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The skeletal system

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The skeletal system

  1. 1. The Skeletal System PBL – G5 Case 1
  2. 2. The Skeletal System ▪ Is the body's framework of bones which consists of 206 bones of an average adult human, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. ▪ Performs vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to survive.
  3. 3. :Tow major division of the skeleton
  4. 4. :Growth of the Skeleton ▪ A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults have. Some of a baby's bones are made entirely of a special material called cartilage (say: KAR-tel-ij). Other bones in a baby are partly made of cartilage. This cartilage is soft and flexible. During childhood, as you are growing, the cartilage grows and is slowly replaced by bone, with help from calcium. ▪ By the time you are about 25, this process will be complete. After this happens, there can be no more growth — the bones are as big as they will ever be. ▪ All of these bones make up a skeleton that is both very strong and very light
  5. 5. (Bone Growth (Ossification prosses
  6. 6. The Function of Skeleton ▪ 1. Support: The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. ▪ 2. Protection: The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. ▪ 3. Assisting in Movement: Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move.
  7. 7. The Function of Skeleton ▪ 4. Storage of Minerals: Bone tissues store several minerals , including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). When required, bone releases minerals into the blood - facilitating the balance of minerals in the body. ▪ 5. Production of Blood Cells: The red bone marrow inside some larger bones produces blood cells. ▪ 6. Storage of Chemical Energy: With increasing age some bone marrow changes from 'red bone marrow' to 'yellow bone marrow'. Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, and a few blood cells. It is an important chemical energy reserve.
  8. 8. :Structure of the Skeleton ▪The skeletal system consist of several connective tissues such as bones, ligaments, joints, tendons and cartilage.
  9. 9. Bones ▪There are two basic types of bone tissue:. ▪ 1- Compact bone: a- Homogeneous ▪ 2- Spongy bone: a- Small needle-like pieces of bone b- Many open spaces
  10. 10. Structure of Bones ▪ The bones in the skeleton are not all solid. ▪ The outside cortical bone is solid bone with only a few small canals. ▪ The insides of the bone contain trabecular bone which is like scaffolding or a honey-comb. ▪ The spaces between the bone are filled with fluid bone marrow cells, which make the blood, and some fat cells.
  11. 11. Tendons & Ligaments
  12. 12. ▪joints part) Joints) ▪Joints—also called articulations—are formed where the surfaces of two or more bones meet and articulate with each other. So that we can bend, stretch, twist and .turn easily – but within certain limits. Most of our joints are designed to allow bones to move only in certain directions ▪.Functionally, joints can be classified by the degree of movement possible, the number of bones involved, and the complexity of the joint ▪.Joints are usually classified structurally by the tissue that connects them. The tissue could be cartilage, fibrous tissue, synovial fluid, or some combination of the three ▪Types of Functional Joints ▪immovable joints—the bones are held together by fibrous tissue so they don’t move at all; example is the skull bones ▪slightly movable joints—the bones are held together by cartilage that allows only a little movement; examples are the joints in the spine ▪freely movable joints—also called synovial joints, allow the most movement; examples are hip and knee joints ▪Types of Structural Joints ▪.Fibrous joint :A joint where two or more bones are fused together by tough, fibrous connective tissue (example: skull sutures); this is the least moveable joint of the body ▪Cartilaginous joint :A joint where two or more bones are held together by a piece of cartilage (example: vertebrae or pubic bones); these joints are slightly moveable ▪Synovial joint :The most common joint in humans and also the most complex; contains two key characteristics: surrounded by a joint capsule and contains synovial fluid; also .the most highly moveable joint in humans ▪Synovial fluid :Fluid found within synovial joints to reduce wear and tear and to nourish the structures inside of the joint capsule.A joint capsule is a piece of tissue that .surrounds a synovial joint. Its purpose is to hold the synovial fluid of the joint in place, as well as to provide an envelope for the entire joint Joints
