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This presentation details about Perception in cognitive sense.

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  2. 2. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is defined as some total ways in which an individual interacts with people and reacts to situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is also defined as the traits exhibited by a person during interactions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY TRAITS <ul><li>INTROVERSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred to be themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctant to interact with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid developing new relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Can not influence </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid interactive jobs </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRAVERSION </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable with other people </li></ul><ul><li>Sociable,talkative & friendly. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new relationships easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers interactive jobs </li></ul>
  4. 4. AGREEABLENESS <ul><li>AGREEABLE </li></ul><ul><li>Give importance in maintaining harmony. </li></ul><ul><li>Good natured cooperative and trusting. </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to develop good working relationships </li></ul><ul><li>LESS AGREEABLE </li></ul><ul><li>Give importance to their own,opinions and values& needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely to develop good relationships. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CONSCIENTIOUSENESS <ul><li>CONSCIENTIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion towards goal </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible & achievement oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Organized,responsible& self disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>Perform better in the job </li></ul><ul><li>LESS CONSCIENTIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Set too many goals </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to achieve any goal </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of achievement orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Not organized </li></ul><ul><li>Can not perform well </li></ul>
  6. 6. EMOTIONAL STABILITY <ul><li>POSITIVE EMOTIONAL STABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally secure and tend to be calm </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic about their work </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of withstanding pressures </li></ul>
  7. 7. OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE <ul><li>HIGH LEVEL OF OPENNESS </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be creative </li></ul><ul><li>Open to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Make good workers </li></ul><ul><li>LOW LEVEL OF OPENNESS </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow range of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid mind set </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctant towards new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Make poor workers </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE SELF CONCEPT <ul><li>SELF EFFICACY </li></ul><ul><li>Persons perception to cope with different situations </li></ul><ul><li>Have capability &required confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Situation specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measured along- level,strength ,& generality </li></ul><ul><li>SELF ESTEEM </li></ul><ul><li>Self image of people </li></ul><ul><li>Unique,competent secure& empowered </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized trait & present in all situations </li></ul>
  9. 9. PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS <ul><li>HEREDITY : </li></ul><ul><li>An individuals personality is determined by the type of genes he inherits from his parents </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity plays an important role in influencing an individuals personality. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Environment plays an important role in shaping ones personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors such as culture of the society,norms </li></ul>
  11. 11. SITUATION <ul><li>Different situations bring out different aspects of an individuals personality. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES <ul><li>LOCUS OF CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Degree to which people believe that they can control their fate or any situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people believed that they are masters of their own fate.( Internals) </li></ul><ul><li>Some believed that fate is controlled by luck,chance or external forces.(Externals) </li></ul>
  13. 13. LOCUS OF CONTROL <ul><li>INTERNALS </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to their work </li></ul><ul><li>Low rate of absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with the job </li></ul><ul><li>Believed on themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to learn new things </li></ul><ul><li>Highly achievement oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform better in managerial jobs </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNALS </li></ul><ul><li>Little commitment to work </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently absent from work </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction with their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of achievement orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctant to take initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Perform better in routine & structured task </li></ul>
  14. 14. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES <ul><li>MACHIAVELLIANISM </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the degree to which an individual is practical in his approach,maintains an emotional distance from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who scored high on Mach are good at manipulating others& try to win by any mean. </li></ul><ul><li>They successfully persuade others. </li></ul><ul><li>Performs well in face to face meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Productive in jobs that requires bargaining skills. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SELF ESTEEM <ul><li>Refers to degree of liking an individual for himself. </li></ul><ul><li>People with high self esteem are confident. </li></ul><ul><li>Preference towards unconventional or challenging jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not care about pleasing others </li></ul><ul><li>Drives more satisfaction from their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with low self esteem lack confidence,look for approval from others. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SELF MONITORING <ul><li>Refers to the ability of an individual to adapt his behavior to the demands of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>High self monitors are capable of changing their behavior according to the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Can play multiple and contradictory roles. </li></ul>
