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Contemporary India and Education book

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA
AND EDUCATION
As per the New Syllabus of Tamilnadu Teachers
Education University
(B.Ed. I Year Fist Sem...
Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University
21 TNTEU - B.Ed. (CBCS ) Syllabus - Semester -I
SEMESTER – I
Course Code: BD1CE C...
Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University
22 TNTEU - B.Ed. (CBCS ) Syllabus - Semester -I
Unit- III: EDUCATIONAL DEMANDS OF...
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Contemporary India and Education book

  1. 1. CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION As per the New Syllabus of Tamilnadu Teachers Education University (B.Ed. I Year Fist Semester) Dr.C.Thanavathi M.A., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.Phil., DGT, DCA, CTE, B.A., (Eng.) PGDHE, SET, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of History, M.Ed. Coordinator, V.O.C.College of Education, Thoothukudi-628 008. Tamil Nadu. India. 9629256771 thanavathic@thanavathi-edu.in http://thanavathi-edu.in/index.html
  2. 2. Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University 21 TNTEU - B.Ed. (CBCS ) Syllabus - Semester -I SEMESTER – I Course Code: BD1CE Credits: 5 CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION COURSE OBJECTIVES CO1: Understanding of the nature of social diversity and the educational demands of the diverse communities. CO2: Develop understanding of the issue in contemporary India like industrialization, urbanization, globalization, modernization, economic liberalization and digitalization etc. CO3: Develop an understanding of the educational policies and programs during the pre- independent and post-independent periods. CO4: Examine the issues of language policy in education. CO5: To develop an understanding of the educational policies and programs during the pre- independent and post-independent periods. Unit- I: EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY INDIA, CONSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT Education – meaning, definitions, nature, functions and aims; nature of education as a discipline - types of education; formal, informal and non-formal; levels of education - Pre- primary, primary, secondary, senior secondary, higher, professional, distance and optional education; Aims and purposes of education drawn from constitutional provision; Education as a means of social justice in the Indian Constitution; Constitutional values and education (Preamble, Fundamental rights and duties); the Right to Free and Compulsory Education 2010 (RTE) and inclusion; Education in the concurrent list and its implications. Unit- II: UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL DIVERSITY Social diversity: Meaning and definition - Education for understanding the social diversity in India – Levels of social diversity: Individual, regional, linguistic, religious, castes and tribes - Role of education in creating positive attitude towards diversity - inter disciplinary nature of education philosophy, psychology, sociology, anthropology, politics, history;
  3. 3. Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University 22 TNTEU - B.Ed. (CBCS ) Syllabus - Semester -I Unit- III: EDUCATIONAL DEMANDS OF INDIVIDUALS AND DIVERSE COMMUNITIES Universalization of primary education – programmes to achieve universalization of education: SSA, RMSA, RUSA, integrated education and Inclusive education; Challenges in achieving universalization of education; Education for collective living and peaceful living; Four pillars of education as viewed by Delor’s Commission Report. Unit- IV: LANGUAGE POLICY IN EDUCATION Language policy during the pre-independent and post-independent India – Language policy as specified in Indian Constitution – Views of great thinkers on medium of Instruction: Tagore, Gandhi, Vivekananda. Unit-V: IMPLICATIONS OF EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Equality of Educational Opportunity; equality in constitutional provisions; Inequality in schooling, Causes for inequality, discrimination, and marginalization in education – Types of inequity: caste, gender, class, regions – Elimination of social inequalities through education – education for marginalized groups: Dalits, tribals and women. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 1. Prepare a report based on the interaction/interview with legal expert(s) for the effective implementation of constitutional provisions to eliminate inequality, discrimination and marginalization in education. 2. Report presentation based on the brainstorming session on the effective use of education for elimination of social inequities. 3. Report presentation based on the group discussion/ student seminar on the efforts taken by the Government of India and Tamil Nadu to achieve universalization of education. TEXT BOOKS 1. Aggarwal, J.C. (2013) Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. 2. Arya, P. P. (2006) Higher Education and Global Challenges: System and Opportunities. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications. 3. Chaube, S.P. (2014) History of Indian Education. Agra: ShriVinodPustakMandir.
  4. 4. Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University 23 TNTEU - B.Ed. (CBCS ) Syllabus - Semester -I 4. Chauhan, C.P.S. (2013) Modern Indian Education: Policies, Progress and Problems.New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers and Distributors. 5. Dash, M. (2004) Education in India: Problems and Perspectives. Atlantic Publishers,New Delhi 6. Ghosh, S.C. (2007). History of education in India. The University of Michigan: Rawat Publications. SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 1. Kumar, K. (2014). Politics of education in colonial India. New Delhi: Routledge. 2. Naik, J.P., Andrew, Vereker.,&Nurullah, S. (2000). A student’s history of education in India (1800-1973).UK: Macmillan. 3. Sedwal, M. &Kamat, S. (2008). Education and social equity: With a special focus on scheduled castes and tribes in elementary education. New Delhi: NUEPA. E-RESOURCES 1. http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/rte.pdf 2. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/1918/8/08_chapter3.pdf 3. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/4244/11/11_chapter%202.pdf COURSE OUTCOMES After completion of this course, the student-teachers will be able to : CO1: identify aims of education and types of education. CO2: explain the nature of social diversity in India and the role of education in creating positive attitude towards diversity CO3: interpret the issues in contemporary India like industrialization, Universalization of education and integrated education and inclusive education. CO4: iInfer about the Language policies during Pre-independent and Post-independent India. CO5: summarize about equality in constitutional provisions and elimination of social in equalities through education.
  5. 5. 1 | Dr.C.Thanavathi B.Ed. First Year – Semester I (2021 – 2022) C2 - CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION Unit – I EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY INDIA, CONSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT Education – meaning, definitions, nature, functions and aims; nature of education as a discipline - types of education; formal, informal and non-formal; levels of education - Pre-primary, primary, secondary, senior secondary, higher, professional, distance and optional education; Aims and purposes of education drawn from constitutional provision; Education as a means of social justice in the Indian Constitution; Constitutional values and education (Preamble, Fundamental rights and duties); the Right to Free and Compulsory Education 2010 (RTE) and inclusion; Education in the concurrent list and its implications. 1.1. EDUCATION - MEANING Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill, and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured, and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means. Its goal is to make an individual perfect. Every society gives importance to education because it is a panacea for all evils. It is the key to solving the various problems of life. Education has been described as a process of waking up to life: ⮚ Waking up to life and its mysteries, its solvable problems, and the ways to solve the problems and celebrate the mysteries of life. ⮚ Waking up to the inter-dependencies of all things, to the threat to our global village, to the power within the human race to create alternatives, to the obstacles entrenched in economic, social, and political structures that prevent our waking up.
  6. 6. 2 | Dr.C.Thanavathi ⮚ Education in the broadest sense of the term is meant to aid the human being in his/her pursuit of wholeness. Wholeness implies the harmonious development of all the potentialities God has given to a human person. ⮚ True education is the harmonious development of the physical, mental, moral (spiritual), and social faculties, the four dimensions of life, for a life of dedicated service. Etymological Meaning of Education Etymologically, the word ‘Education’ has been derived from different Latin words. a) ‘educare’ which means ‘to nourish’. b) ‘educo’ which means to lead out (of ignorance) c) ‘educere’ which means ‘to draw out’ d) ‘educatum’ which means ‘act of training’. e) ‘educatus’ which means ‘to bring up, to rear’. f) ‘educatio’ which means “a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.” The word ‘shiksha’ is derived from the Sanskrit which means ‘to discipline’, ‘to control’, ‘to instruct’, and ‘to teach’; and the word ‘vidya’ is also derived from Sanskrit which means ‘to know’. 1.2. EDUCATION - DEFINITIONS Since time immemorial, education has been estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western sides have explained the term ‘education’ according to the need of the hour. Various educationists have given their views on education. Some important definitions are: 1. Aristotle – “Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body.” 2. Rousseau – “Education is the child’s development from within.” 3. Plato – “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment.” 4. Pestalozzi – “Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers.” 5. Froebel -“Education is enfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ.” 6. John Dewey – “Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences.”
