2. APA 7th Edition
• The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,
Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style.
• The 7th edition was published late 2019 so you should be using this
version by now
• Check with your tutor if you should be using the 6th OR 7th edition of
the APA referencing style
• Cite Them Right gives guidance on both versions
• There are print copies of the 7th edition manual available in the library
1st floor wing, shelfmark: 808.06615PUB
3. Aims and Objectives
In this session we will be:
•Exploring what is referencing
•Discussing what tools are available to help you
4. Yeah we’ve found some information!! but is it any good….
Image by OpenClipart-Vectors from Pixabay
7. Trust and Quality
•What makes you believe in the information?
•How accurate is it?
•Has it been quality controlled – peer reviewed?
•Are the opinions backed up with evidence like
data and references?
•Who created the work?
•What are their qualifications and
•Can you contact them?
•Does it say if they are being sponsored?
•What was the reason for creating the material?
•Does the author have an agenda?
•Is the agenda: commercial, educational,
•How objective are the views presented?
•Who is the work aimed at?
12. Citation v Reference
• A citation is the In-Text way of directing or sign-posting the
reader to the full reference. It is the author’s surname and date
• A reference is the full information at the end of your assignment
giving exact details of where the piece of information was
sourced. It covers only information you have cited in your
• A reference list is always in alphabetical order at the end of the
• A bibliography includes all the material used in your assignment
but may have decided not to cite
13. What is referencing and why it is important
• Referencing is the process of acknowledging other people’s work
when you have used it in your assignment or research.
• It allows the reader to locate your source material as quickly and
easily as possible so that they can read these sources themselves and
verify the validity of your arguments.
• Referencing provides the link between what you write and the
evidence on which it is based.
• You need to be clear in every instance when you are referring to
someone else's work
14. Citations and References examples
According to Chapman & Dixon (2009) recent development in multimedia
technology have lead to a ten-fold increase in the ownership of……….
Parentheses () Citation:
Ownership of hand-held digital devices has increased ten-fold due to recent
developments in multimedia technology (Chapman & Dixon, 2009).
Chapman, N., & Dixon, J. (2009). Digital multimedia (3rd ed.). John Wiley.
15. What do they mean?
•Quotation - Quotations should be relevant to your
•Paraphrase - When you paraphrase, you express someone
else's writing in your own words.
•Summary - When you summarise, you provide a brief
statement of the main points of an article.
16. Secondary referencing: or How do I reference
a source quoted in another author’s work
In this example you should have cited both but would only reference
Richards. Only put a full reference for the one you have read in your
18. Why Cite/Reference?
• Give credit to the original author/creator
• Demonstrate that you have read widely on the subject and
have considered and evaluated the writings of others
• Show the evidence of your research by quoting,
paraphrasing or summarising from the original text
• Establish the credibility and authority of your ideas and
arguments by highlighting and backing-up relevant points
• Enable the reader to locate the original material you used
• Distinguish between your own ideas and opinions and
those of others
• Achieve a better mark or grade
• Avoid plagiarism.
20. When do we cite?
• When we use someone else’s idea.
• When we use someone else’s words, images etc.
You don’t need to cite something if it is “common
However If you are unsure it is better to cite than not
23. How to Create a Citation and Reference
What information do you need?
• Author of book, article
• Title of book, article
• Date of Publication
• Chapter title
• Chapter Author
• Journal title
• Volume number
• Part number
• URL or DOI
• Last updated date
• Page number(s)
• Website name
24. Where is that information found?
• Title page – not the same as the book/journal cover
• Back of the title page
• Contents page
• DOI – Digital object identifier
• URL box on websites
• MDX Library Search – remember the citation option click on the “
symbol, Google scholar and databases like PsycInfo
• Referencing software
27. I need help! What do I do?
• Citethemright – Always check your references
• The referencing style may have a website
for example: http://www.apastyle.org/
• Use the citation option on Library Search or on Google Scholar.
Remember the “ symbol?
• Chat to a librarian at the Study Hub 9-5 Monday – Friday, or to a
member of the Academic Writing Team drop in sessions 12-3 Monday
28. Use Library Search to create APA or Harvard references
Choose a referencing
style e.g. Harvard or
Check against Cite
Them Right Online or
the APA referencing
36. Example of an APA reference list
All sources are listed alphabetically. Note that the first line of the reference is not
indented, but subsequent lines are, so that the authors’ names are easily identifiable
• Bradley, C. H. (2015). Evidential issues concerning patients of
homeopathy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(4), 122–141. https://doi-
• British Homeopathic Association. (2015). Homeopathy - a healthcare choice for
• Carmichael, B. (2014). Homeopathy. Oat Publishing.
• Department of Health. (2017). Government response to the Science and
Technology Committee report ‘Evidence check 2: Homeopathy’. The
Stationery Office Limited.
• Farrow, P. S., & Morgan, L. (Eds.). (2009–2012). Homeopathic medicine: A history
and study (Vols. 1–4). Greenlife Books.
