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Simulation in Aerospace

Queen Mary University of London External Lecturer talk on 20 October 2020 for First Year Aeronautical Engineering Students covering:
* What is, and Why, Simulation?
* A Short History of Fight Simulation
* Training, Simulation and Gaming
* The Human Dimension of Flight
* Digital Twins
* Thoughts on Careers

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Simulation in Aerospace

  1. 1. Simulation in Aerospace Queen Mary University of London 20 October 2020 Andy Fawkes External Lecturer Carleton University
  2. 2. The Presenter FIMechE MRAeS Before Now
  3. 3. Outline 1. What is, and Why, Simulation? 2. A Short History of Fight Simulation 3. Training, Simulation and Gaming 4. The Human Dimension of Flight 5. Digital Twins 6. Thoughts on Careers
  4. 4. Humans & Flight - 1903
  5. 5. Boeing 737 MAX Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302
  6. 6. 1/6 What is, and Why, Simulation?
  7. 7. • Humans Inside or Outside • Runs in Real or Non-Real Time • Some Systems have Order • Some Systems are Chaotic • Some are Random What is Simulation?
  8. 8. Human(s) Outside the Simulation Simulation
  9. 9. Michel Jarraud, World Meteorological Organization "Thanks to major investments in research and observations, today’s five-day forecast is as reliable as the two-day forecast of 20 years ago”
  10. 10. Simulation Uncertainty
  11. 11. Human(s) Inside the Simulation Simulation
  12. 12. Flight Simulator Journeys Aviation™
  13. 13. •Computing •Games •Networking •Graphics •Audio •Human Interfaces •Sensors •AI Simulation Technology Drivers
  14. 14. Why Flight Simulation?
  15. 15. 2/6 A Short History of Flight Simulation
  16. 16. 1903 • Wright Brothers – Test – Train
  17. 17. 1910s Leon Levavasseur’s Antoinette Barrel – France 1910
  18. 18. Cadets and Instructor No.1 School of Aeronautics, Reading 1918 - “Penguin”
  19. 19. Ruggles Orientator Popular Science - July 1919 “90% of the flying casualties during the war were caused not by bullets, or badly built machines, but by "the failure of the man” Maj.-Gen. George W. Squier
  20. 20. • Trainer based on Automatic Piano technology • 1931 Patent “Combination Training Device for Student Aviators and entertainment Apparatus” • The Link Trainer came into widespread use during WWII • 10,000 trainers used to improve safety and shorten training time for over 500,000 pilots 1920s/30s – Edwin A Link
  21. 21. WW2 Link Trainer
  22. 22. Source - UK Urban Exploitation Forums - Crail Airfield [HMS Jackdaw/HMS Bruce/JSSL] Maritime Link Trainer
  23. 23. 1950s • Analogue to Digital Computing • More complete aircraft data • Motion Simulators
  24. 24. 1960s NASA Moon Landing Simulator
  25. 25. SR-71 Blackbird Fred Forehand, Singer-Link’s SR-71 PM: • “They created the mission upstairs, and the tape they produced for the simulator was the same tape used onboard in the aircraft computer.”
  26. 26. PONG - 1972 Magnavox Odyssey - world's first commercial home video game console ($500 at 2020 prices)
  27. 27. 1960/70s
  28. 28. Networks of simulators that would be used for combat planning, rehearsal & execution SIMNET Vision - 1978 Enemy aggression detected Planning a response Rehearsal and analysis Real time mission observation Source Trends in Modeling, Simulation & Gaming: Personal Observations about the Past 30 Years & Speculation about the Next 10. Jack Thorpe, Ph.D. 1 2 3 4
  29. 29. (Microsoft) Flight Simulator subLOGIC Flight Simulator 1 for TRS-80, 1980 subLOGIC Flight Simulator 1 for Apple II, 1979 (sold Jan 80) Microsoft Flight Simulator 1.00, 1982
  30. 30. Multiplayer Games! - 2000 Source – Half life Counter-Strike - http://youtu.be/mex00PAACyk?t=4m13s
  31. 31. Consumer Flight Simulation Now
  32. 32. 3/6 Training, Simulation and Gaming
  33. 33. Simulation Now - Land, Sea, Air, Anywhere