  7. 7. 3 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 7. Mahatma Gandhi – “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in man-body, mind, and spirit.” 8. Rabindranath Tagore – “Education enables the mind to find out the ultimate truth, which gives us the wealth of inner light and love and gives significance to life.” 9. Zakir Husain – “Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.” 10. Swami Vivekananda – “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.” 1.3. NATURE OF EDUCATION Education is a triangular process. It involves the inter-play of the educator, the educand and the social forces. The educator tries to modify the personality of the child in the light of the needs of the individual and the society to which he belongs. The nature of education is very complex. Let us now discuss the nature of education: 1. It is a life-long process- Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything which influences human personality. 2. It is a dynamic process: Education is not a static but a dynamic process which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society. 3. It is a systematic and purposive process- It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation. Every individual has some goal in his life. Education contributes to the attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined in all educational activities. 4. It is the development of individual and the society- Education helps in individual adjustment a man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality can’t remain balanced. Through the medium of education, he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbours and teachers, etc. Education is also a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect of society. It is the society that will determine the aims, contents, and methods of teachings.
  8. 8. 4 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 5. It is training and modification of behaviour- Education is training- Human senses, mind, behaviour, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way. Human behaviour is modified and improved through the educational process. As per the definition of John Dewey education reconstructs and remodels our experiences towards socially desirable ways. 6. Education is instruction and direction- It directs and instructs an individual to fulfil his desires and needs for the exaltation of his whole personality. Life without education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development. 7. It is balanced development: Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. It performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person. 8. Education is growth: The end of growth is more growth and the end of education is more education. According to John Dewey, “an individual is a changing and growing personality.” The purpose of education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth. Education is a continuous reconstruction of our experiences. Therefore, the role of education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals. 1.4. FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION In the words of John Dewey, ‘the function of education is to help the growth of a helpless young animal into a happy, moral and efficient human being’ (Taneja, 2005). Education has three main functions. They are as follows: i. General Functions of Education ii. Functions of Education in Human Life iii. Functions of Education in National Life iv. Functions towards Individual v. Functions towards Society vi. Functions towards Nation
  9. 9. 5 | Dr.C.Thanavathi i. General Functions of Education • Education helps the individual for the development of their innate power that they already have. • Education helps the individual in the all-around development of their personality. • Education helps to direct the individual in the proper way and control and sublimate the instincts. • Education helps the individual in developing character, moral and ethical values. • Education helps the individual to prepare for future life. It helps to achieve good citizenship, fellow-feeling, cooperation, dutiful to all human endeavors. • Education helps to preserve, control, and transmit the rich culture and tradition. • It helps to maintain national security, social feeling, and reforms. ii. Functions of Education in Human Life • It makes the individual skilful to adapt to different, new, and changing situations and environments. • It helps the individual to modify their behaviour and also the environment they live in. • It helps to bring satisfaction to the educational, social, physical, and spiritual needs of the individual. • It helps to bring educational and vocational efficiency among the individual and fit them for achieving self-sufficiency. • It helps develop the character of the individual and prepare for their life. • It also helps the individual for the all-round development of their personality, reorganization, and reconstruction of experiences. • It helps the individual to work as an agent of social change. iii. Functions of Education in National Life • It helps the individual to train for leadership that may further help the individual to take the leadership role in the areas of their interest for the nation. • It teaches the individual to achieve national and emotional integration, which are the binding principles for maintaining a healthy national life.
  10. 10. 6 | Dr.C.Thanavathi • It empowers the people of the country to take social, economic, and scientific responsibilities for the total national development of the country. • It helps the individual to inculcate civic and social values and duties for leading a healthy and disciplined life. • It helps to supply skilled human power for national development. • It also helps the individual in promoting social and cultural efficiency. iv. Function Towards Individual i) Education as Growth, ii) Education as Direction, iii) Preparation for the responsibility of adult life i) Education as Growth Every learner is immature at the beginning. He is to be trained deliberately for adult life. Education deliberately and systematically influences a mature influence of the teacher through instruction, discipline, and harmonious development. The harmonious development includes development in terms of physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social, and spiritual powers of human beings, according to the needs of the society. ii) Education as Direction Direction is the fixation of the activity into a right response by elimination of unnecessary and confusing movements. Every learner is gifted with innate capacities and powers. His physical and social environment provides the learner with a stimulus for activity. In the beginning, as the learner acts in response to the stimulus in an immature way, much of his constructive energy is wasted. This wastage can be avoided if the learner is properly directed towards an objective. Education provides this sense of direction and the activities of the learner become purposeful. Types of Direction There are two types of direction: 1) External and internal direction. 2) Personal and impersonal direction
  11. 11. 7 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1) External and Internal The immediate environment which provides the learner with a stimulus for his activity is external. Responses to the stimuli which proceed from his internal tendencies are internal. 2) Personal and Impersonal Personal direction includes ridicule, disapproval, and punishment. It refers to physical control which is not educational. Impersonal direction is important as this direction is bound to appeal to the learner’s mind and heart. In this context, the teacher has to set a good example to follow. This direction is corrective; it has the potential to have a corrective effect. iii) Preparation for the responsibility of adult life Reconstruction and re-organization of experience adds to meaningful experiences and increases the ability to direct subsequent experiences. v. Functions Towards Society i) Socialization ii) Reconstruction of Experiences Education is a powerful tool to bring in a positive socialization process and has the ability to reconstruct life experiences for the growth of the society on the whole. i) Socialization Man is a social animal. An individual is the sum total of his interactions with his social environment. The elders of the society pass on their experiences, interests, findings, conclusions, traditions, and attitudes to the younger generation. All these have a profound influence on the growth and development of the younger generations. In this manner, the continuity of the societal function is successfully maintained. ii) Reconstruction of Experiences As growth is a continuous process, education is also a continuous process throughout an individual’s life.
  12. 12. 8 | Dr.C.Thanavathi Education provides the learner with rich resources to shape his life, personality, character, outlook, and his experiences and interaction in the society. Thus education helps the learner in re-constructing and re-organizing of the individual and societal life. vi. Function Towards Nation i) Civic and Social Responsibility ii) Training for Leadership iii) Emotional Integration iv) National Integration Education has potentials to indirectly influence and support the state’s/nation’s functioning by means of inculcating civic sense among the learners and thereby paves way for emotional and national integration. i) Civic and Social Responsibility Promoting civic responsibility is considered to be the most important function of education. True education promotes learners to understand their rights and duties as individual citizens. The very existence and progress of a nation depends on the educational system of the state. ii) Training for Leadership Efficient functioning in all the spheres such as social, political, religious, and educational activities depend on the quality of education. Therefore, the function of a good educational system is to develop such qualities among the learners so as to promote the comprehensive development of the individual and the state. iii) Emotional Integration Educational system aims at promoting unity in diversity, in terms of unity in the areas of religion, language, diet, dress, habits, and physical environment. iv) National Integration True education aims to raise individuals to break down narrow prejudices of caste, community, region, and to look to a broad national outlook.
  13. 13. 9 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.5. AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims give direction to activities. Aims of education are formulated keeping in view the needs of the situation. Human nature is multi-sided with multiple needs, which are related to life. Educational aims are correlated to the ideals of life. 1. Knowledge Aim. Perhaps the oldest aims of education. Education emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge for its own sake. Knowledge is essential for intellectual development, a better adjustment in life, social efficiency, character formation, and spiritual upliftment. The mere acquisition of knowledge might transform an individual into an intellectual but it alone cannot make him a complete man. Practical wisdom and skills, as well as the capacity to apply knowledge, are important. 2. Vocational Aim. Self-preservation is the individual’s first need. So education should enable one to earn his bread and butter. Most of the parents send their children to school mainly with this aim in mind. 3. Harmonious Development Aim. Pestalozzi defined education as the harmonious development of the head, heart, and hand. Gandhiji too stressed the need for developing the body, mind, and spirit. According to a UNESCO study, “the physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man/woman is the fundamental aim of education.” 4. Complete Living Aim. Complete living aim was formulated by Herbert Spencer. According to him complete living consists of five groups of activities. They are (i) self –preservation (ii) securing a vocation (iii) being a worthy member of his home (iv) contributing one’s best to the society, and (v) utilizing leisure time profitably. 5. Character Aim. Dewey stressed the formation of character as a comprehensive aim of school instruction. The aim of living is the ever evolving process of perfecting, maturing, and refining. Education should elevate man from the brutal level to the human level. To Gandhiji, character building was an important aim of education. 6. Individual Aim. Sir Percy Nunn, Rousseau, and Herbert have all advocated the individual aim in education. According to Percy Nunn, “Nothing goods enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women and that educational practice must shape the individual. Education should give scope to develop the inborn potentials through maximum freedom.” The progress of mankind is due to great individuals. The school should therefore aim at the full and
  14. 14. 10 | Dr.C.Thanavathi unimpeded development of all the innate abilities of the individual. It should cater to the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and moral development of the child. Whatever is acquired in human life is the result of education. When a child is born he has no knowledge of his surroundings. Gradually he comes to recognise his environment by using the sense organs and by coming in contact with other people. Many ideas and habits he learns merely by observing others. Individual aims of education include – development of natural abilities, character-building, development of personality, preparation for adult life, sublimation and control of basic instincts, and proper use of leisure time, etc. 7. Social Aim. Education is the process of socialization. Education is for the society and of the society. It prepares the individuals to play different roles in society. The function of education is for the welfare of the state. Society is the book which pupils should study in schools. The school itself is a cross section of the society, and active participation in school life should be the method of learning. According to Dewey and Bagley, education should aim at making each individual socially efficient. A socially efficient individual is able to earn his livelihood; he is not a drag on society; he is a good citizen and has the intelligence to understand and appreciate the world; he is ready to dedicate himself to the ideals of his society. Social aims of education include – the creation of the sense of citizenship, development of a sense of community involvement, protection and increase of culture and civilization, increasing consciousness of other cultures, encouragement to social welfare, national development, developing national integration, and international understanding. Individuals cannot develop in a vacuum. According to John Adams, “Individuality requires a social medium to grow.” And T.P. Nunn says,” Individuality develops in a social environment.” Let us analyze the great words of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “The goal of education is not merely to produce good individuals, but to turn our individuals who understand their social responsibilities as integral elements of the society in which they live.” As it means, education is an integral part of human life. It is the basic condition for the development of a whole man and a vital instrument for accelerating the wellbeing and prosperity by the light of education.