  17. 17. SELF MONITORING <ul><li>They make successful managers and tend to get promoted fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Low self monitors can not adapt quickly to situations </li></ul><ul><li>Low self monitors do not advance in their careers as high monitors </li></ul>
  18. 18. RISK TAKING <ul><li>Extend to which an individual is preferred to take risk. </li></ul><ul><li>High risk takers make decision quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-averse people do not make decisions in a hurry& gather a lot of information. </li></ul><ul><li>The suitability of persons risk taking depends on the responsibilities of job. </li></ul>
  19. 19. TYPE A PERSONALITY <ul><li>Individuals try to be fast in every thing they do. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to be involved in more than one thing at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The pace at which things generally happen upsets them. </li></ul><ul><li>They are always busy and are unable to cope with leisure time. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure their success in quantitative terms </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for jobs that call for continuous hard work, </li></ul>
  20. 20. TYPE B PERSONALITY <ul><li>Do not experience a sense of urgency while carrying out tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not get upset if the tasks are not accomplished within the specified span. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not consider necessary to discuss their achievements unless asked. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to make the best use of leisure time </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for the top management position as they are wise,tactful and creative </li></ul>
  21. 21. LEVINGSON’S THEORY OF LIFE STAGES <ul><li>According to Levinson’s theory,the four period of stability occur between the following ages: </li></ul><ul><li>22 - 28 : Adult stage </li></ul><ul><li>33 - 40 : Process of settling down </li></ul><ul><li>45 - 50 : Middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>55 - 60 : Retirement or old age </li></ul>
  22. 22. LEVINGSON’S THEORY OF LIFE STAGES <ul><li>FOUR TRANSITIONAL DIMENTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Age thirty transition : 28 - 33 Yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Mid life transition : 40- 45 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Age fifty transition : 50 - 55 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Late adult transition : 60 - 65 yrs </li></ul>
  23. 23. HALL’S CAREER STAGE MODEL <ul><li>An individual goes through four stages during his career . </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLORATION : Identity </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHNENT : Settling down </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE : Reaches peak </li></ul><ul><li>DECLINE : Retirement </li></ul>
  24. 24. ARGYRIS’ IMMATURITY TO MATURITY THEORY <ul><li>The personality of an individual depends factors like perception,self-concept, and his ability to adapt & adjust. </li></ul><ul><li>Continual change in the level of development along with different dimesions. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of an individuals personality can be measured but it is difficult to predict specific behavior. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ARGYRIS’ IMMATURITY TO MATURITY THEORY <ul><li>Personalities of the employees in the organizations are at the mature end. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal organizations are failed to consider them as mature & give them passive role. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic incongruity between the needs of a mature personality and the nature of the formal organization is the cause of conflict in organizations. </li></ul>
  27. 27. THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS <ul><li>The process through which an individual’s Personality is influenced by his interaction with certain persons,groups and society at large is referred as Socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Schein the socialization process in an organization is confined to learning the values, norms, and behavioral patterns. </li></ul>
  28. 28. THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS <ul><li>Characteristics of Socialization of Employees in an Organization are : </li></ul><ul><li>Brings change in the attitude,values and behavior of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Process continues for an extended period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps new employees to adjust with new job,work groups ,policies & practices. </li></ul><ul><li>New employees as well as managers influence each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Determines how well an employee fits into the organization </li></ul>
  29. 29. THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS <ul><li>Steps taken by Organizations to Socialize new employees : </li></ul><ul><li>Offers interesting & challenging job. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides objectives, relevant training and timely feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Designs an informal orientation program. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigns new employees to work groups that are highly satisfied & have high morale </li></ul>
  30. 30. MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH JOBS <ul><li>JOB FIT THEORY BY JOHN HOLLAND </li></ul><ul><li>Established the relationship between personality characteristics, requirement of a job,and job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction of an individual is determined by the extent to which his personality matches with the requirement of the job. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Realistic Physical activities Shy, practical ,stable Mechanic, farmer Biologist,mathematician Investigative Thinking Analytical,independent Social teacher,counselor cooperative Helping others Enterprising Lawyer influence others Self confident Artistic Creative Imaginative Musician,painter Accountant file clerk Conventional Practical inflexible Regulated activities
