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Introduction and course schedule

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Introduction and course schedule

  1. 1. fË¢nrZ pq¡¢uL¡ nrZplL¡l£ ü¡ÙÛÉ LjÑp§Q£l fËd¡e d¡l¡u pLlZ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ pw−k¡Se 1
  2. 2. 1z i¨¢jL¡ (Introduction) x¢h¢iæ fË¡L«¢aL J je¤oÉL«a c¤−Ñk¡−Nl L¡l−Z œ²jhdÑj¡e ¢hfæ fª¢bh£, S¡¢a, pj¡S J j¡e¤−olS£he J S£¢hL¡ ¢eu¢ja r¢aNËÙÛ qu z Na L−uL cn−L p¡l¡ fª¢bh£−a ¢hfkÑ−ul pwMÉ¡ hý…e−h−s−R z haÑj¡e Smh¡u¤ f¢lhaÑe pwœ²¡¿¹ cªø¡¿¹ HC Lb¡C fËj¡¢ea L−l −k c¤−Ñk¡N J ¢hfkÑ−ulf¢lpwMÉ¡e BlJ h¡s−h Hhw B−l¡ −hn£ −S¡l¡−m¡ q−h z ¢hfkÑu j¡e¤o, S¡¢a ab¡ pj¡−SlEæ¢a ab¡ pgma¡−L dÆwp L−l z ¢hfkÑ−ul j§m L¡le…¢ml Efl −hn£ L¡S e¡ qJu¡u HC¢hfkÑu…¢m Millennium Development Goal Hl ph−Q−u hs h¡d¡ q−u c¡¢sy−u−R z HyogoFramework for Action (HFA) 2005 - 2015 −a h¡dÉa¡j§mL i¡−h ¢hfkÑu fËi¡h−L Lj¡−e¡lHhw Eæu−el HL¢V Af¢lq¡kÑ Ef¡c¡e ¢qp¡−h ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ−L (Disaster RiskReduction) pjÙ¹ LjÑp§Q£−a pwk¤š² Ll¡l Lb¡ hm¡ q−u−R z ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ −Lhmj¡œ¢h‘¡e£, f¢l−hn¢hc Hhw p¡j¡¢SL EæueL¡l£−cl L¡S eu z ¢ÙÛ¢aÙÛ¡fL BbÑ - p¡j¡¢SL EæuefË¢œ²u¡−aJ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−el i¨¢jL¡ Ni£l zi¡lah−oÑ f’¡−ua hÉhÙÛ¡ (Panchayati Raj Institution / PRI) qm NË¡jÙ¹−ll fËn¡pe hÉhÙÛ¡ k¡Eæue LjÑp§Q£ h¡Ù¹h¡ue Ll¡l SeÉ °al£ z HC hÉhÙÛ¡ Nea¡¢¿»L L¡W¡−j¡l HL¢V n¢š²n¡m£Ef¡c¡e z NË¡j J pj¡S Eæu−e f’¡−ua …l¦aÆf§ZÑ i¨¢jL¡ f¡me L−l b¡−L z HC L¡l−eC,¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−el e£¢a…¢m−L a«ej§m Ù¹−ll Eæue fË¢œ²u¡u p¢Çj¢ma Ll−a q−h zHja¡hÙÛ¡u f’¡−ua pcpÉ Hhw hÔL B¢dL¡¢lL−cl ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ J Eæu−el p−‰ a¡lpÇfÑL pð−å pjÉL ‘¡e b¡L¡ clL¡l z HC fË¢nrZ¢ÙÛ¢aÙÛ¡fL ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ fË¢œ²u¡lSeÉ HL¢V …l¦aÆf§eÑ fc−rf z HFA −a J HC HLC Lb¡l E−õM B−R z HR¡s¡J ÙÛ¡e£uj¡e¤−ol AwnNËq−el Lb¡J E−õ¢Ma B−R zHC fË¢nr−Zl fË¢nrLNZ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ pð−å p−Qaea¡ hª¢Ü J rja¡ hª¢Ül j−a¡ hsE−Ÿ−nÉl p−‰ S¢sa z HC pq¡¢uL¡¢V fË¢nrZf¢lLÒfe¡ ab¡ f¢lQ¡me¡u pq¡ua¡ Ll−h zf’¡−ua pcpÉ ab¡ hÔL B¢dL¡¢lL−cl fË¢nr−Zl SeÉ huú ¢nr¡l e£¢a…¢m Ae¤ple Ll¡q−u−R z HR¡s¡J fË¢nr−Zl SeÉ Ae¤L¨m f¢l−hn, fË−u¡Se£u p¡jNË£, fË¢nrZfÜ¢a ab¡ fË¢nr−Zlj§mÉ¡ue pð−åJ E−õM B−R z2z fË¢nr−Zl hªqv E−ŸnÉ (Broad Objectives of the Training) x • haÑj¡e plL¡l£ LjÑp§Q£ / fËLÒf…¢m à¡l¡ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ J a¡l LjÑ−rœ pð−å p−Qaea¡ hª¢Ü z • rja¡u−el j¡dÉ−j ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L J hÉhÙÛ¡fe¡ pð−å j¡e¤o−L fËÙ¹¥a Ll¡ z • plL¡l£ cçl, −hplL¡l£ pwÙÛ¡, p¡d¡le j¡e¤o ab¡ AeÉ¡eÉ Awn£c¡l−cl j−dÉ pjeÄu p¡de à¡l¡ ¢hfkÑ−u fËi¡¢ha j¡e¤o−cl ¢hfæa¡ Lj¡−e¡ z3z ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ fË¢nr−Zl ¢h−no E−ŸnÉ (Specific Objective of training - Health Sector) xfË¢nrZ−n−o AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou…¢m pð−å hÉ¡MÉ¡ (Explain) Ll−a f¡l−he - L) ü¡−ÙÛÉl j§m Ef¡c¡e…¢m ¢h−noax ¢hfkÑ−ul f¢lfË¢r−a BO¡a, jªaÉ¥ Hhw a¡l L¡le 2
  3. 3. M) ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−el f¢lLÒfe¡ J l©f¡u−el SeÉ f’¡−ua ab¡ AeÉ¡eÉ Awn£c¡l−cl i¨¢jL¡fË¢nrZ−n−o AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou…¢m fËcnÑe (Demonstrate) Ll−a f¡l−he - L) ¢hfkÑu f¢lfË¢r−a ü¡ÙÛÉ T¥y¢L…¢m ¢Q¢q²aLlZ z ¢h−noax p¡d¡le −l¡−Nl J Seü¡−ÙÛÉl T¥y¢L, Af¤¢ø, jq¡j¡l£, Sm plhl¡q, jmj§œ ¢e×f¢š J jn¡ / j¡¢R ¢eu¿»Z CaÉ¡¢c z M) f’¡−ua à¡l¡ T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−el f¢lLÒfe¡ J a¡ l©f¡u−el SeÉ ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ T¥y¢L…¢m ¢h−nÔoe J ANË¡¢dL¡l ¢i¢š−a p¡S¡−e¡ z N) ¢h¢iæ fÜ¢a / Ef¡u hÉhq¡l L−l ü¡ÙÛÉ T¥y¢L ¢h−nÔoe Hhw B¢dL¡¢lL−cl a¡ S¡e¡−e¡ z O) ü¡−ÙÛÉl pjÙ¹ Ef¡c¡e…¢m−L p¢Çj¢ma L−l ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊ¡Ê pLlZ f¢lLÒfe¡ °al£ Ll¡fË¢nrZ−n−o AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou…¢m pjbÑe (Advocate) Ll−a f¡l−he - L) ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ p¤¤ - AiÉ¡p…¢m Ae¤ple à¡l¡ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊ¡Ê pLlZ−L p¢œ²u Ll¡ z M) plL¡l£ fËLÒf / LjÑp§Q£…¢m−a ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ−L p¢Çj¢ma Ll¡ z4z AwnNËqeL¡l£ (Participants) xHC fË¢nrZhªqv i¡−h ¢ae fËL¡l Awn£c¡l−cl à¡l¡ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ l©f¡u−el mrÉ ¢e−uB−u¡¢Sa z • f’¡−ua pcpÉ • hÔL B¢dL¡¢lL Hhw • plL¡¢l Hhw −hplL¡l£ Ù¹−ll fË¢nrLHC ¢ae Ù¹−ll Awn£c¡l−cl fË−aÉ−Ll ¢iæ LjÑ−rœ J ¢iæ −h¡dn¢š² qJu¡u a¡−cl p¤Qe¡l ¤fË−u¡SeJ ¢iæ z −k abÉ HC pq¡¢uL¡u −cJu¡ B−R a¡ pL−ml fË−u¡Se−L j¡b¡u −l−M °al£ zHLSe fË¢nrL ¢qp¡−h AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl p¢WL abÉ −cJu¡ Bfe¡l LaÑhÉ z plL¡¢lB¢dL¡¢lL−cl SeÉ hÉ¡MÉ¡ J −Lp ØV¡¢X B−R z f’¡−ua pcpÉ−cl SeÉ Ec¡qle ül©f ¢LR¥f§−hÑ l©f¡¢ua OVe¡l ¢hhle£ Hhw fË¢nrL−cl SeÉ −k −L¡−e¡ lLj AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl SeÉfË−k¡SÉ abÉ zA¢d−hne f¢lLÒfe¡l pju fË¢nrL AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl −h¡dn¢š² J fË¢nrZfË−u¡Se£ua¡l Efl¢i¢š L−l Efk¤š² abÉ…¢m −h−R ¢e−a f¡−le zHL¢V fË¢nr−Zl SeÉ AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl BcnÑ pwMÉ¡ 25 Hl −hn£ e¡ qJu¡C i¡−m¡ z H−afË¢nrL AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl k−bø eSl ¢c−a f¡−le Hhw B−m¡Qe¡…¢m AwnNËqej§mL qu z c¤C−b−L ¢aeSe fË¢nrL b¡L−m A¢d−hne…¢m i¡N¡i¡¢N L−l −eJu¡ k¡u Hhw HLSe fË¢nrLfË¢nrZ−cJu¡L¡m£e AeÉ fË¢nrLl¡ ¢LR¥re ¢hnË¡j f¡−he z a¡l¡ pL−m ¢j−m HL−œ −L¡−e¡EfÙÛ¡fe¡, hš²«a¡ ¢Lwh¡ AwnNËqej§mL B−m¡Qe¡ Ll−a f¡−le zfËL«af−r ph−Q−u hs pñ¡hÉ pjpÉ¡ q−a f¡−l k¢c Hl¡ pL−m fË¢nr−e e¡ b¡−Le z AeÉ hspjpÉ¡ q−a f¡−l k¢c fË¢nrZ−n−o AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ fË−u¡Se£u c¡¢uaÆ ¢e−a A¢eµR¥L h¡ ApjbÑb¡−Le z a¡C fË−u¡S−e ¢LR¥ −hn£ pju m¡N−mJ AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl a¡−cl i¢hov c¡¢uaÆ pÇf−LÑq¡−a - Lm−j ¢nr¡ ¢c−a q−h z 3