  15. 15. 11 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 8. National Aim of Education: Many educationists are of the view that apart from individual or social aims, the national aims of education are above all. It does not pertain to any individual or society wherein it pertains to a nation, to its integrity and sovereignty. These may be as follows: λ To foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national unity. λ To develop democratic values in the people. λ To promote social, economic, technological, and industrial needs for national development. − Social needs: Prepare children for the changes in attitudes and relationships which are necessary for the smooth process of a rapidly developing modern economy. − Economic needs: Produce citizens with skills, knowledge, expertise and personal qualities that are required to support the growing economy. − Technological and industrial needs: Provide the learners with the necessary skills and attitudes for industrial development. − To promote sound social, moral, and spiritual values. λ To promote respect for and development of India’s rich and varied cultures. λ To promote international consciousness and foster national integration. λ To promote positive attitudes towards good health and environmental protection. λ To develop physical and human resources for the Country. 9. Ultimate and Immediate Aims of Education Education helps us to achieve two types of aims in our life. First is to achieve the immediate aim of education and the other is to achieve the ultimate aim of education. Immediate aim of education is narrow in sense whereas the ultimate aim of education is very broad in nature. The former is achieved within a short duration of time whereas the latter is achieved in a long duration. It is sometimes very difficult to achieve the ultimate aim of education. 1.6. NATURE OF EDUCATION AS A DISCIPLINE 1.6.1. Discipline Academic discipline/field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the College or University level.
  16. 16. 12 | Dr.C.Thanavathi Discipline is defined and recognized by the academic journal in which research is published and by the learned society and academic departments or facilities. It describes types of knowledge, expertise, skill, people, projects, and communities' problem challenged studies. Inquiry approaches and research areas that are associated with academic areas of study. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines e.g.: physics and gravitation is strongly associated with that disciplinary knowledge. Academic discipline has several branches or sub disciplines that leads to co- evolve with the system of professions that may be said to own knowledge in a particular disciplinary area. 1.6.2. Why is Education a Discipline? To become a discipline academia a subject must be professional enough. A discipline has its own independent language system and its own professional techniques. It means that the discipline should have its own theory & practice. This particular language system divides the people into two. One is an expert and the other is a layman. In medicine, the expert is a doctor and in education, the expert is an educationalist. 1.6.3. Reason for considering education as a discipline ❖ It has a well-defined function. Education as a discipline has clearly defined objectives & purpose. It is for the development of individuals and the growth of society. ❖ Its scope and subject matter is well defined. Education as a discipline has both theoretical and practical aspects. Theoretical aspects include philosophical, curriculum, instructional, learning, sociology, and anthropology practical aspects include policy making and edectism. Practitioners of education require skills, knowledge, and attitude in the discipline. Hence, the subject of education can be considered as a pure discipline as an applied discipline. Education is purposive- There is a definite purpose of all educational activity. 1.6.4. Development of Education as a Discipline Education as an academic discipline was emerged in the second half of the 19th century, with the inception of Teachers College, Columbia University.
  17. 17. 13 | Dr.C.Thanavathi Modern, teachers’ colleges and modern departments, schools or faculties of education within universities emerged the curricula of these institutions lead to the improvement of schools; school systems, and the improved learning of individuals and groups. Education as a discipline and subject of study made its first entry into a university in India in 1971 in the University of Calcutta. A second landmark was in 1936 when the Bombay University. Instituted an M.Ed. Course in 1943. The first Ph.D. Degree in education was awarded by Bombay University. 1.6.5. Major Focal Area of Education as a Discipline Teacher education, education guidance, and counseling. Education planning and management, Demographic education, comparative education. Special education. Distance education inclusive and inter cultural education, curriculum development. Educational measurement and evaluation physical education, computer education, peace education, value education, sex education. 1.6.6. Nature of Education as a Discipline Education is a comprehensive term and it reflects one’s day to day life and is an essential aspect for perfect balanced personality development. On the other hand, the meaning of education can be understood from a narrower broader point of view. Education in the narrower sense means. Conscious and deliberate process, modifies the behavior of the learner and brings about in the education. Specific knowledge and skills. Such an education is confined to school and university instructions whatever takes place in a school and whatever influences child behavior is considered education. In a broader point of view, education is a lifelong process. It starts with conception and ends with death (womb to tomb process). It is preparation for life through life experiences. Here education is not limited in classroom teaching or training. According to Charlotte Mason, “Education is an atmosphere, a discipline, and a life”. Following are the chief characteristics of education as a discipline. 1. Education is purposive There is a definite purpose to all educational objectives.
  18. 18. 14 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 2. Education is deliberate Education involves special care and guidance. The process of education is not any conscious but also deliberate. The educator is fully aware of the failure that his aim is to develop the personality of the child alone. Definite line through the modification of his behavior. 3. Education is drawing out and bringing up process Different meanings of education highlight that education is the process of bring out the innate potentialities of the child. Education is an active and dynamic process by which modifications are brought about in the behavior of an individual. 4. Education is knowledge as well as experience Education is not only simply acquiring different types of knowledge but it involves real life experiences. Human progress through the ages has been made possible through the increase and diffusion of knowledge. 5. Education is liberal and vocational Education can be considered as the liberal process and later it will help the child to train in a particular vocation. Education is meaningful only when it aims at some employment. Modern democratic education has placed vocational aim in its forefront. 6. For the Good of the individual and welfare of the society The purpose of education 18 wellbeing of the individual and welfare of the society and a synthesis of individual and society. Education is called a force for social development which brings improvement in every aspect in the society. 7. Stabilizer, conservator, and reconstructionist Education helps to conserve, stabilize and reform society and culture. 8. Education is planned Education is not hap hazed. It is planned and systematic. If refers to transacting its activities through a systematic institution and regulation. 9. Education is lifelong Education starts from the time of conception and goes until death. Education from cradle to grave as sometimes said. Education is lifelong. Process because of every stage of life of an individual. Is important from an educational point of view. 10. Education is influence exerted Education is for mature persons. (Teachers, Parents, Adults) influence children.
  19. 19. 15 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 11. Education is balanced development Education is concerned with the development of all the facilities of the child. 12. Education is bipolar Education is the process in which both teacher and pupil influence each other and the personality of the educator modifies. The behavior of the educand and in turn is affected by the personality of the educand. 13. Education is tripolar Education involves the teacher of the subject matter. 14. Education is psychological as well as social The endowments or the capacities of the child – his needs interest, etc must be interpreted and developed in a social setting 15. Education is growth Education modifies the behaviour of the child, Human behaviour is modified and improved through the educational process. 16. Education is power Education is power and treasure in human beings through which he is entitled, as the supreme master on earth. Education is a lifelong process. Therefore, the role of education is countless for a perfect society and man it is necessary for every society and nation to bring histolic. Happiness and prosperity to its individuals. 1.7. TYPES OF EDUCATION The process of education can be classified into three categories. They are formal education in formal education and non-formal education.
