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educational psychology

  1. 1. Information Processing of Memory ,Forgetting and How to over this ? Sumbul Fatima B.Ed(Hons) University of Education
  2. 2. What is memory?  “Memory is our ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain. It can be thought of in general terms as the use of past experience to affect or influence current behavior.  The modern English word “memory” comes to us from the Middle English memory, which in turn comes from the Anglo-French memoire or memories, and ultimately from the Latin memorial and memory, meaning "mindful" or "remember.
  3. 3. In psychology?  In psychological terms, this faculty of mind to store the past experience or learning and to reproduce them for use when required at a later time is known as Memory”.
  4. 4. Mechanism of the process of memorization:  When we try to recollect or repeat our past experiences or learning, we make use of the memory traces and if we are successful in the revival of our memory traces, our memory is said to be good.  But if, some-how or the other, the memory traces have died out, we cannot reproduce or make use of our past experiences and learning.  In this case it is said that we have been unable to retain what has been learned or that we forgotten  “Learning is then the primary condition for memorization
  5. 5. Mechanism of the process of memorization:  At the second stage we have to ensure that these learning experiences retained properly in the form of mental impression of images so that they can be retrieved when the need arises.”  The third and fourth stages in the process of memorizations can be termed as recognization and recall. Recognization is a much easier and simpler a psychological process then recall
  6. 6. Mechanism of the process of memorization:  The process of memorization, thus, begins with learning or experiencing something and ends with its revivals and reproduction. Therefore, memory is said to involve four stages, viz, learning or experiencing something, its retention, recognition, and recall,  The condition of retaining (keeping) something  The duration of retention depends upon the strength and quality of the memory traces.
  7. 7. TYPES OF MEMORY
  8. 8. MEMORY  Psychologists have tried to classify memory into certain types according to its nature and purpose it serves.  1. Sensory  2. Short-term memory 3. Long-term memory
  9. 9. SENSORY MEMORY  Sensory memory stores incoming sensory information in detail but only for an instant. The capacity of sensory memory is very large, but the information in it is unprocessed.  For example  If a flashlight moves quickly in a circle inside a dark room, people will see a circle of light rather than the individual points through which the flashlight moved. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is called echoic memory.
  10. 10. Sensory memory  Information is passed from the sensory memory into short-term memory via the process of attention.
  11. 11. Short term memory  Short-term memory acts as a kind of “scratch-pad” for temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time. It holds a small amount of information (typically around 7 items or even less) in mind in an active, readily-available state for a short period of time (typically from 10 to 15 seconds, or sometimes up to a minute)  Some of the information in sensory memory transfers to short-term memory, which can hold information for approximately twenty seconds.
  12. 12. Example  person confronted with this sequence of twelve letters would probably have difficulty remembering it ten seconds later, because short-term memory cannot handle twelve pieces of information: HO TB UT TE RE DP OP CO RN IN AB OW L However, these letters can be easily remembered if they’re grouped into six familiar words, because short-term memory can hold six pieces of information: HOT BUTTERED POPCORN IN A BOWL
  13. 13. Working memory  Psychologists today consider short-term memory to be a working memory. Rather than being just a temporary information storage system, working memory is an active system. Information can be kept in working memory while people process or examine it. Working memory allows people to temporarily store and manipulate visual images, store information while trying to make decisions, and remember a phone number long enough to write it down.
  14. 14. Long term memory  Information can be transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory and from long- term memory back to short-term memory. Long-term memory has an almost infinite capacity, and information in long-term memory usually stays there for the duration of a person’s life. However, this doesn’t mean that people will always be able to remember what’s in their long- term memory—they may not be able to retrieve information that’s there.
  15. 15. There are two types of long term memory  1 implicit memory  Sometimes referred to as unconscious memory or automatic memory. Implicit memory uses past experiences to remember things without thinking about them. Musicians and professional athletes are said to have superior ability to form procedural memories
  16. 16. Procedural memory  Which is a subset of implicit memory, is a part of the long- term memory responsible for knowing how to do things, also known as motor skills. You don't have to delve into your memory to recall how to walk each time you take a step. Some examples of procedural memory:  Playing piano  Ice skating  Playing tennis  Swimming  Climbing stairs
  17. 17. 2: Explicit memory or declarative memory  Sometimes referred to as declarative memory — requires a more concerted effort to bring the surface. Declarative memory involves both semantic and episodic memory. While most people can tick off the days of the week from the time they are in grade school — which is implicit memory — it takes explicit memory to remember that your mother's birthday is next Wednesday.