  4. 4. nrZfÜ¢a5z fË¢nrZfÜ¢a J Ef¡u (Method and Tools)Lb¡u h−m, j¡e¤o ¢LR¥ −n¡e¡l fl a¡l 20 % j−e l¡−Me, 40 % j−e l¡−Me - k¡ ay¡l¡ −c−MeJ −n¡−ee Hhw 80 % j−e l¡−Me - k¡ ay¡l¡ ¢e−Sl¡ q¡−a Lm−j L−l −c−Me z HC Ec¡qleAe¤p¡−l fË¢nrZfÜ¢a−a ¢hn¡m f¢lhaÑe Be¡ q−u−R z öd¤j¡œ hš²«a¡−L hÉhq¡l e¡ L−l j§maxAwnNËqej§mL B−m¡Qe¡ Hhw c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡−LC …l¦aÆ −cJu¡ q−u−R z fË¡çhuúhÉ¡¢š²−L ¢nr¡ ¢c−a −N−m, fË−u¡Se a¡−L p¢Çj¢ma L−l ( Brikke 2000) a¡−cl f§−hÑl ‘¡e JA¢i‘a¡−L ¢i¢š L−l −nM¡ z p¤¤al¡w pÇf¨eÑ fË¢nr−e fË¡çhuú hÉ¡¢š²−cl ¢nr¡ e£¢a …¢mlCAe¤ple q−h z −k p¡jNË£…¢m fË¢nr−e hÉhq©a q−h - a¡ à¡l¡ −ke AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ Ae¤Lm ¨f¢l−h−n, −M¡m¡ j−e, ¢eSü fË−u¡S−el Lb¡ a¥−m dl−a f¡−le - −p¢c−LJ −Mu¡m l¡M¡ q−h z¢h¢iæ fÜ¢a / Ef¡u −nM¡l p¤¤−k¡NJ AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ f¡−he, k¡ a¡l¡ flhaÑ£L¡−m AeÉ¡eÉfË¢nrZab¡ LjÑ−r−œJ hÉhq¡l Ll−he - k¡l hZÑe¡ A¢d−hne f¢lLÒfe¡u −cJu¡ B−R zfÜ¢a…¢m pð−å pw¢rç ¢hhle£ e£−Q −cJu¡ qm z • c−m i¡N q−u L¡S (Group work) : HL¢V −R¡V c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡l HC fÜ¢a¢V hýh¡l hÉhq©a q−u−R z Hl à¡l¡ c−m M¤h p¤¤¾cl AwnNËqej§mL B−m¡Qe¡ qu Hhw fË−u¡Se£u abÉ…¢m M¤h i¡−m¡ i¡−h E−W B−p z pwMÉ¡u Lj AwnNËqeL¡l£ qJu¡u ¢nr¡l p¤¤−k¡N −hn£ b¡−L z • ¢g−l −cM¡ (Feedback) : HL¢V A¢d−hne pð−å AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl Ae¤i¨¢a, ¢Q¿¹¡ J ja¡ja S¡e¡−e¡l SeÉ HC Ef¡u hÉhq©a qu z HC fÜ¢al −j±¢mL ¢hou ja¡ja c¡e J a¡ −n¡e¡ / NËqe z −L¡−e¡ ja¡j−al Ešl −cJu¡l SeÉ eu z • ja¡ja fËL¡−nl SeÉ L¡−XÑl hÉhq¡l (Card) x AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl ja¡ja −mM¡l SeÉ fË¡uC l¢Pe L¡XÑ −cJu¡ qu z H−a pL−ml ja¡ja ¢m¢fhÜ q−u b¡L−m fË¢a¢ce