The buying process Psychological Factors Social Factors Demographic factors Behavioural Factors/Purchase situation Awareness of needs and wants Information search Setting criterion and evaluating alternative solutions Purchase decision Purchase Post purchase evaluation Postpone decision Routinised response The buying process is a ‘problem solving’ process.
How are problems (needs) recognised? The ‘means-end chain’ (Gutman, Peter, et al) Weight management programme Exercises for Weight loss Body toning Better diet Can wear trendy clothes Look good Feel energetic Have a good social life Feel confident Feel positive
Post purchase evaluation Post purchase evaluation can lead to a feeling of satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. Feelings of dissatisfaction in the period immediately after Purchase are often the result of a phenomenon called ‘cognitive Dissonance’.
Reference groups – Contnd. 2. Information: Providing information on product/brand benefits and Criterion for evaluation (experts) 3. Aspirations: Sometimes buyers are influenced by a group to which They do not belong but aspire to belong to. (filmstars, sports persons) Buyers may simultaneously belong to several reference groups and Marketers have to find out which one yields more influence for their Product. Marketers also want to know the type of influence exerted by the Reference group and profile of the person/s (opinion leaders) Exerting this influence. Opinion leaders are early adopters of the Product who have a lower risk perception of product purchase and Usage.
Culture Culture is a set of values, artifacts, symbols and norms that help Individuals communicate with each other and interpret and evaluate Each other’s behaviour. Influences: Race, religion, region, nation Culture Abstract elements: Values, Norms, Rituals, symbols Material elements: Artifacts, materials, technology Cultural factors influence every stage of the buying process.
Notes de l'éditeur
1.In habitual buying you jump from need recognition to purchase decision 2. The buying process may be abandoned at any stage either due to lack of resources or because products do not match needs, or the the current way in which the need is satisfied is better. 3. info search depends on level of involvement in product. Sources of info 4. Setting parameters for evaluation. Personality, lifestyle, attitudes, soc class, culture, fly, demo 5. Post purchase – insights into future modif for product- frost free, detergent cake with coating
SOR model Selective attention, retention and distortion Attitudes are influenced by culture, fly, social class, ref grps Distortions because of environmental factors and influences, inferences may not be those intended by the communicator – gelatine is made from animal bones hence jelly not acceptable A glass of beer/wine is healthy hence drinking is healthy Subliminal advertising – bagpiper gold, bacardi lime Work backwards fro currently held attitude, info to coin your message- wipro lighting;chevrolet intro ads
Lipstick Car/vehicle Inability or insufficient info to evaluate – doc or cost of product(2) House purchase Gold ornaments, clothing, accesories