Dunford, 1999: 6).
Project work develop the whole child, it is not focused narrowly on teaching
During the work on a project, the skills developing in other lessons and during
the time out of school are involved (intellectual, physical, social and learner
Learners are involved into the activity the more they may benefit from it
In project work the motivation comes from within not from without, the project is
learner’s process and therefore the products are more
The project must also be planned, discussed and evaluated (Fried-Booth, 1986: 5)
Project work provides learners the opportunity to bring their knowledge of other
subjects to the classroom and extend it further during working on a project
(Wicks, 2000: 9).
Teachers should develop a positive group atmosphere and dynamic
and support communicative approach. Next, it is useful to give learners
personal experience of using multi media, sometimes it is also necessary
to introduce language needed,grammar, vocabulary, and finally he or she
introduces textual data, such as content materials or process materials for
Learners are encouraged to be aware of their roles in groups from the
beginning to be able to go further to more responsible tasks at later
stages of a project.
The authors advise that if possible it is useful to select or
create activities that are related to the overall theme of the project. In
other words, it is essential to integrate project work with other work that
is done with a class.
(Phillips, Burwood, Dunford, 1999: 10).
12. In this stage learners focus on a possible topic and find out its
interest value, it means that they try to gain insight into the topic,
into situations and opportunities for language practice and
There are several tasks that a teacher should manage, e.g. bring the
theme near learners and make them sensitive towards the theme,
recall and mobilize existing knowledge, wake curiosity of learners,
enable the exchange of personal experience, create awareness of the
research area or support formulation of hypotheses after evaluation
prior knowledge and experience.
Those aims may be realized through a values clarification task, e.g.
learners judge several photographs from the best to the worst
according to given criteria, such as quality of the photograph,
the setting, etc.
(Legutke and Thomas, 1991: 171-172).
13. o This is usually the longest and most intense stage during work on a project since it
includes both planning and completing the target, i.e. data collection or contact and
communication with the public as well as practising the skills required by the task.
o There are several objectives that should be managed:
1. Defining the nature and the extend of the project task
2. There must research itself be thought through well, such as using of appropriate means
of investigation, measurement and recording, or how to research textual data and
comprehend a literary
3. The target task should be completed. Questions that students should ask and answer
may be: which of the part would I like work on, who could I cooperate with, how much
time is needed to finish the task or how can I collect more information about the topic?
Research and Data Collection
14. The team work is now concentrated on estimating the size of the task and
what will be involved in procedure, i.e. what kind of research, the means
of measurement to do the project.
For many project the target task means data collection, involving
interviews ,recording,guest speakers and visits to be arranged, timing of
all actions, availability of contacts, research in libraries or on the
15. When learners complete the target task it does not have to mean the
end of the project. They may pass on their experience to others by
either a direct presentation or in the form of an artifact, a project end
product, or both.
In this stage , teacher must remotivate learners to complete an end
product, next encourage and monitor team building and acceptance
Teacher must enable learners to decide on the form of the
Deciding what to do with the data depends not only on the form of
the data but also on the audience, on people for whom the
presentation is intended. Whatever the form of data is, while
making presentation learners face the need for team organization in
order to listen to, edit and select usable material.
16. Some question will arise at this time: which parts of our results would be
interesting for the audience, what should we tell the others in spoken
or written way, what could be difficult to communicate or do we want to
use media for our presentation? Learners are mainly self-directed in this
stage; a teacher is needed to reawake learners’ motivation, to help with
various technical procedures and to deal with language deficits that may
In this stage,the shift from the classroom to the outside world is
highlighted, i.e. the shift from role-playing about the outside world to being
a real part of the outside world
17. Many projects end with this stage in some form of presentation:
Learners must present information to the live audience using the appropriate
media, structure and control the event and interact with the audience.
The learning purpose of this stage is acquiring presentation skills. It also makes
demands on their strategic competence.
Learners must, for example, avoid lengthy expositions and keep the message
They learn to understand that different communication settings and audience need
different forms of speaker behaviour, in addition, learners must also be able to
use, for example, overhead projectors or work with flip charts.
There are many forms of presentation, for example, preparing a video film, giving
a short lecture, acting in a drama, presenting a slide show or singing a song. The
role of a teacher is to demonstrate and train the basic presentation techniques
18. Evaluation is not a feature of all projects but if it takes place then
these items are evaluated:
- Topic understanding
- Interaction in a group and with a teacher
- Organizations of procedures
- Input materials
- The roles of experts
- Language progress and deficits
- Examples of work
- Possible by-products, e.g. changes in intercultural awareness
19. This evaluation may be accompanied by a formal testing of the language in
forms mirrored the project task, e.g. listening, note taking exercise, using a
recorded interview, etc.
The questions to be asked are: which activities were effective/
ineffective , what could be improved, were there any language problems,
what to do about them,
how did the groups cooperate with the teacher or was the text sourcing
a satisfactory help?