fË¢a−hce −mM¡lJ p¤¤¢hd¡ qu z Hl à¡l¡ AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ ¢eSü d¡le¡, fËÙ¹¡h, CµR¡ / A¢eµR¡, EfÙÛ¡fe CaÉ¡¢cl fËL¡n Ll−a f¡l−he z f−l H…¢m−L −cJu¡−m / Q¡VÑ −ff¡−l ¢Q¢V−u ¢c−m flhaÑ£L¡−m H…¢m hÉhq¡l Ll−a p¤¤¢hd¡ qu z • Q¡VÑ −ff¡−ll hÉhq¡l ( Flip Chart) x −R¡V c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡l pju B−m¡QÉ hÉhq¡l ¢hou…¢m Q¡VÑ −ff¡−l ¢m−M l¡M¡ - M¤hC p¡d¡le Ef¡u z HR¡s¡J −L¡−e¡ L¡S EfÙÛ¡fe Ll−a Q¡VÑ −ff¡l M¤hC i¡−m¡ j¡dÉj z A−eL −r−œ −h¡−XÑl hc−m Q¡VÑ −ff¡−l B−m¡QÉ ¢houhÙ¹¥ / B−m¡¢Qa ¢hou…¢m ¢m−M l¡M¡ qu z Q¡VÑ −ff¡l hÉhq¡−ll pju −Mu¡m l¡M−a q−h −ke −mM¡…¢m k−bø hs j¡−fl qu - k¡−a c§l −b−L a¡ fs¡ k¡u z −mM¡…¢m −ke −p¡S¡ m¡C−e qu Hhw f¢l×L¡l q¡−al −mM¡ b¡−L z Sl¦l£ abÉ −mM¡l fl fË¢nrZL−r Q¡VÑ −ff¡l¢V pL−ml p¤¤¢hd¡l SeÉ V¡¢P−u −cJu¡ −k−a f¡−l z • â¥a ¢Q¿¹e ( Brain Storming) x HC fÜ¢a à¡l¡ ¢h¢iæ d¡le¡, hÉ¡MÉ¡ ab¡ EfÙÛ¡fe M¤h pq−SC a¥−m Be¡ pñh z AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl −L¡−e¡ HL¢V ¢hou pð−å QVÚSmÚ¢c ¢eSü ja¡ja ¢c−a qu z HM¡−e B−m¡Qe¡l pju b¡−L e¡ z HC ¢h−no fÜ¢a hÉhq¡l à¡l¡ ea¥e d¡le¡ ab¡ f¤l¡−e¡ LjÑp§Q£l pjpÉ¡l pj¡¡e a¥−m Be¡ k¡u z 4
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  9. 9. nrZf¢lLÒfe¡8) fË¢nrZf¢lLÒfe¡ Hhw abÉ °al£ (Training Plan and Hand Out) :AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl fË−u¡Se J −h¡dn¢š² Ae¤p¡−l fË¢nr−Zl ¢houhÙ¹¥ °al£ Ll¡ q−u−R z fË¢nr−Llc¡¢uaÆ A¢d−hne…¢ml j−dÉ pjeÄu O¢V−u AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl fË¢nrZ¢e−a pq¡ua¡ Ll¡ z HCpq¡¢uL¡l p−‰ ¢ae - ¢c−el fË¢nr−Zl pjup§Q£ −cJu¡ B−R z fË¢a¢V A¢d−hn−el E−ŸnÉ, j§MÉ¢nr¡ CaÉ¡¢c p¢hÙ¹¡−l −mM¡ B−R z Hl p¡q¡−kÉ fË¢nrL A¢d−hn−el E−ŸnÉ J A¢d−hne −n−oAwnNËqeL¡l£l¡, −k j§MÉ ¢nr¡ m¡i Ll−h - a¡ pÇf−LÑ p−Qae b¡L−he z BlJ HL¢V pw¢rçpjup§Q£ B−R −kM¡−e fË¢nrL−cl e¡j…¢m ¢m−M ¢e−a q−h z pj−ul Q¡¢qc¡e¤p¡−lA¢d−hne…¢m−a f¢lhaÑe Be¡ −k−a f¡−l z k¢cJ HC pq¡¢uL¡ pL−ml Lb¡ j¡b¡u −l−MC °al£Ll¡ q−u−R ah¤J f§−hÑ E−õ¢Ma ¢ae Ù¹−ll Awn£c¡l R¡s¡ AeÉ−cl SeÉ H¢V fË−k¡SÉ eu zA¢d−hne…¢m j§max AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl ‘¡e, cra¡ ab¡ BQl−e f¢lhaÑe Be¡l E−Ÿ−nÉCf¢lL¢Òfa z fË¢a¢V A¢d−hne ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou…¢m hÉ¡MÉ¡ L−l - A¢d−hne pwMÉ¡ A¢d−hn−el SeÉ fË−u¡Se£u pju A¢d−hn−el e¡j A¢d−hn−el E−ŸnÉ abÉ J a−bÉl Evp A¢d−hn−el j§MÉ ¢nr¡ A¢d−hne ¢hhle£ (¢j¢e−V ¢hiš²) fË¢nrZfÜ¢a fË−u¡Se£u p¡jNË£Efk¤š² abÉ¡¢c A¢d−hn−el öl¦−aC AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl ¢hale Ll¡ −k−a f¡−l z k¢c fË¢nre¢VfË¢nrL−cl SeÉ B−u¡¢Sa a−h pÇf¨eÑ pq¡¢uL¡¢VC a¡−cl −cJu¡ −k−a f¡−l z a¡l¡ i¡−m¡i¡−hfs¡l fl B−m¡QÉ ¢hou Hhw fË¢nrZfÜ¢a pð−å a¡−cl ja¡ja −c−he z fË¢nrZQm¡L¡m£ea¡l¡ ¢eS - ¢eS d¡le¡ EfÙÛ¡fe Ll−he z9) A¢d−hn−el fËÙ¹¥¢al SeÉ ¢LR¥ d¡le¡ (Tips for Preparation of the sessions) :fc−rf d¡le¡ ¢hou 1 A¢d−hn−el Hl à¡l¡ A¢d−hn−el f¢l¢d ab¡ ¢houhÙ¹¥l fË−u¡Se£ua¡ −h¡T¡ k¡−h z E−ŸnÉ…¢m −h¡T¡ J fË¢nrL h¤T−a f¡l−he, AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl p−‰ L£ L£ B−m¡Qe¡ Ll¡ j−e l¡M¡ clL¡l z 2 A¢d−hn−el j§MÉ fË¢a¢V A¢d−hn−el E−ŸnÉC qm, A¢d−hn−el j§MÉ ¢nr¡…¢m ¢nr¡…¢m −h¡T¡ J AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl L¡−R −f±y−R −cJu¡ z fË¢nrL j§MÉ ¢nr¡…¢m hš²hÉ j−e l¡M¡ BL¡−l ¢m−M l¡M−a f¡−le z A¢d−hne Qm¡L¡m£e, mrÉ l¡M−a q−h −k j§MÉ ¢nr¡…¢m ¢WLj−a¡ hm¡ q−µR ¢Le¡ z 9
  10. 10. 3 A¢d−hne AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl ¢nr¡Na −k¡NÉa¡, −h¡dn¢š² CaÉ¡¢c−L j¡b¡u −l−M f¢lQ¡me¡l fÜ¢a¢V A¢d−hne f¢lQ¡me¡l fÜ¢a¢V h¡R−a q−h z fË¢nrL −ke fÜ¢a¢V −h¡T¡ ¢WLj−a¡ lç L−l b¡−Le Hhw j§MÉ ¢nr¡…¢m ¢WLj−a¡ hm−a f¡−le - a¡ p¤¤¢e¢ÕQa Ll¡ clL¡l z 4 abÉ¡¢c ab¡ fËcnÑe A¢d−hne öl¦ Ll¡l B−NC pjÙ¹ abÉ¡¢c, p¡jNË£ Hhw fËcnÑe q¡−al °al£ l¡M¤e L¡−R l¡M¤e z H−a fË¢nr−Zl …eNa j¡e h¡s−h z 5 A¢d−hne A¢d−hne f¢lLÒfe¡¢V ¢j¢e−V ¢j¢e−V i¡N L−l −cJu¡u A¢d−hne f¢lQ¡me¡l f¢lQ¡me¡u p¤¤¢hd¡ q−h z ¢e¢cÑø pj−u