  34. 34. Whole Earth Simulation
  35. 35. Military Access to Simulation 1990 2000 Numbers 10’s 100’s 1,000’s 2010 2020
  36. 36. Fast Jet Training at RAF Valley (UK) BFPO
  37. 37. Predator UAV Training Simulator (L-3)
  38. 38. Full Flight Simulator (FFD) • Supports conversion to a new aircraft type • Airline flight crews train 2 days every 6 months • 40-50 Level D FFS simulator purchased per year
  39. 39. Stewart Platform - 6 Degrees-of-Freedom
  40. 40. XR
  41. 41. Huey Flight Simulator with Oculus Rift
  42. 42. Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020
  43. 43. Simulation Trends Unreal 5 (2021) youtu.be/qC5KtatMcUw
  44. 44. Rift Drone AR.Drone 2.0 + Oculus Rift + Unity + Xbox 360 Controller Rift Drone is open source: https://youtu.be/nD2a0OHRmoM
  45. 45. Command and Control Flight Path Programmed in, and Controlled by, Unity Game Engine
  46. 46. Unity Games Engine Machine Learning Agents AI Training
  47. 47. 4/6 The Human Dimension of Flight
  48. 48. Pilots of the Future? • What will they do? • Who will they be? • Where will they be? • How will they train? • Will we need them?
  49. 49. Airbus Windowless Cockpit Patent
  50. 50. Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier Jan 18 “teenagers playing on their Xbox at home should take their gaming to the next level and join the RAF to operate real drones”
  51. 51. Queen Bee Drone – 1930s/40s
  52. 52. BOAC VC10 Automatic Landing (1968) Source – Pathe
  53. 53. Google DeepMind 2019
  54. 54. Redundant Pilots? 54 2016 2020
  55. 55. Cautionary Tales
  56. 56. Algorithms…
  57. 57. AI Limitations
  58. 58. Issues with Automation
  59. 59. Monitoring Systems
  60. 60. Boeing 737 MAX Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302
  61. 61. Paul M Fitts (1951) Human Engineering for an Effective Air Navigation and Traffic Control System • “great caution be exercised in assuming that men can successfully monitor complex automatic machines and take over if the machines break down” • “engineers should seriously consider systems in which machines would monitor men and prevent them from making dangerous mistakes”
  62. 62. Responding… "If I'm in the loop mentally I can respond more quickly than if I have to watch an automatic system and take over and then get my mind into the loop. So I was more comfortable in flying a manual descent than an automatic descent... my mental computer is already running at full speed.“ David Scott Apollo 15 Commander (1971)
  63. 63. Maximise the Strengths of Both
  64. 64. 5/6 Digital Twins
  65. 65. “Digital Thread” & “Digital Twin”
  66. 66. Tupolev Tu-160M2 Digital Twin
  67. 67. The Price of Data
  68. 68. 6/6 Thoughts on Careers
  69. 69. Thoughts on Careers • Have Passion & Purpose • Be Good to People • Professionalism trumps Talent • Don’t worry • It’s mostly beyond your/our control • Go to the next interesting job
  70. 70. Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS)
  71. 71. RAeS Student Affiliate Membership • Free Student Affiliate membership, if in full-time study and intending to follow a career in aerospace • Benefits: • Online access to the monthly magazine, AEROSPACE • Free attendance to over 400 lectures and events worldwide and often at a branch or Division near you • Free places at RAeS Conferences (subject to demand) • Free 1-2-1 careers guidance for UK-based students • Support towards professional registration (EngTech, IEng and CEng) with Engineering Council • A Young Persons Network with over 8,000 like-minded young professionals worldwide • Access to Scholarship Schemes • Use of the National Aerospace Library • Access to the Members' area of the Society's website
  72. 72. Hélène Dutrieu c. 1911 Questions? Twitter @andyfawkes1 LinkedIn andyfawkes email andy.fawkes@thinke.co.uk

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