  20. 20. 16 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.7.1. Formal Education Formal education in which the teachers face each other in a classroom situation on a regular and continuous basis and predetermined syllabus according to time table, source of promotion to next class after passing the previous one. Take a public examination at the end of the course and receive a certificate. It is legally institutionalised and rigid; it has forced point of entry and cut. It is motivated by employment opportunities. It corresponds to the education process normally adopted by our schools and universities. Formal Education corresponds to a systematic, organized education model, structured and administered according to a given set of laws and norms, presenting a rather rigid curriculum as regards objectives, content, and methodology. It is characterized by a continuous education process, which necessarily involves the teacher, the students, and the institution. Formal education has the following characteristics: λ Education is imparted by formal institutes like Schools, Colleges, and Universities. Though the main centers of formal education are School or Colleges, library, museum, zoo, picture galleries, lectures, symposia, etc. serve as agencies of formal education. λ Definite curriculum and courses of studies are framed to teach the students and definite duration of years required to complete the courses. λ Proper time schedule prepared for day to day personalised teaching and semester or yearly planning of academic sessions are implemented. λ Both teacher and the students meet in a venue like the classroom for personalised teaching. λ Attendance of teachers as well as the students is taken for formal record and completing the Courses. λ Formal evaluation system (both internal and external) is implemented to assess the performance of the learners. Both continuous and Term End Examination are used for evaluating the performance of the students. Proper certification is done by the Board/University for awarding the degrees or diplomas to the students. λ On the basis of the result, the students are promoted to higher classes or pursue higher degrees.
  21. 21. 17 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.7.2. Informal Education The education received in an indirect manner is called Informal education. Some people call it individual or cultural education; it has no anticipated goal. Formal planning and rigid organization is a lifelong process. The home, peer group, playmates, mass media, etc. for example, the son of a farmer acquires knowledge about farming from his father. In informal education, experiences are unstructured and indefinite. The characteristics of informal education are as follows: λ Informal education is also called natural or incidental education. λ No formal or non-formal institute is required to provide informal education. λ For informal education, there is no need of any curriculum, methods of teaching, teachers/mentors, and place of teaching. λ Education and experiences acquired during travel, interaction with people, family discourses, community, and social dealings, interaction within the environment, neighbourhoods, playmates, cultural and religious activities are necessarily informal education. Informal education supports formal as well as non-formal education. λ Informal education does not provide degrees or diplomas, it simply enriches by filling the gaps of formal and non-formal education. λ Informal education may comprise activities like storytelling, group discussions, reading books on your interests, listening to radio broadcasting or watching educational Television programmes, visits to zoos, museums, educational fairs, and scientific exhibitions, attending lectures and conferences, etc. Informal education for instance comprises the following activities: ● Visit museums or to scientific and other fairs and exhibits, etc. ● Listening to radio broadcasting or watching TV programs on educational or scientific themes. ● Reading texts on sciences, education, technology, etc. In journals and magazines. ● Participating in scientific contests. ● Attending lectures and conferences.
  22. 22. 18 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.7.3. Non Formal Education This group includes the school dropout, the employed or working person, those living away from the additional institutions, housewives, related persons. Non formal education is not a substitute or parallel to the formal education. We need Formal and Non formal education system supplementing each other Non-formal education to deter from Formal and informal education. The characteristics of Non-Formal Education are as follows: λ Non-formal education endowed with flexible curricula, time schedule, choices of subjects, and the place of education. λ It does not necessarily require daily teacher-student interaction like formal education. λ Education is imparted in distance mode like the Open and Distance Learning system, offered by the Open Schools and Open Universities, even the distance education departments of the regular institutes also offer non-formal courses/education. λ Like formal education, non-formal education has a curriculum and uses a variety of methods of teaching and mode of communication. λ The gravity and quality of instruction both for formal and nonformal education are the same. λ The timing of regular classes in non-formal education is usually conducted on weekends (Saturday/Sunday) or during the vacations. λ Multimedia communication systems like Print (Self Learning Materials) and non-print (Audio/Video) materials, radio, television, teleconferencing, interactive radio counseling, online learning, etc. are popularly used as a medium of instruction in non-formal education. λ In India, institutes like Indira Gandhi National Open University, National Open Schooling, and the State Level Open Education Institutes provide non-formal education. λ Like formal education, degrees awarded and Certification are also done in non- formal education. 1.8. LEVELS OF EDUCATION ⮚ Pre-Primary Education ⮚ Primary Education ⮚ Secondary Education
  23. 23. 19 | Dr.C.Thanavathi ⮚ Senior Secondary Education ⮚ Higher Education ⮚ Professional Education ⮚ Distance Education ⮚ Open/Optional Education 1.8.1. Pre-Primary Education This is the initial stage of organized instruction; it is school or center-based and is designed for children aged at least three years. Also referred to as Kindergarten and currently, most kindergartens are private-run. Public kindergartens are usually affiliated to primary schools. Pupils aged four to six are admitted for 1-2 years of schooling. Pre-primary education is known by various names such as nursery education, kindergarten education Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Nursery and Kindergarten are in fact western system of Pre-primary education which we are trying to. Adopt into the Indian system. Here children are taught how to do develop basic skills. The pre-primary education in India is also known as Kindergarten. Kindergarten, a term created by Mr. Friedrich Frobel in 1837, which means "children's garden". Pre- primary education helps children become more independent and confident as well as promote the all-round development of the children. He establishes kindergarten through songs and gifts. In India, Gandhiji planned Pre-basic education. Kindergarten Montessori, Nursery, pre-basic school, Day Care Centers, Balawadis. etc. are examples.
  24. 24. 20 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.8.2. Primary Education Elementary or primary education is the first type of formal education most people encounter. Primary education begins between five and seven years of age, is the start of compulsory education where it exists, and generally covers six years of full-time schooling. This is actually the first level in the Education ladder. The importance of primary education is recognized as it lays the foundation for lifelong learning. It has been found that the child develops significantly in physical, cognitive, social, and emotional aspects in the early years, and its experiences deeply influence its disposition for learning. Primary schools develop basic skills and social behavior by games, exercises, music, and simple handicrafts. The seven foundation learning areas of primary education are thinking, communicating, sense of self and others, health and physical understanding, social living and learning, cultural understanding, and understanding the environments. They teach basic literacy skills such as reading and writing, as well as mathematics, history, science, and many other topics. To graduate, students are required to pass standardized testing that meets applicable regulatory or funding requirements. The elementary stage of formal educational set up covers primary education; it is the stage when the child starts reading. Formal instruction in an institution for children having 6-8 years of schooling that usually start from the age of 5 or 6. The main aim of primary education is to establish functions in a variety of subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Social science. 1.8.3. Secondary Education Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary level education is like a bridge between elementary and higher education. It prepares young students between the age group of 12 and 18 for entry into higher education. The main focus of the curriculum at this level is to prepare students for employment, give instruction in functional academics, and teach them adaptive skills. The social and interpersonal skills are developed during this phase of education. Lower Secondary Education – continues the basic programs of the primary level, although teaching is typically more subject-focused. Usually, the end of this level
  25. 25. 21 | Dr.C.Thanavathi coincides with the end of compulsory education. It is the final stage of education in school primary education ends with VII then after entering the Secondary and Higher Secondary stage. It starts with VIII to end with XII. 1.8.4. Senior Secondary Education Senior Secondary Education – generally begins at the end of compulsory education. The entrance age is typically 15 or 16 years. Entrance qualifications (end of compulsory education) and other minimum entry requirements are usually needed. Instruction is often more subject-oriented and the typical duration varies from two to five years. 1.8.5. Higher Education Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology. Higher education also includes certain collegiate-level institutions, such as vocational schools, trade schools, and career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Higher education includes teaching, research, exacting applied for work (e.g. in medical schools and dental schools), and social services activities of universities. Higher education follows secondary education. Students take academic courses and are awarded undergraduate, masters, and doctorate degrees. Higher education facilities may also offer professional degrees – for instance, law, medicine, or dentistry degrees. Typical examples are programs designed to prepare pupils for doctorate studies or programs designed to prepare pupils for direct labor market entry. Higher education is a non-compulsory educational level which comprises undergraduate and postgraduate studies. With vocational education training, usually, a person needs to be admitted to a college or a university to receive higher education. 1.8.6. Professional Education Professional education is a formal specialized training about a particular profession in which learners are taught the central concepts, principles, and
  26. 26. 22 | Dr.C.Thanavathi techniques, and how these are applied in real practice, and the learners also acquire the necessary competencies needed for proper practice and behaviour. Professional education is a formalized approach to specialized training in a professional school through which participants acquire content knowledge and learn to apply techniques. Although content is what the participant is expected to learn by attending professional school, such an education also helps the participant acquire the competencies needed for proper practice and behavior. Some common goals of professional education include incorporating the knowledge and values basic to a professional discipline; understanding the central concepts, principles, and techniques applied in practice; attaining a level of competence necessary for responsible entry into professional practice; and accepting responsibility for the continued development of competence. It is designed to produce responsible professionals and then to ensure their continuing competence in the profession by helping them recognize and understand the significance of advancing professional knowledge and improving standards of practice. It involves the translation of learning to practice and is intended to prevent occupations and professionals from becoming obsolete. 1.8.7. Distance Education Distance education courses are basically correspondence courses that individuals can obtain by not attending regular classes. Students pursuing distance learning education need not worry concerning the course contents, mode of examination, and duration of the course or the degree as it’s going to be very same as awarded to regular students. Distance education is extremely advantageous for students who wish to pursue their higher studies, but do not get enough time to do this. These management programs may be taken up by people who stay at remote places, workers, housewives, and even working professionals, who because for one or another reason are not able to take up a regular program. Distance education provided by institutes is controlled by the Distance Education Council of India. Distance education is helpful to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges. 1. At the school level, the National Institute of Open Schooling offers education through distance learning. 2. While, at the college or university level, Open universities provide distance education.