Teacher may ask learners to write a draft of their own report, their perception
of how much they have learnt, so that he or she gains feedback and reflection
of his or her successful or unsuccessful work
The results of project work will be more effective when work continues after f
inishing a project. These are follow-up activities. Learners with support of
a teacher should further work on areas of language weakness
Practical or physical tasks such as construction of
article, making a model, forming a story and
playing roles are done in this type of projects
22. Aesthtic Project
Appreciation powers of the students are
developed in this type of project through skillful
programs, beautification of something,
appreciation of poems , reading,listening skills
and creative work.
23. Problematic Project
In this type of project develops the problem solving capacity
of the students through their experiences. It is based on the
cognitive domain. For instance, how to make a
communicative poster , solving real life learning situations.
24. It is for the mastery of the skill and knowledge of the
students. It increases the work efficacy and capacity of
the students. For instance, this type of project may be
taken up to give drill in main common used grammar
input or training on communicative speeches.
26. Themes and target tasks derive from the curricular from ‘life’
situations and relevant curricular items.
Project ideas and themes alone do not have the educational value,
only when learners are deeply involved with these ideas through a
process of discussion, experimentation and reflection
Project learning requires a well-constructed plan of action, which
leads to defining sub-topics, tasks, and problem areas
Project learning is investigative. It represents a cyclical model of
experimental learning, which means that it comes from project
ideas to concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract
conceptualization and finally to new project ideas.
27. Project learning is learner-centred. On the one hand, it allows and
asks for learner contribution of project ideas, discussion and
decision about topics and tasks; on the other hand, it also enables
learners to discover their individual strengths, interests and talents
In project learning learners are organized into small groups, the
members of which plan and control their work, monitor their
learning outcomes, take responsibility and solve problems together.
The successful results depend on the cooperative abilities of all
group members as well as on the cooperation among groups
In Project Based_Learning ,the focus is not on the knowledge as the
product but mainly on learners themselves,Products mirror learners’
views of themselves and the world around them
In project learning the product can appear in many various forms
and must also have their use value.
29. “Whatever the scope of a project, whatever the language level, and
whether you are teaching in the UK or overseas, your role as a teacher
involved in project work remains fundamentally the same: a
participant, a co-ordinator when necessary, a figure in
the background evaluating and monitoring the language being used”
(Fried-Booth, 1986: 38).
' 'At the beginning, a teacher explains and clarifies, later he or
she changes into a monitor, resource and facilitator. The role that
comes through the whole project work is to engage learners into the
learning process and enable them to create something of their own''
(Hardy-Goud, 2003: 7).
30. Here two key questions about roles of teachers and learners in
project work may be suggested:
- How can learners become
active participants of learning
process, who are able
to cooperate, experiment,
take a certain risk, contribute
to, manage, and evaluate
How can teachers adopt the
concept and skills to be able
to facilitate the process
and keep balance between
task, process, product and
31. To have a classroom session to present the project
including collected material and learnt language, it must be
focused on what is significant and useful for everybody :
It should avoid anything boring and time-consuming.
The teacher must encourage all the learners to contribute, not only the
the learners may prepare microteaching for specific grammatical
points, functions, idioms, phonological points or even factual
information about an event of English history.
A teacher may use a film, radio programme, newspaper article or other
published material that is connected with group work.
A teacher must be very sensitive about learners group discussions that
should be constructive and useful markers of what is working well and what
should be changed
33. Project-based Learning
'' Project-Based Learning (PBL) integrates
knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and
elements of the core curriculum, but also apply
what they know to solve authentic problems and
produce results that matter '' (Thomas Markham
'' PBL'' is a studentcentered pedagogy that
involves a dynamic classroom approach in which
students acquire a deeper knowledge through
active exploration of real-world challenges and
34. PBL emphasizes long-term, interdisciplinary
and student-centered learning activities.
Students organize their own work and manage
their own time in a project-based class.
Project-based instruction differs from
traditional inquiry by its emphasis on students'
collaborative or individual artifact
construction to represent what is being
Project-based learning also gives students the
opportunity to explore problems and
challenges that have real-world applications,
increasing the possibility of long-term
retention of skills and concepts.
35. Merits of a Project Work
Activity: Work with your group
members to identify the merits
of a project work
36. There were several educational merits to
gain from the project work:
Students get proper freedom to execute the project in accordance with
their interest and abilities.
Development of Long-Term Knowledge Retention.
Habit of critical thinking gets developed among the students through this
Development of the “good” language learner
Practice of the computer work skills and ability to find and use various
Team work and building of good relationships, individual responsibility
for the work
Key competences (the solving problem competence,the communicative
competence,socio-personal competence , civil competence)
37. Cross-curriculum relations: connection and interaction of English,
computer work, history, culture, and civics
Multi-intelligence components involved, not only the linguistic one
Cultural awareness: development of knowledge about famous
personalities and foreign culture.
38. ''It is not about what
teachers cover, it
is about what le
Lenka Žlábková,L. (2009). Using Projects in
English Lessons: Make a Magazine. Faculty of
Education : Department of English Language and
Literature. MASARYK UNIVERSITY BRNO
Kilpatrick,W. (1918). THE PROJECT METHOD :
The Use of the Purposeful Act in the Educative
Process. New York: Teachers College, Columbia