  13. 13. ▪(Add definition)cartilage
  14. 14. ▪skeletal system is the body's framework of bones; there are 206 distinct bones in the body of an average adult human. The bones give support and shape to the body, protect delicate internal organs, and provide sites of attachment for muscles to make motion possible. In addition, they store and help maintain the correct level of calcium, .and the bone marrow manufactures blood cells
  15. 15. Since most bone begins as cartilage, it must be converted to bone through a process called ossification. The key players in bone development are cartilage cells (chondrocytes), bone precursor cells (osteoprogenitor cells), bone deposition cells (osteoblasts), bone resorption cells (osteoclasts) and mature (bone cells (osteocytes Bone Development And Growth
  16. 16. ▪Support .1 ▪The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most .skeletal muscles ▪Protection .2 ▪The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect .the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs ▪Assisting in Movement .3 ▪Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the .associated muscles contract they cause bones to move Functions of The Skeleton
  17. 17. ▪Storage of Minerals .4 ▪Bone tissues store several minerals , including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). When required, bone .releases minerals into the blood - facilitating the balance of minerals in the body ▪Production of Blood Cells .5 ▪.The red bone marrow inside some larger bones produces blood cells ▪Storage of Chemical Energy .6 ▪With increasing age some bone marrow changes from 'red bone marrow' to 'yellow bone marrow'. Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, and a few blood cells. It is an important .chemical energy reserve ▪ ▪
  18. 18. The axial skeleton ▪The axial skeleton provides support and protection to the brain,spinal cord,and the organs in the vetebral body:it also provides a surface for attarchment of muscles,directrespiratory movement,and stabilize portion of .the appendicular skeleton
  19. 19. Parts of the axial skeleton ▪Skull ▪Vertebral colunm ▪(Thoracic cage(rib cage ▪Hyoid
  20. 20. The skull • The skill has two set of bones • Cranium bones • Facial bones • Which are all connected by sutures and have sinuses which are hollow cavities within the bones
  21. 21. Hyoid bone • Support the larynx and is a point of attarchment for muscles of the larynx,pharynx and tongue.
  22. 22. Vertebral column The vertbral column jas 26 bones which are ▪vertebrae 24 ▪Sacrum ▪Coccyx It also has the intervertebral discs which serve as cushioning between two vertebrae
  23. 23. Thoracic cage ▪pairs of ribs 12 (Sternum(breast bone Manubrium Body Xiphoid process Costal cartilage
  24. 24. ▪The Appendicular Skeleton ▪There’re 126 bones in the Appendicular Skeleton and It consist of four parts, Upper limbs , .Shoulder girdle , Lower limbs , Pelvic girdle ▪ ▪Upper Limb Bones ▪Humerus : the long bone of the upper arm ▪: The long bones of the forearm, that connects with the humerus to form the elbow are ▪Radius - Ulna ▪Shoulder(Pectoral) Girdle ▪:Composed of two ▪Clavicle: collar bone ▪Scapula: shoulder bone
  25. 25. ▪Lower Limb Bones ▪Femur: Long bone of the thigh and longest bone in the body ▪Tibia: Long bone of the leg ▪Fibula: thinner , long bone of the leg ▪Pelvic Girdle ▪Made up of the right and the left hip bones ▪.The Hipbones: made up of ▪Ilium – Sacrum – Pubic bone ▪:The pelvic girdle protects several organs ▪Reproductive organs – Urinary bladder – Part of the large intestine ▪
  26. 26. THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF :CARTILAGE NAMELY Hyaline cartilage Fibrocartilage Elastic cartilage
  27. 27. Cartilage ▪Cartilage is a tough but flexible tissue that is the main type of connective .tissue in the body ▪.Its is made up of chondrocytes that are isolated in chambers called lacunae ▪It consists of 60%-80% of water and the rest is gel like substance called the .matrix ▪It is surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue known as .perichondrium ▪.Its is located in very specific places, usually between two bones
  28. 28. FUNCTIONS OF THE CARTILAGE The hyaline cartilage tissue provides smooth surfaces, it also provides flexibility and support Fibrocartilage provides support and rigidity to attached surrounding and it’s the strongest of the three types Elastic cartilage provides support to surrounding structures and helps the define and maintain the shape of the area in which its present