  27. 27. 23 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.8.8. Open/Optional Education Open education is an attitude, a practice, and a method of teaching that inspires inquiry, equal access to course materials, and sharing lessons and materials with the wider community. At the center of open education is the belief that education is strengthened when shared openly. Open education relies on open educational resources (OER) and open licensing. Open education is a philosophy about the way people should produce, share, and build on knowledge. Proponents of open education believe everyone in the world should have access to high-quality educational experiences and resources, and they work to eliminate barriers to this goal. Such barriers might include high monetary costs, outdated or obsolete materials, and legal mechanisms that prevent collaboration among scholars and educators. Promoting collaboration is central to open education. As the Open Education Consortium says: "sharing is probably the most basic characteristic of education: education is sharing knowledge, insights, and information with others, upon which new knowledge, skills, ideas, and understanding can be built." Open educational resources (OERs) are learning materials that can be modified and enhanced because their creators have given others permission to do so. The individuals or organizations that create OERs—which can include materials like presentation slides, podcasts, syllabi, images, lesson plans, lecture videos, maps, worksheets, and even entire textbooks—waive some (if not all) of the copyright associated with their works, typically via legal tools like Creative Commons licenses, so others can freely access, reuse, translate, and modify them. Optional education programmes serve students with attendance problems and/or dropouts up to and including those who are 21 years of age and provide prevention and intervention services and/or optional education. Programs which primarily provide prevention and intervention services integrate resources of the school and community to meet the needs of the students and parents. Optional education programs serve as part-time or full-time options to regular school attendance and offer modified instructional programs or other services designed to prevent students from dropping out of school.
  28. 28. 24 | Dr.C.Thanavathi The Optional Learning feature to offer users extra training, without requiring that they complete the training. Offering optional learning helps your users be more active in their security awareness training by giving them the option to choose what training they would like to take. The training content we choose to make optional will be added to the Library tab of the Learner Experience. These at-home learning resources are not teacher or school-specific and support a range of subject areas, interests, and abilities. Completion is not required and materials should be considered supplemental. As such, they will not be graded or collected. 1.9. AIMS AND PURPOSES OF EDUCATION DRAWN FROM CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION Indian Constitution is one of the largest Constitutions in the world which comprises 412 Articles and 12 Schedules. The Preamble of the Constitution outlines the social philosophy and cultural ethos which should oversee all our educational institutions. Right to Education (RTE) is one of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution of India. The table below enumerates the educational aims derived from the constitution articles pertaining to education. The Indian constitution provides specifies provisions for education in the following major areas of education: Provisions Article Aims 1. Right of free and compulsory education 45 To make education a right and to provide free and compulsory education to all the children at appropriate age. 2. Right to education 21A To provide free and compulsory education 3. Education for women 15(1) (3) To provide education without any discrimination 4. Promotion of education 46 To provide equal opportunity of
  29. 29. 25 | Dr.C.Thanavathi and economic interests of SC, ST, and other weaker sections education to all the members of the society. 5. Religious education 25, 28(1)(2)(3) To provide religious education 6. Education of minorities, protection of interests of minorities 29 To bring equality among the members of the society by providing them the same platform of learning, educating them, and hence growing and contributing to the productivity of the nation. 7. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions 30 To provide stability and security to the members of the society. 8. Instruction in mother- tongue at the primary stage 350-A To provide education to the children in their mother tongue so that they can construct understanding in their own language and learn easily 9. Promotion of Hindi 351 To offer opportunities to the stakeholders to work in the development and promotion of the Hindi language. 10. Education in union territories 239 To provide the opportunity for union territories 11. Fundamental duty to provide the opportunity 51(A) To provide the opportunity for education
  30. 30. 26 | Dr.C.Thanavathi for education 12. It provides special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of the Anglo-Indian community 337 To provide equal opportunity of education to all the members of the society. Purposes: 1. Free and compulsory education Provision of early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years: Article 45: The state shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. 2. Right to Education a) Article 21A- The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age 6 to 14 years in such manner as the state may, by law determine (86th amendments, Act 2002). b) 93rd Amendment (Primary Education a Fundamental Right)- Now by the 93rd amendment of the constitution the primary education has been made a 'Fundamental Right'. It has become a legal right. 3. Education for women a) Article 15- This article is regarding no discrimination against any citizen on grounds of sex, religion, race, place of birth. Article 15 (3) of the constitution empowers the state to make any special provision for women and this includes their education also. Article 15(1) provides that, the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of sex, religion, race, place of birth. 4. Promotion of Education and Economic Interest of SC, ST and Other Weaker Sections a) Article 46 - It lays down, "The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and in particular, of the schedule castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation". It is one of the directive principles of state policy.
  31. 31. 27 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 5. Provision for Religious Education a) Article 25- Right to Propagate Religion Article 25(1) of the constitution guarantees all the citizens a right of freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice, and propagate religion. b) Article 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction Article 28 relates to 'Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions'. This article has three clauses. Article 28(1): states, no religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds." Article 28(2): states "Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the state but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution." Article 28(3): lays down "No person attending any educational institution recognised by the state or receiving aid out of state funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given a consent there to". 6. Protection of interests of minorities Article 29- Article 29 relates the protection of interest of minorities it lays down (a) "Any section of the citizen residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same. (b) "No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the state or receiving aid out of state funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them". 7. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions Article 30 It relates to 'Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. (a) "All minorities whether based on religion or language shall have right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice". (b) "The states shall not discriminate against any educational institution in respect of grant in-aid, on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language". 8. Instruction in mother-tongue at the primary stage Article 350-A Article 350-A relates to facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at the primary stage. It lay down as, "It shall be the endeavor of every state and of every local authority with the state to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the
  32. 32. 28 | Dr.C.Thanavathi primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the president may issue such directions to any state as he considers necessary or proper for receiving the provision of such facilities. Article 350-B: provides for the appointment of a special officer for linguistic minorities with the object of investigating into the matter relating to safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under the constitution. 9. Promotion of Hindi Article-351 Article 351 is related to the promotion of Hindi. The constitution also provides for the development and propagation of the national languages, Hindi. According to article 351, it is the special responsibility of the centre to develop the national language i.e. Hindi so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. For this, there is a directorate of Hindi in the Central Ministry of Home Affairs. 10. Education in the Union Territories Article-239 Article 239 of the constitution states," Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by how, every Union Territory shall be administered by the President acting to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify." This means that every union territory has its own education department and the responsibility of education in union territory has been under union or centre government. 11. Fundamental duties to provide the opportunity for education Article 51A Clause 'K' It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be, wards between the age of six and fourteen years. 12. It provides special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of the Anglo-Indian community- Article 337. To provide equal opportunity of education to all the members of the society. 1.10. EDUCATION AS A MEANS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 1.10.1. Social Justice Social justice means maintaining justice to the society. It simply means equality in society, a socially just society, or enjoys equal benefits in the society. Social justice means equality in society, however, many social and educational disadvantages have not enjoyed their rights and not getting benefits under the ordinary
  33. 33. 29 | Dr.C.Thanavathi law. Justice has not been infringed by giving a special provision to the weaker section of the community. It rather encourages a special provision to enjoy the social benefits. In Indian society, some weaker sections like minorities and backward classes are neither equally enjoying their rights, nor are they treated equally. They need to be given a special status to uplift themselves so as to enjoy their rights in the society. So, empowering the weaker section of the community is one of the most important ingredients of social justice. 1.10.2. Defining Social Justice However, social justice has many definitions. Andrew Haywood defines that: “Social justice thus stands for a morally defensible distribution of benefits or rewards in society, evaluated in terms of wages, profits, housing, medical care, welfare benefits and so forth”. John Rawls’ principles of social justice are “they provide a way of assigning rights and duties in the basic institutions of society and they define the appropriate distribution of the benefits and burdens of social cooperation”. While formal definitions for social justice vary in wording, there are commonalities among them. 1. Equal rights 2. Equal opportunity 3. Equal treatment With these core values in mind, we can define the phrase as such: Social justice means equal rights, opportunity, and treatment for all. 1.10.3. Constitutional Provisions Relevant to Social Justice and Empowerment of Vulnerable Sections The Indian constitution has mentioned the word ‘Social Justice’ only in three places. In Part IX of the constitution, (The Panchayats) article 243 G (a)&(b) and Part IXA (The Municipalities) article 243W (i), the Indian constitution has expected the Panchayats and Municipalities to bring social justice to the people. To maintain social justice does not encourage giving anything in free, but aimed at providing opportunities so as to enjoy the social benefits equally.
