• ‘’The Vision of our Future must be rooted in
our Image of the Past,’’ however, strongly
contends that: ‘’Filipinos possessed an
elaborate civilization in the past. This
achievement did not become part of Filipino
consciousness, even today, because of the
advent of colonization during which a
systematic distortion of our perspectives
about ourselves was carried out.’’
15. H. Otley Beyer (eminent anthropologist
of the American period
• The racial mixture of the Filipinos is as follows:
– Malay (40%)
– Indonesian (30%)
– Negrito (10%)
– Chinese (10%)
– Indian (8%)
– American (3%)
– Arab (2%)
26. The Malays
Came in three waves;
First: brought their mining and smelting
technology, and their agricultural system.
They were headhunters who chiefly
depended on hunting, fishing, and fruit
gathering. They developed terrace
agriculture with elaborate irrigation
27. • Second wave: brought their syllable system of
writing. They were known as the alphabetusing Malays.
• Third wave: the Muslim Malays introduced
Islam in the Philippines.
– More advanced culturally and economically than
– Their culture belonged to the Iron and Porcelain
– Lived in organized communities and had domestic
and foreign barter trade, wet agriculture, and
30. The First Filipino
• Tabon Man (22,000-30,000 years ago) – who
lived in Palawan.
– The skull cap of this Stone Age human was
discovered by Dr. Robert Fox inside Tabon Cave in
– Medium height, and had a high eyebrow and
– Depend on forest fruits, roots and edible plant,
and by hunting wild animals.
35. First Filipino Communities
– Units of social organization with broader political,
economic, and religious features than the family
– 30-100 families had distinct culture of their own.
– As political organization, it was a consultative
monarchy and was considered the barangays carried
on trade and commerce not only among themselves,
but also with other foreign entities.
– They concluded treaty of friendship and alliance with
each other through ritual sanduguan (blood
38. Social Classes
• Traditional history divided pre-Spanish cosiety
into three classes:
– The nobles or upper class
• The chiefs (Datu or Rajah), their families and relatives
– The freemen or middle class
• Free-born or freed slaves constituted the majority of the
– The dependents or alipins
• Aliping namamahay – owned house and properties
• Aliping sagigilid – had no right, could be sold anytime by his
master, generally they were captives of war
39. Spanish Colonial Society
• Ferdinand Magellan
– The first European to reach the Philippines
– A Portuguese explorer commissioned by the Spanish
ruler to search for the Spice Islands.
– Named the islands “La Felipinas” in honor of Prince
Philip, who later became the King of Spain.
• Legazpi (1565)
– Successfully established the first Spanish settlement in
51. American Colonial Society
– The main vehicle of peaceful pacification through
education was the establishment of the Public
School System by the American-controlled Second
Philippine Commission under Taft.
– The Commission’s Act No. 74 provided initially for
free primary education with English as the
medium of instructions.
52. • Pensionado system or the scholarship grant to
the United States
– Another subtle device created by the Americans
to project better their benevolence.
– It was recorded that by 1912 more than 200 of
this pensionados or “Americanization trainees”
had obtained their university degrees in the
54. Economic Relations
• Free trade relations with the United States
made the Philippines economically dependent
on the United States.
55. Miseducation and Colonial
• Colonial or “Stateside mentality
Literature-Agent of Deculturization
Literature during this period was divided into two
schools of thought:
• reactionary school – whose clientele were the
collaborators or “Americanistas”
•progressive school – whose proponents were
from the “irreconcilables”