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Motivation- Psychology
Motivation- Psychology
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Perception- Psychology

  1. 1. PERCEPTION Mr.Visanth V S Asso.Professor IGSCON, Amethi
  2. 2. Perception • Everyday different stimuli around us will be stimulating our sense organs. Many of these stimuli are received by our sense organs and are converted into sensations. • These sensations are transmitted to the concerned parts of brain. Hence in understanding the world around us, attention occurs first, followed by sensation and finally interpretation by brain. • This process of ‘interpretation of stimulus is known as perception’. • So perception involves two processes: sensation and interpretation.
  3. 3. Definition • Perception may be defined as a process of interpretation of a present stimulus on the basis of past experience. • All the processes involved in creating meaningful patterns out of a jumble of sensory impressions fall under the general category of perception—Charles Jorris • Perception is the organizing process by which we interpret our sensory input—Edmund Fantino
  4. 4. Principles of Perceptual Organisation • In perceptual process we select a particular stimulus with our attention and interpret it. • In the same way whenever it is necessary many discrete stimuli in our visual field are organized into a form and perceived more meaningfully than they appear. • This phenomenon was well explained by Gestalt psychologists. • They believed that the brain creates a coherent perceptual experience by perceiving a stimulus as a whole than perceiving discrete entities.
  5. 5. 1. Figure-Ground Relationship  According to this principle any figure/objects can be perceived against a background and that figure cannot be separated from that background.  For example, letters written with a white chalk piece are perceived clearly in the background of a blackboard.  In this figure two faces can be seen in the background of a white color. So also the white background can be perceived as a vessel in the background of two faces. The moon, picrures, mountains and words are seen as figures and the sky, wall, cloud and page is seen as ground.  A proper figure- ground relationship is quite important from the angle of the perception of a figure or the ground.
  6. 6. 2. Grouping of Stimuli in Perceptual Organisation • According to gestalt principle, the objects can be perceived meaningfully when they are grouped together. • There are some principles which are followed by us in order to make our perception more meaningful. They are as follows:  Proximity:  Proximity means nearness. The objects which are nearer to each other can be perceived meaningfully by grouping them.  For example, the word ‘Man’, here though the letters are discrete, when grouped together gives some meaning.  In this figure the objects which are nearer to each other are perceived together as groups.
  7. 7.  Similarity: If there is similarity in objects, they are grouped together and perceived, even if they are away. For example, in this Figure grouping will be done according to similarity, i.e. all circles and triangles are grouped separately. Continuity: Any stimulus which extends in the same direction or shape will be perceived as a whole. In this figure it is perceived as a wave.
  8. 8.  Closure: When a stimulus is presented with gaps, the human tendency is to perceive that figure as complete one by filling the gaps psychologically. For example, in the given figure the gaps are filled psychologically and perceived as letters M and A, circle and a rectangle.  Symmetry: Objects which are having symmetrical shape are perceived as groups. For example, the brackets of different shapes shown in the Figure.
  9. 9. 3. Principle of contour: A contour refers to a boundary between a figure and its ground. The degree of the quality of this contour separating figure from ground is responsible for enabling us to organize stimuli or objects into meaningful patterns. 4. Principle of context: Perception is context-dependent, that is the setting in which a perceived stimulus or object appears. For example, a word or phrase would be perceived differently in different contexts. 5. Principle of contrast: Perception is affected through contrast effects as the stimuli that are in sharp contrast to nearby stimuli may draw our maximum attention and carry different perceptual effects. For example, the surrounding circles in (i) in the figure below make the central circle seem larger than the central circle in (ii), even though the two are of the same size.