  34. 34. 30 | Dr.C.Thanavathi A) Constitutional Provisions 1. Article 23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. 2. Article 24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. 3. Article 37: Application of the principles contained in this Part (DPSP). 4. Article 38: State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people. 5. Article 39: Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State. 6. Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid. 7. Article 46: Promotion of Educational and Economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections. B) Social Safeguards 1. Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability 2. Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion. C) Political Safeguards 1. Article 330: Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People. 2. Article 332: Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States. 3. Article 334: Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years. 4. Article 243D: Reservation of seats (in Panchayats). 5. Article 243T: Reservation of seats (in Municipalities). D) Agency for Monitoring Safeguards 1. Article 338: National Commission for Scheduled Castes 1.11. CONSTITUTIONAL VALUES AND EDUCATION (PREAMBLE, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES) 1.11.1. Indian Constitutional Values in Education In its Preamble itself, the Constitution lays down four universal values:
  35. 35. 31 | Dr.C.Thanavathi JUSTICE, social, economic and political LIBERTY of thoughts, expression, belief, faith and worship EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The fundamental objectives enshrined in the constitution are Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, and Justice. Justice ensures that the freedom of one does not become tyranny for another. Justice to be truly meaningful needs sharing of power, compassion towards the under- privileged, and empathy towards the disadvantaged. An education of rights and duties becomes important to ensure to fight for justice. Liberty of thought and action is a fundamental value embedded in our Constitution. It is the basis for creativity and exploration of new ideas and experiments that can advance social progress. Respecting the rights of others to liberty of thought and action are the hallmarks of a civilized society. Ensuring that this liberty of thought and action is not used to belittle or diminish the beliefs and status of others is what constitutes a decent society. Democracy creates the opportunity to pursue one’s chosen ends as well as respect others’ rights to do so. In a diverse country like India, exercising freedom with responsibility is a must for ensuring peace in the nation. Equality is another value enshrined in the Constitution. Freedom and justice remain mere words if equality is not ensured. It implies freedom from exploitation and ensuring to provide opportunities for an individual’s development, irrespective of the background, gender, cultural or socio-economic identity, and status. Fraternity is at the heart of school, society, and nation. Social solidarity is a vital part of a society that has a place for the aspirations of all members of society. Understanding the importance of fraternity or solidarity and the knowledge that we all belong to a large community, a nation, and the globe is also to discover our innate humanity. It is only if we recognize our interdependence then we are empowered to help build a peaceful nation and a world. The citizens need to internalize the principles of equality, justice, and liberty to promote fraternity among all, regardless of religious beliefs, regional and local diversity. As the Constitution encompasses the values for living in harmony with self and one’s natural and social environment. It provides the baseline in working out the framework of values to be nurtured in
  36. 36. 32 | Dr.C.Thanavathi students. If values like truthfulness, sense of responsibility, trustworthiness, loyalty, love, peace, respect for others, etc. are nurtured right from the beginning, the efforts will go a long way to enable students to abide by the Constitution and contribute to the larger health of society and nation at large. In fact, promoting values at the school or societal level begins with the individual and the individual in relation to the community, the larger society, nation, and the world. India got Independence on15th August 1947. Constitution framed by the Law Minister Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Constitution was adopted on November 26th, 1949. It came into force on June 26th, 1950. 1.11.2. Preamble of the Constitution The introductory part of the constitution is called the preamble of the constitution. It states “We, the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation”. WE DO HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. 1.11.3. Fundamental Rights of Citizens 1. Right to Equality (Art 14-18) 2. Right to freedom (Art 19-22) 3. Right against Exploitation (Art 23-24) 4. Right to freedom of Religion (Art25-28 5. Cultural and educational right (Art 29-30) 6. Right to constitutional remedies (Art 32)
  37. 37. 33 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1. Right to Equality (Art 14-18) Art14: Equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Art15: Prohibition of discrimination on religion, caste, sex, or place of birth. Art16: Equality of opportunities in public employment. Art17: Abolition of Untouchability. Art 18: Abolition of (award) only to the citizen 2. Right to freedom (Art 19-22) Art19: All citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression to form associations or unions to move freely throughout the territory of India to practice any profession. Art 20: Protection in respect of conviction for offences. Art 21 Protection of life and personal liberty Art22: Deals with protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 3. Right against Exploitation (Art 23-24) Art23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forces labour. Art24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc. 4. Right to freedom of Religion(Art25-28) Art 25: Freedom of free profession practice and propagation of religion. Art 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs. Art 27: Freedom for promotion of any particular religion Art28: Freedom to attend any religious instruction. 5. Cultural and educational right (Art 29-30) Art29: Protection of language script and culture of minorities. Art30: Right of minorities to establish educational institutions. 6. Right to constitutional remedies (Art 32) Right to move to the supreme court for the enforcement of fundamental Rights
  38. 38. 34 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 1.11.4. Fundamental Duties 1. To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and instruction 2. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India. 3. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle 4. To safeguard public property and to adjust violence. 5. To develop the Scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform. 6. To defend the country and render National service 7. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. 8. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures. 9. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India. 10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. 1.11.5. Directive Principles of State Policy and Education The Directive Principles of state policies in fact the directions given by the constitution to respective governments to adopt a policy that is commensurate (equivalent) and further the cause of social justice and create such situation and circumstance in which every citizen has ample opportunities for self-fulfilment development progress in socially economically politically and vocationally. 1.12. THE RIGHT TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION 2010 (RTE) AND INCLUSION 1.12.1. Right to Education Act (RTE, 2010) The Right to Education Act 2009, also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on 4 August 2009. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India. This act came into effect on 1 April 2010 and made India one of the 135 countries to have made education a
  39. 39. 35 | Dr.C.Thanavathi fundamental right for every child. It prescribes minimum norms for elementary schools, prohibits unrecognised schools from practice, and advocates against donation fees and interviews of children at the time of admission. The Right to Education Act keeps a check on all neighbourhoods through regular surveys and identifies children who are eligible for receiving an education but do not have the means to. 1.12.2. Features of RTE Act 1. All children from age six to fourteen have a right to receive free and compulsory education. 2. Children who could not continue their studies are eligible to join the standard according to their age getting appropriate special training. 3. Children have the right to leave one school and join another school. This provision is applicable only within government and aided schools. 4. Funding for implementing this Act is the responsibility of the Central and State Government. 5.There should not be any discrimination against the disadvantaged groups and weaker sections of the society. 6. Every child should be assured of quality education. 7. Teacher education, curriculum, and content should be implemented within a time frame. 8. No screening test either for the child or the parent should be conducted. 9.No certificate of birth to prove age should be demanded at the time of admission. 10. No child should be held back or sent out before it completes its elementary education. 11. No child should be given corporal punishment or mental agony by the school. 12. No private school should be started without the approval of the Government or the authorised agency. 13. Government permission and recognition should not be granted to schools which do not have the prescribed standards. 14. Duties of teachers: Regularity and punctuality in coming to school completing portions of the syllabus within the allotted time assessing the learning ability of