  18. 18. There are two types of explicit memory  1 semantic memory  IS IT not connected to personal experience. Semantic memory includes things that are common knowledge, such as the names of states, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts that are not in question. Some examples of semantic memory include:  Knowledge that the sky is blue  Knowing how to use a knife and fork  Remembering what dog is  Recalling that President Kennedy was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963
  19. 19. 2 :EPISODIC MEMORY  Is a person's unique recollections of a specific event or an episode. People are usually able to associate particular details with an episodic memory, such as how they felt, the time and place, and other particulars. It is not clear as to why some memories of events in our lives are committed to memory, while others don't get recorded, but researchers believe that emotions play a critical role in what we remember. Some examples of episodic memory:  Your beach vacation last summer  The first time you traveled by plane  Your first day at a new job  The restaurant you went to on your first date with your spouse
  20. 20. Remembering and memory:  memory denotes the ability of power of mind to retain and reproduce learning. Both the terms “memorization” and “remembering” carry the same meaning.  While differentiating memory and remembering, Levin says  Memory can be linked to a giant filing cabinet in the brain, with data stored, classified and cross-field. This power of ability helps in the process of memorization
  21. 21. Models of remembering:  Storage and transfer model: Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi-storage Model:  Levels of Processing:
  22. 22. Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi-storage Model  This is a model of how memory forms. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi- storage Model has three major components to it • Sensory memory • Short Term memory • Long Term memory
  23. 23. Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi-storage Model
  24. 24. Sensory memory  This is the term given to the senses that store information from the environment  When you are reading a book, the text on the pages is getting processed by your visual senses. If you are listening to a lecture about quantum physics, your auditory senses are being used  There are two major types of sensory memory that you will be focusing on in VCE psychology, this includes: • Iconic Memory • Echoic Memory
  25. 25. Iconic Memory:  Iconic Memory: This type of memory is involved with the vision field only. Anything that you see visually can be stored as iconic memory,  The storage capacity of iconic memory is very large and covers the whole visual field and the storage duration is very small – information stays in the iconic memory for no longer than 0.25 seconds.
  26. 26. Teset of Iconic Memory:
  27. 27. Test  Now answer the following questions. 1) What was the character in the 2 column on the third row? 2) What was the character in the right, bottom grid doing? 3) How many male characters were there?
  28. 28. echoic memory  This type of memory is registered by the auditory system only. All the sounds including the pitch, noise, tone and rhythm are stored in the echoic memory. Just like the iconic memory, echoic memory has an unlimited capacity – you can hear everything simultaneously  echoic memory is very short lasting – only between 1.5 to 5 seconds.
  29. 29. Short Term Memory (STM)  For example, when you go to the shops you obviously don’t remember all of the things that you saw or heard – a large chunk of it is lost information!  The Atkinson-Shiffrin model says that information is only transferred into the short term memory when we give attention to the sensory memory  or example, we are more likely to remember a screaming child in a restaurant or shop because we give more attention to it compared to other noises.
  30. 30. Duration The short term memory has a longer storage duration of 18-30 seconds This is one of the ways in which information in the short term memory can be transferred into the long term memory.
  31. 31. Chunking The short term memory, unlike the sensory memory does not have an unlimited capacity. The capacity is only limited from 5 to 9 chunks (7 ± 2 chunks). Chunking breaking individual bits of information into sections that you can remember
  32. 32. Chunking  For example: Consider the number 0403198719662009 – you can remember all 16 numbers individually by looking at each number as a separate part, however it will be difficult to do this as the short term memory is only limited to usually a maximum of 9 chunks  Instead you can be more meaningful date such as: 04/03/1987 my bday 1966 mum's birthday 2009 brother’s bday reak the information into
  33. 33. Long Term Memory (LTM)  Long Term Memory (LTM) This type of memory is permanent unless disturbed via amnesia, brain injury or other complications such as Alzheimer’s disease.  It is basically the way in which information has been encoded. The information in short term memory can be transferred into long term memory by repetition of information
  34. 34. Levels of Processing:  The levels of processing model of memory (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) was put forward partly as a result of the criticism leveled at the multi-store model. Instead of concentrating on the stores/structures involved (i.e. short term memory & long term memory), this theory concentrates on the processes involved in memory  Psychologists Craik and Lockhart propose that memory is just a by- product of the depth of processing of information and there is no clear distinction between short term memory and long term memory
  35. 35. We can process information in 3 ways: Shallow Processing - This takes two forms 1. Structural processing (appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the letters look. 2. Phonemic processing – which is when we encode its sound. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information. This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi- store mode
  36. 36. Deep Processing  - This involves 3. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning.  Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of information and leads to better recall.  For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall
  37. 37. Levels of processing:  Aim: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
  38. 38.  Aim: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
  39. 39. Strengths The theory is an improvement on Atkinson & Shiffrin’s account of transfer from STM to LTM. The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process. This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.