  10. 10. Factors Affecting Perception There are individual differences in perceptual abilities. Two people may perceive the same stimulus differently. The factors affecting the perceptions of people are 1. Sense Organs: Perception depends on the sense organs or receptors, on which the stimuli act. 2. Past Experience: Our perception also depends on past experiences or any special training that we get. Experience is the best teacher for such perceptual skills. For example, blind people identify the people by their voice or by sounds of their footsteps. 3. Mental set: Set refers to preparedness or readiness to receive some sensory input. Such expectancy keeps the individual prepared with good attention and concentration. For example, when we are expecting the arrival of a train, we listen to its horn or sound even if there is a lot of noise disturbance. 4. Motives and needs: Our motives and needs will definitely influence our perception. For example, a hungry person is motivated to recognise the food items than other. 5. Cognitive styles: People are said to differ in the ways they characteristically process the information. Every individual will have his or her own way of understanding the situation. 6. Emotions: Our emotions also influence the interpretation of sensory information. For example a small child who is afraid of darkness, perceives a rope hanging on the door as a ghost.
  11. 11. EXTRA SENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP)  A perception without the aid of sense organs is known as extra sensory perception, which implies perception without involvement of any sense organ.  This is otherwise known as sixth sense in common man’s view. This phenomenon is also called as para-psychological phenomenon.  Some of the common phenomena in ESP are;  Telepathy: Action of one mind on the other at a distance through emotional experience, without communication through senses.  Clairvoyance: Ability of seeing mentally what is happening or existing out of sight.  Precognition: Predicting events prior to happening  Levitation: Ability to float on water or walk on the surface of water.  Psychokinesis: Moving objects without physical forces.  Extra cortical memory: Memory of previous birth.
  12. 12. ERRORS/ ABNORMALITIES IN PERCEPTION • Our perception is not always accurate, knowingly or unknowingly, we mistake the stimulus and perceive it wrongly. • It may be due to defect in our sense organs or defective functioning of the brain. • Many times the prejudices in the individual, time of perception, unfavorable background, lack of clarity of stimulus, confusion, conflict in mind and such other factors are responsible for errors in perception. • There are two kinds of errors: • Illusion • Hallucination
  13. 13.  ILLUSION: Illusion is a wrong/false/ or mistaken perception with an external stimuli. Here the person will mistake a stimulus and perceive it wrongly. For example, in the dark, a rope is mistaken as a snake or vice versa. The voice of an unknown person is mistaken as a friend’s voice. The major ones are 1. Illusion of size: For example, a child may perceive a football as larger in size than what an adult would perceive the same object. This change in perception arises due to change in the frame of reference. 2. Illusion of length Although both the lines below are identical, yet the bottom one is perceived as longer. This is the famous Muller-Lyer illusion. This is caused by our interpretation of angles at the ends of the lines as perspective cues.
  14. 14. 3. The horizontal-vertical illusions: In the figure below, though the two lines are of equal length, the vertical one is perceived as the longer one, mainly due to our field of vision. 4.Illusions of movement: Often, we perceive movement of objects we are looking at, even though they are actually not moving. An easy example is the illusion of movement of a bus/train, when the one in which we are sitting is actually moving.
  15. 15. HALLUCINATION: Hallucination is false perception without an external stimulus. It is otherwise known as the imaginary perception. Hallucinations pertain to all the sensations appear in people, but visual and auditory hallucinations are more common. Usually persons with unsound mind, emotionally disturbed, alcoholics and those who are in confused states may experience hallucinations. Types of Hallucination 1. Auditory hallucination: Hearing voices or sounds without any external stimulus. 2. Visual Hallucination: Seeing something which is not actually there 3. Olfactory Hallucination: Smelling something which is not there 4. Gustatory Hallucination: Tasting something without the pertinent external stimulus 5. Tactile/ cutaneous hallucination: Feeling that something is crawling under one’s skin or any related sensation involving touch.
  16. 16. Sl No Illusion Hallucination 1 Normal and universal Abnormal. Common with mentally ill people 2 Object is present No object present 3 The stimulus is external It is internal stimulation 4 Wrong/ false perception Imaginary perception
  17. 17. THANK YOU

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