Benthic Macroinvertebrates

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Benthic Macroinvertebrates

  1. 1. Extreme BenthicsExtreme Benthics AcademyAcademy ““Benthic Macroinvertebrates 101”Benthic Macroinvertebrates 101”
  2. 2. What are BenthicWhat are Benthic Macroinvertebrates?Macroinvertebrates? Benthic = bottom dwellingBenthic = bottom dwelling Macro = large enough to see with the naked eyeMacro = large enough to see with the naked eye Invertebrate = without a backbone (could be a clam, a worm, aInvertebrate = without a backbone (could be a clam, a worm, a crab, or an insect, for example)crab, or an insect, for example) Often refer to them as “stream bugs”
  3. 3. Big Diversity of BenthicBig Diversity of Benthic MacroinvertebratesMacroinvertebrates Leech Black fly larva Midge Dragonfly Crawdad Cranefly Mosquito Caddisfly Mayfly Stonefly Gilled snail
  4. 4. Why Do We MonitorWhy Do We Monitor Stream Bugs?Stream Bugs? Chemical WQ data offers good, but limitedChemical WQ data offers good, but limited information.information.  Only a “snapshot” view of conditionsOnly a “snapshot” view of conditions  Doesn’t measure “biology”Doesn’t measure “biology” Nitrates pH D.O. Fecal coliform Temperature T.S.S
  5. 5. BiologicalBiological AssessmentAssessment  Use living organisms to tell us somethingUse living organisms to tell us something about the environmentabout the environment
  6. 6. Why Use “stream bugs” inWhy Use “stream bugs” in Bioassessment of StreamsBioassessment of Streams  AbundantAbundant  DiverseDiverse  SedentarySedentary
  7. 7. Stream Bugs = excellent indicatorStream Bugs = excellent indicator of the stream’sof the stream’s biologicalbiological health.health.  Populations reflectPopulations reflect cumulativecumulative impacts .impacts .  They are easy to sample.They are easy to sample.  They have the same habitat needs as salmon .They have the same habitat needs as salmon .
  8. 8. Habitat Needs for Salmon andHabitat Needs for Salmon and Stream Bugs:Stream Bugs:  Clean, cold, oxygenated waterClean, cold, oxygenated water  Connected migration pathsConnected migration paths  HabitatHabitat features for spawning andfeatures for spawning and rearingrearing  DependableDependable stream flowsstream flows
  9. 9. Habitat Features for Spawning andHabitat Features for Spawning and RearingRearing
  10. 10. Dependable Stream FlowDependable Stream Flow
  11. 11. High FlowsHigh Flows Smothered Salmon Eggs
  12. 12. Stream BugsStream Bugs Tell A StoryTell A Story  No “good” or “bad” bugsNo “good” or “bad” bugs  Presence or absence indicates healthPresence or absence indicates health  Diversity (not total number of bugs) = HealthierDiversity (not total number of bugs) = Healthier samplesample
  13. 13. How Do They Tell The Story?How Do They Tell The Story?  B.I.B.I.B.I.B.I. ““Benthic Index of Biological Integrity”Benthic Index of Biological Integrity” 10 “metrics” indicating stream health10 “metrics” indicating stream health
  14. 14. 10 Metrics10 Metrics  Taxa richnessTaxa richness  # mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera)# mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera)  # stonefly taxa (Plecoptera)# stonefly taxa (Plecoptera)  # caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera)# caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera)  # long-lived taxa# long-lived taxa  # intolerant taxa# intolerant taxa  % tolerant taxa% tolerant taxa  % predators% predators  # clinger taxa# clinger taxa  % dominance (3 taxa)% dominance (3 taxa) Mayfly larva Stonefly larva Caddisfly larva Caddisfly case
  15. 15. Taxa RichnessTaxa Richness Leech Black fly larva Midge Dragonfly Crawdad Cranefly Mosquito Caddisfly Mayfly Stonefly Gilled snail
  16. 16. % Dominance (3 taxa)% Dominance (3 taxa) Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera leech bloodworm netspinner caddisfly Intolerant species Tolerant species Plecoptera
  17. 17. Number of Intolerant TaxaNumber of Intolerant Taxa lepidostomatidae caddisfly ephemerellidae mayfly nymph capniidae stonefly nymph Gilled snailDobsonfly larva Riffle beetle Water penny
  18. 18. % Tolerant Taxa% Tolerant Taxa leech black fly larva bloodworm netspinner caddisfly baetidae mayflies Midge larva
  19. 19. Number of Clinger TaxaNumber of Clinger Taxa Water penny Stonefly nymph Mayfly nymph Caddisfly larvae – Caddisfly Alderfly Riffle beetle larva
  20. 20. Number of Long-Lived TaxaNumber of Long-Lived Taxa Dragonfly nymph Alderfly larva Gilled snail Pteronarcys stonefly Dragonfly nymph
  21. 21. Number of Mayfly TaxaNumber of Mayfly Taxa (Ephemeroptera)(Ephemeroptera)
  22. 22. Number of Caddisfly TaxaNumber of Caddisfly Taxa (Trichoptera)(Trichoptera)
  23. 23. Number of Stonefly TaxaNumber of Stonefly Taxa (Plecoptera)(Plecoptera)
  24. 24. % Predators taxa% Predators taxa water beetle Dragonfly larva Great diving beetle Stonefly larva Rhycophila caddisfly
  25. 25. Computing the B.I.B.I.Computing the B.I.B.I.  Example: Taxa RichnessExample: Taxa Richness 0-20 taxa = low (0-20 taxa = low (11)) 21-40 taxa = moderate (21-40 taxa = moderate (33)) 40+ taxa = high (40+ taxa = high (55))
  26. 26. Computing the B.I.B.I.Computing the B.I.B.I.  Taxa richnessTaxa richness 11 33 55  # mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera)# mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera) 1 31 3 55  # stonefly taxa (Plecoptera)# stonefly taxa (Plecoptera) 11 33 55  # caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera)# caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera) 11 3 53 5  # long-lived taxa# long-lived taxa 11 3 53 5  # intolerant taxa# intolerant taxa 11 33 55  % tolerant taxa% tolerant taxa 11 3 53 5  % predators% predators 11 33 55  # clinger taxa# clinger taxa 1 31 3 55  % dominance (3 taxa)% dominance (3 taxa) 1 31 3 55
  27. 27. Computing the B.I.B.I.Computing the B.I.B.I.  Taxa richnessTaxa richness 33  # mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera)# mayfly taxa (Ephemeroptera) 55  # stonefly taxa (Plecoptera)# stonefly taxa (Plecoptera) 33  # caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera)# caddisfly taxa (Trichoptera) 11  # long-lived taxa# long-lived taxa 11  # intolerant taxa# intolerant taxa 33  % tolerant taxa% tolerant taxa 11  % predators% predators 33  # clinger taxa# clinger taxa 55  % dominance (3 taxa)% dominance (3 taxa) 55  TOTAL:TOTAL: 3030
  28. 28. Final B.I.B.I. Scores*Final B.I.B.I. Scores*  10 – 16 = Very Poor10 – 16 = Very Poor  18 - 26 = Poor18 - 26 = Poor  28 – 36 = Fair28 – 36 = Fair  38 – 44 = Good38 – 44 = Good  46 - 50 = Excellent46 - 50 = Excellent *10 Metric B-IBI Score used by Mindy Allen*10 Metric B-IBI Score used by Mindy Allen Stonefly Caddisfly
  29. 29. When in the Field….When in the Field…. Observe: land use, canopy cover…etc.

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