  29. 29. Locations of cartilage ▪Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant of the three types and is found in the :bronchi, larynx, nose, trachea, embryonic skeleton i.e in the fetus ▪Fibrocartilage is found in the :calli, invertebral discs, mrnisci,pubic symphysis ▪Elastic cartilage is found in the: auditory tubes, external ear auricle and epiglottis
  30. 30. Locations of cartilage Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant of the three types and is found in the :bronchi, larynx, nose, trachea, embryonic skeleton i.e in the fetus Fibrocartilage is found in the :calli, invertebral discs, mrnisci,pubic symphysis Elastic cartilage is found in the: auditory tubes, external ear auricle and epiglottis
  31. 31. Types of cells in the skeletal system Osteoprogenitor Cells: These are immature cells that are primarily located in the bone marrow and periosteum .(membrane that lines the surface of all bones). They mature into the osteoblasts, another type of bone cell Osteoblast Cells: These are the bone cells that are primarily responsible for bone formation. They only have one nucleus and are derived from osteoprogenitor cells. They function by secreting a substance called osteoid, which is also known as the bone matrix. Their job is to regulate the passage of minerals, such as calcium, in and out of the bone. .They also function by secreting proteins that regulate the osteoclast cells Osteoclast Cells: These are the cells that are primarily responsible for dissolving bone tissue, also known as resorption. They do not arise from osteoprogenitor cells; instead, white blood cells that normally have immune system function (monocytes) fuse together to create the osteoclasts. As a result, they are quite large, with multiple nuclei, and are .(located in the endosteum (membrane that lines the inner cavity of the bone where bone marrow resides Osteocytes: These can be recognized by their typical star-shaped appearance, and are mature osteoblasts that do not .secrete the osteoid bone matrix, but are surrounded by it .Together, the osteoblasts and osteoclasts perform bone remodelling /Reference: http://www.livestrong.com/article/72443-specialized-cells-skeletal-system Bone as a supporting connective tissue Bone is a form of connective tissue. The matrix is hard and calcified arranged in a circular way giving the characteristic appearance of Haversian system or osteon (is the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone). The bone stores calcium (for healthy bones) and phosphorus (for strong bones and teeth). It also gives support and protection to the .body
  32. 32. Common Skeletal System Diseases . Arthritis is a joint disorder causing inflammation and pain in the affected area. There are several forms of .arthritis. most common as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis .Arthritis exists in two main forms Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative joint disease. Especially kneens and hips. All joints are lined with cartilage to provide cushioning and synovial fluid to help lubricate the joint through a range of motion. Over time, these tissues break down and wear away leading to bone spur formation, joint narrowing, inflammation .and pain Autoimmune arthritis occurs when the body attacks itself and damages joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is one .example and over time, results in severe joint destruction and chronic debilitation ▪Osteoporosis As bone mineral density decreases, bones loose their integral strength. Age, hormone status and diet all play .a vital role in osteoporosis. Bones become progressively weak and are prone to fractures with minor trauma
  33. 33. Rickets/ Osteomalacia .3 Rickets is caused from a severe deficiency of calcium, vitamin D and phosphate. Bones soften and become weak losing their normal shape. Bone pain, muscle cramps and skeletal deformities .occur Tendinitis .4 Overuse or injury of the tendons results in inflammation and pain. Tendons connect muscle to bone and facilitate movement. Commonly affected areas include the knee, elbow, wrist and Achilles’ tendon. Treatment includes rest, ice and modifying activities until the pain and .inflammation resolve Clubfoot .5 Clubfoot is a birth defect resulting one or both feet pointing inward and downward. This makes learning to walk difficult and specialized orthopedic therapy or surgery is often required. The .medical term for this condition is talipes equinovarus