  40. 40. Weaknesses Despite these strengths, there are a number of criticisms of the levels of processing theory:  • It does not explain how the deeper processing results in better memories  • Deeper processing takes more effort than shallow processing and it could be this, rather than the depth of processing that makes it more likely people will remember something.
  41. 41. METHODS TO IMPROVE MEMORY
  42. 42. IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY So you want to improve your memory? You need to focus on what you’re doing and the information you’re looking to encode more strongly in your brain. These tips will help you do just that:
  43. 43. FOCUS ON IT  So many people get caught up in multi-tasking that we often fail to do the one thing that will almost always improve your memory — paying attention to the task at hand. This is important, because your brain needs time to encode the information properly. If it never makes it into your memory, you won’t be able to recall it later. If you need to memorize something, quit multitasking.
  44. 44. SMELL TOUCH TASTE HEAR AND SEE IT  The more senses you involve when you need to encode memory, usually the more strong a memory it becomes. That’s why the smell of mom’s home-baked cookies can still be recalled as fresh as though she were downstairs making them just now. Need to remember someone’s name you met for the first time? It may help to look them in the eye when you repeat their name, and offer a handshake. By doing so, you’ve engaged 4 out of your 5 senses.
  45. 45. REPEAT IT  One reason people who want to memorize something repeat it over and over again is because repetition (what psychologists sometimes refer to as “over learning”) seems to work for most people. It helps not to cram, though. Instead, repeat the information spaced out over a longer period of time.
  46. 46. CHUNK IT  This technique works for virtually any piece of information. Divide the large amount of information into smaller chunks, and then focus on memorizing those chunks as individual pieces.
  47. 47. ORGANIZE IT  Our brains like organization of information. That’s why books have chapters, and outlines are recommended as a studying method in school. By carefully organizing what it is you have to memorize, you’re helping your brain better encode the information in the first place.
  48. 48. USE MNEMONIS DEVICES  There are a lot of these, but they all share one thing in common — they help us remember more complicated pieces of information through imagery, acronyms, rhyme or song. For instance, in medical school, students will often turn memorization of the bones in the body or symptoms of specific illnesses into sentences, where the first letter of each word corresponds with a specific bone or symptom.
  49. 49. LEARN IT THE WAY THAT WORK FOR YOU  different people prefer different methods for taking in new information. Use the style that works for you, even if it’s not the way most people study or try and learn new information. For instance, some people like to write things down when they’re learning something new. Others may benefit more from recording what they’re hearing, and going back to take more detailed notes later on at their own leisure.
  50. 50. CONNECT THE DOTS  When we learn, we often forget to try and make associations until later on. However, research has shown that memory can be stronger when you try and make the associations when you first take in the information. For instance, think about how two things are related, and the memory for both will be enhanced. Connect new information to existing information or experiences in your mind.
  51. 51. FOCUS ON ATTENDING  If you are listening to someone, repeat or paraphrase what they have said along with writing it down, if possible. Try different ways of attending, this helps make new neural connections. In a Dale Carnegie course, the manual suggests that you shake a person’s hand and repeat their name upon meeting. Now with Skype and other digital media this can be impossible, but you can still repeat information out loud and take notes.
  52. 52. LEARN NOVEL WAYS OF THINKING  Use it or lose it. Do crossword puzzles help? Yes. Does Luminosity and similar websites help? Yes. However, if all you ever do is crossword puzzles eventually other areas of the brain and brain connections will die off. It’s important to have a balanced life of conversations with new friends, new routines, and taking different routes when doing your morning run or bicycle ride.
  53. 53. STRESS REDUCTION
  54. 54. NUTRITION What you eat affects your brain. Eating an anti-inflammatory diet that is high in protein and Omega really makes a difference.
  55. 55. RESTORATIVE SLEEP  It is essential that you go to bed at the same time each night and wake up at the same time, if possible.
  56. 56. EXERCISE
  57. 57. BE CAREFUL ABOUT PERSCRIPTION MEDICATION There are major drug categories that will affect your memory including sleep aides, steroids, antiepileptic drugs, tranquilizers, anti-anxiety drugs, and muscle relaxants to name a few. Again, be sure to use prescription medication and even some herbal remedies with caution.
  58. 58. STOP SMOKING
  59. 59. REDUCE YOUR CAFFINE This is a mixed area, because for some people with memory problems caffeine can actually help in the short term to attend or focus, yet in the long run it can cause adrenal exhaustion, which effects retrieval of information.