• Harvey, A. (2016). Homeopathy: New evidence for and against. Medicine
Today, 29(4), 503–543.
37. Top Tips
• Check your referencing style and version
• Ask for help from the LET or library staff
• Be organised – keep a record of ALL potentially useful sources as you
• Be prepared – Read the basics section of Cite Them Right
• Be clear – Identify the type of resource and check against Cite Them
• Be thorough – Check through your work before you submit. Make
sure all your citations and references match
• Don’t leave your referencing to the last minute!
38. BEWARE OF FREE SOFTWARE!
If you use referencing software of any kind to format your references,
but especially if you are using a free online tool like RefMe or
YOU NEED TO CHECK REFERENCES YOURSELF
USING CITE THEM RIGHT BEFORE YOU SUBMIT YOUR
39. Further help
• Academic Writing team: 1st floor Sheppard library 12-3 drop in sessions
• Librarians available at the Study Hub (Sheppard library 1st floor) Monday-Friday 9-5
Pears, R., Shields, G., & Shields, G. (2019). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide.
(11th ed.). Macmillan Education.
Before you start to cite and reference items for your assignment you need to evaluate them first
Think about the sources suitability
Trust and Quality
Referencing involves 2 main parts
In text citations
Full reference details
Do you know the difference between a citation and a reference?
Every academic institution requires its students to reference in their work and your tutors will expect you to do this accurately, clearly and concisely. Your university or institution should issue you with guidelines on how they expect you to reference in your particular subject area. Follow these guidelines carefully.
Reference list is always a-z don’t split it up by format and don’t arrange by citation order
Referencing covers ideas, words and images
Narrative citation – just date
Parentheses citation – brackets with author and date
A narrative citation is a citation in which the author name appears in the sentence itself, rather than within parentheses. The author name is part of the meaning of the sentence
Quotations should be relevant to your arguments. Don’t use too many
Your tutor will prefer to read your own interpretation of the information.
Bear in mind that direct quotations are also counted in your assignment's total word count.
Short direct quotations (up to two or three lines) should be enclosed in quotation marks (single or double – be consistent) and included in the body of your text. Give the author, date and page number(s)/URL that the quotation was taken from.
Longer quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. Quotation marks are not required.
Paraphrasing: When you paraphrase, you express someone else's writing in your own words. However, you must ensure that you do not change the original meaning and you must still cite and reference your source of information.
Summarising: When you summarise, you provide a brief statement of the main points of an article, web page, chapter or book, known as a summary. This differs from paraphrasing as it only lists the main topics or headings, with most of the detailed information being left out.
Secondary Referencing this is when you want to refer to a source that is mentioned or quoted in the work you are reading.
Always try to read and reference the original where possible but if you can’t you should cite both sources in the text and use the phrase “as cited in” but only put a full reference for the one you have read in your reference list
In this example you have cited both but would only reference Richards
Ask for reasons
Demonstrate that you have read widely on the subject and considered and evaluated the writings of others
Show your tutor the evidence of your research and thereby appreciate your contribution to the topic
Establish the credibility and authority of your ideas and arguments
Enable the reader to locate the original material you used
Give credit to the original author/creator
Enable the reader to form their own views on the value of your sources and how you have interpreted them
Distinguish between your own ideas and opinions and those of others
Highlight and back-up relevant points by quoting, paraphrasing or summarising from the original text
Achieve a better mark or grade
There is no need to reference things that are considered common knowledge. This is generally defined as facts, dates, events and information that are expected to be known by someone studying or working in a particular subject area or field.
In order to decide if the material you want to use in your assignment constitutes common knowledge, you need to ask yourself the following questions:
Did I know this information before I started my course?
Did this information or idea come from my own brain?
If the answer to either or both of these questions is ‘no’, then the information is unlikely to be common knowledge to you. In these cases, you should cite and reference the sources.
If you are unsure whether something is common knowledge, it is always advisable to cite and reference it.
Always check which style you need to use for your assignment. Especially if you are doing a joint course. APA or Harvard
Harvard doesn’t use Harvard
Referencing like Cooking
You have all the ingredients e.g. author, date, title, publisher place of publication
You have to mix them altogether following the recipe to get the right result
The referencing style is your recipe and the reference is your cake!
Image by Marta Cuesta from Pixabay
WorldCat – claims to be the world’s largest catalogue. Useful for get full information on a reference if you have forgotten some of the info
Google Scholar or Databases
Always check but better than starting with a blank piece of paper
Go to Cite them right
My Library – Referencing link – Cite them right
Search box – type in the type of information source you want to reference eg tattoo = Body art
Source types you will need to reference include
Books, Journal articles, Newspapers, reports and web pages
DOI’s may need some explanation
They need to establish whether a webpage has individual author(s), an institution is the author or it has no author. If it has not author they perhaps should not be using it.
Notice the second and subsequent lines are indented
Give students time to look at the reference lists.
Rank them in order
Discuss which is the best one and why. What can you identify? No books on best one though…
A = Worst
B = Better
C = Best