  40. 40. 36 | Dr.C.Thanavathi every child and providing special instruction. 1.12.3. Inclusion in Education Educational challenges have been prevalent at both the centre and states for many years in India. The Right to Education Act 2009 maps out roles and responsibilities for the centre, state, and all local bodies to rectify gaps in their education system in order to enhance the quality of education in the country. 1. Compulsory and free education for all It is obligatory for the Government to provide free and compulsory elementary education to each and every child, in a neighbourhood school within 1 km, up to class 8 in India. No child is liable to pay fees or any other charges that may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. Free education also includes the provisions of textbooks, uniforms, stationery items, and special educational material for children with disabilities in order to reduce the burden of school expenses. 2. The benchmark mandate The Right to Education Act lays down norms and standards relating to Pupil- Teacher-Ratios (number of children per teacher), classrooms, separate toilets for girls and boys, drinking water facility, number of school-working days, working hours of teachers, etc. Each and every elementary school (Primary school + Middle School) in India has to comply with this set of norms to maintain a minimum standard set by the Right to Education Act. 3. Special provisions for special cases The Right to Education Act mandates that an out of school child should be admitted to an age-appropriate class and provided with special training to enable the child to come up to an age-appropriate learning level. 4. Quantity and quality of teachers The Right to Education Act provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified Pupil-Teacher-Ratio is maintained in every school with no urban-rural imbalance whatsoever. It also mandates appointing appropriately trained teachers i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. 5. Zero tolerance against discrimination and harassment The Right to Education Act 2009 prohibits all kinds of physical punishment and mental harassment, discrimination based on gender, caste, class, and religion,
  41. 41. 37 | Dr.C.Thanavathi screening procedures for admission of children capitation fee, private tuition centres, and functioning of unrecognised schools. The Right to Education (RTE) Forum’s Stocktaking Report 2014 suggested that across the country, less than 10 percent of schools comply with all of the Right to Education Act norms and standards. While the enactment of the Right to Education Act 2009 triggered significant improvements, concerns regarding the privatisation of education remain. Educational inequalities have held a strong ground in India for many years. While the Right to Education Act offers the first step towards an inclusive education system in India, effective implementation of the same still remains to be a challenge. 6. Ensuring all-round development of children The Right to Education Act 2009 provides for the development of a curriculum, which would ensure the all-around development of every child. Build a child’s knowledge, human potential, and talent. 7. Improving learning outcomes to minimise detention The Right to Education Act mandates that no child can be held back or expelled from school till Class 8. To improve the performances of children in schools, the Right to Education Act introduced the Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system in 2009 to ensure grade-appropriate learning outcomes in schools. Another reason why this system was initiated was to evaluate every aspect of the child during their time in school so that gaps could be identified and worked on well in time. 8. Monitoring compliance of RTE norms School Management Committees (SMCs) play a crucial role in strengthening participatory democracy and governance in elementary education. All schools covered under the Right to Education Act 2009 are obligated to constitute a School Management Committee consisting of a head teacher, local elected representative, parents, community members, etc. The committees have been empowered to monitor the functioning of schools and to prepare a school development plan. 9. Right to Education Act is justiciable The Right to Education Act is justiciable and is backed by a Grievance Redressal (GR) mechanism that allows people to take action against non-compliance of provisions of the Right to Education Act 2009. To ensure all schools follow this mandate, Oxfam India in collaboration with JOSH filed a complaint at the Central
  42. 42. 38 | Dr.C.Thanavathi Information Commission (CIC) in 2011 evoking Section 4 of the Right to Information Act (RTI Act) 2005. Section 4 of the RTI Act is a proactive disclosure section mandating all public authorities to share information with citizens about their functioning. Since schools are public authorities, compliance to Section 4 was demanded. 10. Creating inclusive spaces for all The Right to Education Act 2009 mandates for all private schools to reserve 25 percent of their seats for children belonging to socially disadvantaged and economically weaker sections. This provision of the Act is aimed at boosting social inclusion to provide for a more just and equal nation. 1.12.4. Achievements of Right to Education Act, 2010 ▪ The RTE Act has successfully managed to increase enrolment in the upper primary level (Class 6-8). ▪ Stricter infrastructure norms resulted in improved school infrastructure, especially in rural areas. ▪ More than 3.3 million students secured admission under the 25% quota norm under RTE. ▪ It made education inclusive and accessible nationwide. ▪ Removal of “no detention policy” has brought accountability in the elementary education system. ▪ The Government has also launched an integrated scheme, for school education named as Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan, which subsumes the three schemes of school education: o Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) o Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) o Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education (CSSTE). Making the right to education a fundamental right took more than 6 decades after independence. Now, the government and all stakeholders should focus on the quality of education, and gradually move towards having a single educational system
  43. 43. 39 | Dr.C.Thanavathi and platform across the country for all sections of society in order to foster equality, inclusion, and unity. 1.13. EDUCATION IN THE CONCURRENT LIST AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 1.13.1. Concurrent List Concurrent list is a list of 52 items, and it includes the power to be considered by both the Central and State governments. "If any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament is competent to enact, or to any provision of an existing law with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent list, then the law made by Parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislature of such State, or as the case may be, the existing law shall prevail and the law made by the Legislature of the State shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void." 1.13.2. Education on the Concurrent list Concurrent list encompasses items of concerns of both the centre and the states. Both will legislate for items in the concurrent List. Education is part of the concurrent List. This means policies related to education are legislated by central and state governments in the form of a meaningful partnership. 1.13.3. Education in Concurrent list and its Implications 1. A Uniformity in Education Policy: Education System and its pattern should be the same across all of India. This could only be possible when education is made a concurrent subject. This ensures that the structure of education does not vary from state to state.
  44. 44. 40 | Dr.C.Thanavathi 2. Improvement in Standards: As a result of education is a concurrent subject, research will advance throughout the nation. Due to this research studies are going to be utilized better at both state and national level. 3. Education for emotional Integration: Education is the key force for the production of emotional integration between all of the country. Educational curriculum, strategies, goals, and priorities, etc. can include guidelines to both teachers and learners so that they can use them towards the purpose of emotional integration of the nation as a whole. 4. For better Discipline: Central government has the power to overrule the decisions of state governments in case of disagreements. This power is given to the central government for maintaining better discipline when it comes to maintaining standards of education and better emotional integration throughout the country. 5. Proper and better utilization of funds: The state receives funding from the center for education but sometimes they spend it elsewhere, as has been noted. The center must have a say in its use when the funds are distributed by the central government for the betterment of schools and the education infrastructure of states. 6. Quality Leadership from Central Government: Sometimes central government is able to provide quality leadership in the form of direction and supervision when it comes to the matters of education. 7. Better implementation of education policies: Better implementation of policies related to education means the better implementation of education policies in a systematic way for better results. If education is on the
  45. 45. 41 | Dr.C.Thanavathi concurrent list, the center will ensure that state governments are correctly implementing it. 8. For creating equalitarian policies: Our constitution provides equal rights to each and every citizen in the society. For achieving equity and equality in society education must be provided to all, as the constitution gives the right to education to all. Until 1976, education was a state subject with some provisions at the central level. The 42nd amendment, 1976, was an about major and important changes to the Indian constitution. It also affected the status of education by putting it on the concurrent list. Making education a concurrent subject ensures that both the centre and state can legislate on any aspect of education from primary to the university level. In case of any dispute, legislation formed by the central government will have overriding authority. By having education in the concurrent list, the centre can directly implement any policy decisions in the states. So, the concurrent status of education means that there is a partnership between the State government and central government when it comes to Education policy making and implementation. This is a meaningful and yet challenging task to accomplish.