  32. 32. MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH JOBS <ul><li>Significant points made by Holland’s Model are : </li></ul><ul><li>There are some intrinsic differences among personalities </li></ul><ul><li>There are variety of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals whose personality matches with their jobs are more satisfied. </li></ul>
  33. 33. CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>Attitude is a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards objects, people or events. </li></ul>
  34. 34. CONCEPT OF ATTITUDES <ul><li>Characteristic of Attitude: </li></ul><ul><li>Generally remained unchanged for prolonged period of time unless he is influenced by external forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative statements either favorable or unfavorable </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to feelings and beliefs by an individual towards an object . </li></ul>
  35. 35. CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive : Opinion,values & beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Affective : Feelings of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral : Intention of a person </li></ul>
  36. 36. SOURCES OF ATTITUDES <ul><li>Acquired from parents,teachers and members of the peer group. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the people whom he admires,respect or fears. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes can be changed by </li></ul><ul><li>providing new information </li></ul><ul><li>threatening </li></ul><ul><li>resolving differences </li></ul><ul><li>involving people in problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>providing right feedback </li></ul>
  37. 37. TYPES OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>JOB SATISFACTION </li></ul><ul><li>JOB INVOLVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT </li></ul>
  38. 38. JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>Refers to an individuals general attitude towards his or her job. </li></ul><ul><li>Results when an individual perceives that his job provides him with what is important to him. </li></ul>
  39. 39. JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>Dimensions of Job satisfaction are : </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects other attitudes of employees. </li></ul>
  40. 40. JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>Six JOB DIMENSIONS (P.C.Smith,L.M.Kendall,C.L.Hulin) </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul>
  41. 41. OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>Satisfaction &Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction &Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction & Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Other effects of job Satisfaction </li></ul>
  42. 42. JOB INVOLVEMENT <ul><li>Refers to the extent to which a person identifies his job, participates in it & understands his self worth. </li></ul><ul><li>High level of job involvement leads to lower absenteeism & employee turnover levels. </li></ul>
  43. 43. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT <ul><li>Refers to an employees satisfaction with a particular organization & its goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by number of variables </li></ul><ul><li>Personal variables -Age, tenure in the organization & his attitude toward job. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational variables -Job design & the leadership style of superior </li></ul><ul><li>Non organizational factors - Influence an employees commitment such as, State of job market & other career options available to employees </li></ul>
  44. 44. COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT <ul><li>Affective Commitment : </li></ul><ul><li>Concern with the employees emotional attachment & involvement with the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Continuance Commitment : </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the costs that could accrue to the employee if he leaves the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Normative Commitment : </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the extent to which an employee feels obligated to continue the organization. </li></ul>
  46. 46. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>ADJUSTMENT FUNCTION </li></ul>People modify their attitude to adjust to their work environment. Treating employees well may result in positive attitude towards the organization. Such attitudes help employees to adapt to their environment & form the basis for their future behavior.
  47. 47. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>THE EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes not only enable employees to adapt to their environment but also help them to defend their self-images. </li></ul><ul><li>THE VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>People may express their values through their attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>THE KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude provide a standard of reference which allows people to understand & explain their environment. </li></ul>
  48. 48. ATTITUDE AND CONSISTENCY <ul><li>People may change their attitudes so that they do not contradict their actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals constantly attempt to align their attitudes with their behavior & tries to eliminate any divergence among their attitudes. </li></ul>
  49. 49. COGNITIVE DISONANCE THEORY <ul><li>Proposed by Leon Festinger to explain the relationship between attitudes & behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance - Refers to the incompatibility that an individual may perceive between his behavior & attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional dissonance - Refers to the conflict between the emotions an individual experiences & the emotions he needs to express to confirm the norms. </li></ul>
  50. 50. COGNITIVE DISONANCE THEORY <ul><li>The efforts made by an individual to reduce dissonance depends on- </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of the elements that leads to dissonance & the reward associated with it. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the dissonance ,the higher the pressure on the individual to overcome the dissonance. </li></ul>