2. COLD CLIMATE
The cold climate is October through march in
northern hemisphere and April through
September in southern hemisphere.
Regions that falls under cold climate experience
very cold winters.
The temperature ranges from 20-30’c in summer
and -3 to -8’c in winters.
3. The main objectives of
building design in cold zones
1.Resisting heat loss
2.Promoting heat gain
4. Resisting heat loss
• Decrease the exposed surface area of the
• Using materials that heat up fast but release
• Providing buffer space between the living area
and the outside
• Decreasing the rate of ventilation inside the
5. Promoting heat gain
• Avoiding excess shading.
• Utilizing the heat from
• Trapping the heat from the
10. Building arrangement
If the buildings are clustered, then the cold
wind movement can be reduced.
Open space between buildings should be
treated with reflective surface so that the
Day radiation reflect into the building
11. Building arrangement
The street should be wide
enough to ensure that
building on one side
should not shade those
on the other side.
The street orientation
should be east-west to
allow for maximum
south sun to enter the
12. Orientation and plan form
• Window should face south to facilitate direct gain
of sun heat.
• The north side of the building should be well
• Living room can be located on the south side
while the utility and store room can be located on
• Air-lock lobbies can be used in entry and exit
points of the building
• Heat generated by applications in room such as
kitchen may be used to heat the other parts of
• False ceiling with internal insulation such as
polyurethane foam(PUF), thermocol, wood
wool, etc are used for houses in cold climate
• Aluminum foil is used in-between the
insulation layer and roof to reduce heat loss
• A sufficiently sloping roof with skylight
enables to drain water and snow and allow
sun radiation to enter the building during day.
• The wall should be made of materials which
lose heat slowly.
• The walls can be of concrete blocks as they
store heat for a longer time.
• South facing walls should be of high thermal
• North side walls should be cavity wall
• Maximum window area on the southern side of the
building to facilitate direct heat gain.
• The window should be double glazed to avoid heat
loss during night.
• Shades can be used to avoid overheating during
• The color of the building should be dark to
absorb more heat from the sun.
22. Located in Leh, in upper Himalayas, the degree
college and hill council have been built within
a cold and dry climate. The building required
to be heated almost throughout the year. It
has long winter from October to April .