  46. 46. 42 | Dr.C.Thanavathi UNIT- II UNDERSTANING THE SOCIAL DIVERSITY Social diversity: Meaning and definition - Education for understanding the social diversity in India – Levels of social diversity: Individual, regional, linguistic, religious, castes and tribes - Role of education in creating positive attitude towards diversity - inter disciplinary nature of education philosophy, psychology, sociology, anthropology, politics, history; 2.0. INTRODUCTION India is a large country with different geo-political conditions in different parts of the country. This has brought differences in social evolution of the groups living in different parts of the country. India is a country of social diversity. To maintain harmony among all sections of the society, the Constitution of India has adopted federal political structure. The democracy of the country also helps in maintaining social unity. Three kinds of social differences need special attention namely: Gender, Religion and Castes. Some of the Fundamental Rights are enshrined in the Constitution with this purpose only. The Directive Principles of State Policies also help in maintaining the social fabric of India. Sometimes the political manifestations of these identities do create problems, but the constitution meets these challenges successfully. 2.1. MEANING OF SOCIAL DIVERSITY Social diversity is the diverse factors surrounding our society such as race, culture, religion, age and disabilities. Diversity is differences in racial and ethnic, socio-economic, geographic, and academic/professional backgrounds. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. Social diversity centers on three universal human realities. Firstly, that each individual is unique. Secondly, that individual and their societies are inter-related and inter-dependent. Thirdly, that societies and cultures are dynamic: change may be rapid or gradual, but will always affect different members of society in ways that reflect differences in power and status. 2.2. DEFINITION OF SOCIAL DIVERSITY Diversification is a principle that maintains how individual develop into quite different people so that they can peacefully occupy different positions within the
  47. 47. 43 | Dr.C.Thanavathi environment. A broad definition of diversity ranges from personality and work style to all of the visible dimensions of diversity such as race, age, ethnicity or gender, to secondary influences such as religion, socio economics and education, to work diversities such as management and union, functional level and classification or proximity/distance to headquarters. 2.3. EDUCATION FOR UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA Teachers today must not only be well prepared to impart a quality education but also be sensitive to meeting the needs of their students regardless of their race, color, creed, or national origin. It is important for the teacher to understand, believe, and practice the ideas of teacher efficacy, intentionality, educational psychology and pedagogy. An effective teacher should take into account the intellectual, social and cultural characteristics of each student being taught. Remaining cognizant of the fact that each child is different and has different learning styles a teacher in a diverse world is enthusiastic about their responsibility to teach all students in the most effective way. Whatever the learning style: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, etc, the teachers who practice intentionality and believe in teacher efficacy plan the outcomes they want to achieve while having the power or belief in producing the desired result. Because of different styles and beliefs there are many facets of diversity in our world today. Each facet is worthy of our respect and understanding. In order to be successful teachers we need to step back and look inside ourselves. Once teachers understand the differences in students’ styles, beliefs, and abilities they must create curriculum that is responsive to the needs of each student. By incorporating examples of multicultural materials, visual aids, and topics that encourage students to explore different racial and cultural perspectives teachers show sensitivity to the cultural value of each student therefore connecting with the students. Educators must understand that the cultural backgrounds and experiences of their students must be respected and reflected in all aspects of the education process. It is not only enough to understand and work toward the success of all diverse students, an effective teacher must prevent harassment and racism in the classroom. Inappropriate or offensive remarks must be dealt with quickly and decisively. Since all students are diverse racist, sexist or other abusive comments are bound to occur. Teachers need to create an environment which radiates warmth and friendliness. It is
  48. 48. 44 | Dr.C.Thanavathi important to help diverse students merge into the mainstream without jeopardizing the quality of education to all students. Connecting with your students and letting them share their cultural identity not only assists students to understand other cultures, it helps embed the individuals’ culture into their daily life. Though changes are taking place in the caste system, it still plays an important role in shaping the Indian societal structure. The system underwent fast changes due to industrialization, urbanization, modernization, education, secularization etc., yet it could neither be weakened nor destroyed and caste practices are still found to be very rigid in the rural areas. Various social reformers have made attempts to stop discrimination based on caste and because of their movements against this discrimination, there has been an improvement in the status of the so-called untouchables or harijans or dalits. Diversity, that is, a mix of human backgrounds, races or genders, is an important means of promoting mutual understanding and tolerance. The nature of its importance partly depends on the setting. Diversity as a wide component is a tricky thing to use and understand because it has both negative and positive effects on society such as education, violence and employment. People have to dig deep to figure out what exactly the effect will be in the end and be patient to wait and see. In an educational context, diversity within schools or universities can enrich the learning process, enabling students to draw on their peers' much wider and more varied experiences. It also necessary to prepare students for the diverse society they participate in beyond the campus. 2.4. LEVELS OF SOCIAL DIVERSITY The levels of social diversity are: 1) Individual diversity, 2) Regional diversity, 3) Linguistic diversity, 4) Religious diversity and, 5) Caste and tribes’ diversity. 1. Individual Diversity Becoming culturally competent, diverse and inclusive involves knowledge, attitudes, and skills that may seem overwhelming for any individual to achieve. It is
  49. 49. 45 | Dr.C.Thanavathi important to remain aware that cultural groups are not homogeneous in beliefs and practices. Meaning of Individual Differences: Dissimilarity is principle of nature. No two persons are alike. All the individuals differ from each other in many a respect. Children born of the same parents and even the-twins are not alike. This differential psychology is linked with the study of individual differences. Wundt, Cattel, Kraepelin, Jastrow and Ebbing Haus are the exponents of differential psychology. This change is seen in physical forms like in height, weight, colour, and complexion strength etc., difference in intelligence, achievement, interest, attitude, aptitude, learning habits, motor abilities, and skill. Each man has an intellectual capacity through which he gains experience and learning. Every person has the emotions of love, anger, fear and feelings of pleasure and pain. Every man has the need of independence, success and need for acceptance. Definitions of individual diversity: According to Carter B. Good, “Individual diversity stands for the variations or deviations among the individuals in regarded to a single characteristics”. Individual diversity stands for those differences, which in their totaling distinguish one individual from another. Classifications of individual diversity:
  50. 50. 46 | Dr.C.Thanavathi Causes of Individual Differences: There are various causes which are responsible in bringing individual differences. i. Heredity: Some heretical traits bring a change from one individual to other. An individual’s height, size, shape and color of hair, shape of face, nose, hands and legs so to say the entire structure of the body is determined by his heretical qualities. Intellectual differences are also to a great extent influenced by hereditary factor. ii. Environment: Environment brings individual differences in behaviour, activities, attitude, and style of life characteristics, personality etc. Environment does not refer only physical surroundings but also it refers the different types of people, society, their culture, customs, traditions, social heritage, ideas and ideals. iii. Race and Nationality: Race and Nationality is one cause of individual difference. Indians are very peace loving, Chinese are cruel; Americans are very frank due to race and nationality. iv. Sex: Due to sex variation one individual differs from other. Men are strong in mental power. On the other hand women on the average show small superiority over men in memory, language and aesthetic sense. Women excel the men in shouldering social responsibilities and have a better control over their emotions. v. Age: Age is another factor which is responsible in bringing individual differences. Learning ability and adjustment capacity naturally grow with age. When one grows in age can acquire better control over our emotions and better social responsibilities. When a child grows then this maturity and development goes side by side. vi. Education: Education is one major factor which brings individual differences. There is a wide gap in the behaviors of educated and uneducated persons. All traits of human
  51. 51. 47 | Dr.C.Thanavathi beings like social, emotional and intellectual are controlled and modifies through proper education. This education brings a change in our attitude, behaviour, appreciations, Personality. It is seen that uneducated persons are guided by their instinct and emotions where as the educated persons are guided by their reasoning power. 2. Regional Diversity Region as a social system, reflects the relation between different human beings and groups. Regions are an organised cooperation in cultural, economic, political or military fields. Region acts as a subject with distinct identity, language, culture and tradition. Regionalism is an ideology and political movement that seeks to advance the causes of regions. Meaning of Regional Diversity The word ‘regional’ means any element belongs to a particular region, and the feeling related to the people belonging to the particular region is known as ‘Regionalism’. The term regionalism has two connotations: In the positive sense, it is a political attribute associated with people’s love for their region, culture, language, etc. with a view to maintain their independent identity. In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region in preference to the country, or the state. While positive regionalism is a welcome thing in so far maintaining as it encourages the people to develop a sense of brotherhood and commonness on the basis of common language, religion or historical background. The negative sense regionalism is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country. Regionalism in India Roots of regionalism is in India’s manifold diversity of languages, cultures, ethnic groups, communities, religions and so on, and encouraged by the regional concentration of those identity markers, and fueled by a sense of regional deprivation. For many centuries, India remained the land of many lands, regions, cultures and traditions. For instance, southern India (the home of Dravidian cultures), which is itself a region of many regions, is evidently different from the north, the west, the central and the north-east. Even the east of India is different from the North-East of India comprising today seven constituent units of Indian federation with the largest concentration of tribal people.

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