  60. 60. Forgetting
  61. 61. Defination of Forgetting:  According to Munn (1967): “Forgetting is the loss, temporary or permanent, of the ability to recall or recognize something learnt Earlier”  According to Drever (1952): “Forgetting means failure at any time to recall an experience, when attempting to do so, or to perform a action previously learnt”
  62. 62. What is Forgetting We frequently hear the expression: “I am sorry, but I have forgotten”  A student feels ashamed because of having forgotten what he had learned,  a housewife feels embarrassed because she forgot to period the food she cooked,
  63. 63. Reasons Why people Forget: There are some major reasons  Interference Theory  Failure to store  Motivated forgetting
  64. 64. Interference Theory Two basis type of the interference theory Proactive interference Retroactive Interference  Proactive interference when old memory makes it more difficult or impossible to remember a new memory  Retroactive Memory when new information interferences with your ability to remember previously learned information.
  65. 65. Failure to store  We forget information because it never actually made it into long term memory. Motivated Forgetting  We forget memories because of upsetting or disturbing events or experience.
  66. 66. Types of Forgetting  Natural Forgetting  Abnormal Forgetting  General Forgetting  Specific Forgetting  Physical Forgetting  Psychological Forgetting
  67. 67. Theories of Forgetting  The Trace and decay Theory: Trace decay theory explains memories that are stored in both short term and long term memory system, and assumes that the memories leave a trace in the brain.  According to this theory, short term memory (STM) can only retain information for a limited amount of time, around 15 to 30 seconds unless it is prepared. Example  Sometimes we forget a person's name even though we have just met them.
  68. 68. Interference theories  The second major theory of forgetting holds the device of interference responsibilities for forgetting. This theory holds that we forget things because of such interference. The interfering effects of things previously learnt and retained in our memory with things of more recent memory can work both backward and forward. The psychological terms used for these types of interference are retroactive inhibition and proactive inhibition
  69. 69. Interference Theory Two basis type of the interference theory Proactive interference Retroactive Interference  Proactive interference when old memory makes it more difficult or impossible to remember a new memory  Retroactive Memory when new information interferences with your ability to remember previously learned information.
  70. 70. Training in Memory
  71. 71. Will to learn  There must be firm determination or strong will to learn effectively and successfully.  Where there is a will there is a way.  Materials read, heard or seen without genuine interest or inclination are difficult to be remembered for being recalled at a later time.
  72. 72. Interest and attention  Interest and close attention are essential for useful learning and memorization. A person who has no interest in what he learns, will not give due attention to it and consequently will not be able to learn it.  Bhatia (1968) states this fact in the following words: Interest is the mother of attention and attention is the mother of memory; if you would secure memory, you must first catch the mother and the grandmother.
  73. 73. Adopting proper methods of Memorization  There are several efficient methods of memorization but not all are suitable on all occasions and for all individuals.  A judicious selection should be made in choosing a particular method in given situation.
  74. 74. Following the principles of association  It is always good to follow the principle of association in learning. A thing should never be learnt in an isolated manner. An effort should be made to connect it with one’s previous learning on one hand and with as many related things as possible on the other.  Sometimes, for association of ideas, special techniques and devices are used that facilitate learning and recall. e.g., the letters VIBGYOR have proved to be a very effective aid to remembering the colors of the rainbow.
  75. 75. Groups and rhythm  Grouping and rhythm also facilitate learning and help in remembering. For example the telephone number 546789231 can be easily memorized and recalled if we try to group it as 546 789 231.  Similarly, rhythm also proves to be an aid in learning and memorizing. Children learn effectively the multiplication tables by reciting them in a sing-song.
  76. 76. Utilizing as many senses as possible  Senses are said to be the gateways of knowledge and it has also been found that the things are better learned and remembered when they are presented through more than one sense.  Attempts should be made to take the help of audio-visual aid material and receive impressions through as many senses as possible.
  77. 77. Arranging better learning situation  Environmental factors also affect the learning process and due care should, therefore, be taken to arrange favorable learning situations and environment.  A calm and quiet atmosphere and stimulating environment proves to be an effective aid to learning.
  78. 78. The learner’s internal factors  Besides the various external factors there are things within the learner which affect his learning and capacity of recall.  His physical and mental health and emotional state at the time of learning as well as reproduction of the material learnt counts a lot towards the effectiveness of his memory.  Therefore, due attention should be given to the improvement of the student’s health,; physical as well as mental.
  79. 79. Provision of proper change and proper rest  Adequate provision for rest, sleep and variety in the work should be made as this helps to relieve fatigue and monotony.  A mind which is fresh is naturally able to learn more and retain it for a longer period than a mind which is dull and fatigued.
  80. 80. Repetition and practice  Finally, repetition and continuous practice adds to the effectiveness of memorization. Intelligent repetition with full understanding always helps in making the learning effective and things repeated and practiced frequently are remembered for a long time.  Due attention should, therefore, be given to drill work and practice in the process of memorization and learning.
  81. 81. ANY QUESTION THANKS

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