  34. 34. ▪Bursitis .6 ▪The bursa are specialized sacs of fluid found around our joints. They provide cushioning between the joints and nearby muscle, tendon and ligaments. The well-known condition of 'water on the knee' is an example of prepatellar .bursitis. This condition causes pain, swelling and mild redness ▪Spina Bifida .7 ▪This birth related condition results in incomplete closure of the vertebra around the spinal canal. Many people have a mild form and do not even know it. More severe forms are accompanied by nerve defects, difficulty .walking at problems with bowel and bladder function ▪Leukemia .8 ▪White blood cells are produced in part by the bone marrow. A variety of blood cancers are generally termed leukemia. The onset is generally insidious and until a critical mass of abnormal cells occurs, most people are without symptoms. Early warning signs include: bone pain, excess fatigue, .easy bruising, night sweats, unexplained weight loss and bleeding gums
  35. 35. ▪Bone Cancer . ▪Tumors can arise in bones in a similar fashion as other solid organ cancers. Bone cancer can occur as a primary type of cancer or can be a sign of an advanced cancer located elsewhere in the body that has spread (metastasized) to the bones. Primary bone cancers include .osteosarcoma and Ewing's. Metastatic cancer examples include lung, breast and prostate ▪
  36. 36. Different between skeletal system in both sex
  37. 37. Male skeleton system Female skeleton system Has pelvic cavity which is narrower and less roomy Has pelvic cavity which is wider and deeper Has coccyx (tailbone) which is less movable Has coccyx which is more movable Has thick and heavy pelvis Has light and thin pelvis Has large joint surface Has small joint surface Has deep grater pelvis Has short grater pelvis Has pubic arch less than 900 Has pubic arch more than 900 Has inward turned ischial tuberosity Has outward turned ischaial tuberosity Smaller pelvic inter and outer Has larger pelvic inter and outer Has narrow sciatic notch Has wider sciatic notch
  38. 38. Children have more .bones than adults
  39. 39. The skeletal system in an adult body is .made up of 206 individual bones
  40. 40. When a child is born, there are 270 bones that make up the .human skeletal system
  41. 41. children’s bones tend to be more .flexible than adults ▪This is because of the large amount of .cartilage
  42. 42. We are born with more than 300 bones. Many of these bones fuse together as .a child grows into an adult
  43. 43. Joints ▪Joints—also called articulations—are formed where the surfaces of two or more bones meet and articulate with each other. So that we can bend, stretch, twist and turn easily – but within certain limits. Most of our joints are designed to allow .bones to move only in certain directions ▪Functionally, joints can be classified by the degree of movement possible, the .number of bones involved, and the complexity of the joint Joints are usually classified structurally by the tissue that connects them. The tissue .could be cartilage, fibrous tissue, synovial fluid, or some combination of the three ▪Types of Functional Joints ▪immovable joints—the bones are held together by fibrous tissue so they don’t move at all; example is the skull bones ▪slightly movable joints—the bones are held together by cartilage that allows only a little movement; examples are the joints in the spine ▪freely movable joints—also called synovial joints, allow the most movement; examples are hip and knee joints
  44. 44. ▪Types of Structural Joints ▪Fibrous joint :A joint where two or more bones are fused together by tough, fibrous .connective tissue (example: skull sutures); this is the least moveable joint of the body ▪Cartilaginous joint :A joint where two or more bones are held together by a piece of cartilage (example: vertebrae or pubic bones); these joints are slightly moveable ▪Synovial joint :The most common joint in humans and also the most complex; contains two key characteristics: surrounded by a joint capsule and contains synovial .fluid; also the most highly moveable joint in humans ▪Synovial fluid :Fluid found within synovial joints to reduce wear and tear and to nourish the structures inside of the joint capsule.A joint capsule is a piece of tissue that surrounds a synovial joint. Its purpose is to hold the synovial fluid of the joint in .place, as well as to provide an envelope for the entire joint

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