A¢d−hne −no Ll−aJ p¤¢¤ hd¡ f¢lLÒfe¡ L−l q−h z f¢lLÒfe¡u A¢d−hn−el p§Qe¡, f¢lQ¡me¡ J p¡l¡wn pð−å l¡M¤e hÉ¡MÉ¡ b¡L¡u A¢d−hne f¢lQ¡me¡ pqS q−h z p¢WL J a£rÁ fË−nÀl j¡dÉ−j AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl j¿¹hÉ NËq−el f¢lLÒfe¡ B−N −b−LC L−l l¡M−a q−h z 6 fs¡ A¢d−hne f¢lQ¡me¡ fÜ¢a Hhw j§MÉ ¢nr¡…¢ml f¢l−fË¢r−a −k abÉ¡¢c pq¡¢uL¡u −cJu¡ B−R - a¡ f−s ¢ee z H−a AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl fË−nÀl Sh¡h ¢c−a p¤¤¢hd¡ q−h Hhw A¢d−hne f¢lQ¡me¡l j¡e Eæue q−h z 7 AiÉ¡p k¢c Bf¢e fËbjh¡l fË¢nrZ¢c−µRe ¢Lwh¡ −L¡−e¡ HL¢V fÜ¢a fËbjh¡l hÉhq¡l Ll−a Q−m−Re, a−h AhnÉC a¡ AiÉ¡p L−l ¢ee z H−a Bfe¡l fË¢nrZ¢c−a p¤¤¢hd¡ q−h z10) j§mÉ¡ue (Evaluation) :AeÉ¡eÉ L¡−Sl j−a¡C, j§mÉ¡ue qm fË¢nr−Zl Af¢lq¡kÑ L¡S z j§mÉ¡u−el j¡dÉ−j fË¢nr−LlLjÑrja¡l Eæ¢al fË−u¡Se, fË−u¡Se£u p¡jNË£l plhl¡q Hhw AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl Efl fË¢nr−Zl¢L fËi¡h - a¡ pð−å S¡e¡ k¡u z j§mÉ¡ue−L j§max c¤Ci¡−N i¡N Ll¡ q−u−R z fË¢a¢euafË¢nrZfË¢œ²u¡u Eæ¢a Be¡l SeÉ fË¢a¢ce j§mÉ¡ue Hhw fË¢nre¢V−L CµR¡e¤l©f j¡ec−ä E¢æaLl−a ¢ae¢c−el fË¢nrZ−n−o HL¢V j§mÉ¡ue zfË¢nrZj§mÉ¡u−el SeÉ ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma fÜ¢a…¢ml Lb¡ p¤¤f¡¢ln Ll¡ q−u b¡−L z ¢hÙ¹¡¢la hÉ¡MÉ¡lSeÉ A¢d−hne f¢lLÒfe¡ −cM¤e z • fË¢a¢c−el j§mÉ¡ue • j¡e¢pL f¢l¢ÙÛ¢a j§mÉ¡ue (Mood Meter) • AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl à¡l¡ B−Nl ¢c−el A¢d−hne pð−å f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡ • fË¢nrZj§mÉ¡ue p¡lZ£ (Form) 10
  11. 11. fË¢nr−e L£ L£ LlZ£u J L£ L£ Ll¡ E¢Qa eu ? LlZ£u−k −L¡−e¡ fË¢nr−Zl SeÉC ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou…¢m j¡b¡u l¡M¡ clL¡l -LlZ£uLlZ£u : AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl −Q¡−Ml ¢c−L a¡¢L−u Lb¡ hm−a q−h z B−N −b−LC k−bø fËÙ¹¥¢a ¢e−a q−h z AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl p¢eÈ¢ma Ll−a q−h z cªnÉ, R¢h, ¢p−ej¡l hÉhq¡l Ll−a q−h z f¢l×L¡l i¡o¡u J d£−l Lb¡ hm−a q−h z k−bø −S¡−l Lb¡ hm−a q−h −ke pL−m öe−a f¡u z AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl fËnÀ Ll−a Evp¡¢qa Ll−a q−h z fË¢a¢V A¢d−hn−el −n−o p¡l¡wn J f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡ Ll−a q−h z HL¢V A¢d−hn−el p−‰ AeÉ¢Vl ¢WLj−a¡ pjeÄu Ll−a q−h z pLm−L p¢œ²u AwnNËq−el SeÉ Evp¡¢qa Ll−a q−h z −h¡XÑ / Q¡VÑ −ff¡−l −mM¡l pju hs Hhw f¢l×L¡l L−l ¢mM−a q−h z p¡l¡wn hÉ¡MÉ¡ Ll−a q−h z B−m¡QÉ ¢hou…¢m k¤¢š²k¤š²i¡−h p¡S¡−a q−h z pj−ul p¢WL hÉhq¡l Ll−a q−h z ¢hou…¢m−L pqS−h¡dÉ L−l hm−a q−h z fË−u¡Se Ae¤p¡−l ¢e−Sl j¿¹hÉ ¢ce z cªnÉ, R¢h, ¢p−ej¡ Hje ÙÛ¡−e −cM¡−a q−h −ke pL−m −cM−a f¡u z BQle k¡ AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl M¡l¡f m¡N−a f¡−l h¡ k¡ a¡−cl jepw−k¡N eø Ll−a f¡−l - a¡ Ll¡ k¡−h e¡ z AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl n¡l£¢lL A¢ihÉ¢š² −h¡T¡l J a¡l fË¢a pS¡N b¡L−a q−h z c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡l pju AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl L¡−S jepw−k¡N Ll−a p¡q¡kÉ Ll¦e z Øfø ¢e−cÑn ¢c−a q−h z Bfe¡l ¢e−cÑn…¢m pL−m h¤−T−R ¢Le¡ - a¡ fl£r¡ L−l ¢e−a q−h z A¢d−hne −n−o j§mÉ¡ue Ll−a q−h z °dkÑ pqL¡−l fË¢nrZf¢lQ¡me¡ Ll−a q−h z LlZ£uk¡ LlZ£u eu X Q¡VÑ −ff¡−ll ¢c−L a¡¢L−u Lb¡ hm−he e¡ z X cªnÉ, R¢h, ¢p−ej¡l p¡j−e cy¡¢s−u Lb¡ hm−he e¡ z X HLC ÙÛ¡−e cy¡¢s−u Lb¡ hm−he e¡ - fË¢nrZL−r ¢h¢iæ ÙÛ¡−e O¤−l Lb¡ hm−a q−h z X AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl j¿¹hÉ−L E−fr¡ Ll−he e¡ (hm¡ h¡ e¡ hm¡ / Cn¡l¡ / C¢‰a) z X f¡WÉœ²j −b−L f−s −n¡e¡−he e¡ z X AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl p−‰ −S¡−l / ¢QvL¡l L−l Lb¡ hm−he e¡ z 11
  12. 12. 12)12) fË¢nr−Zl pjup§Q£ (Training Schedule) :A¢d−hne pju A¢d−hne A¢d−hn−el j§m ¢nr¡ fË¢nrZfÜ¢a nrZfÜ¢apwMÉ¡ fËbj ¢ce1 .1 60 ¢j¢eV p§Qe¡, AiÉbÑe¡ J f¢lQu fhÑ AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ HC fË¢nr−Zl E−ŸnÉ B−u¡S−Ll hš²«a¡ / hš²hÉ J f¢lhaÑ£L¡−ml L¡−Sl p−‰ c¤C S−el c−m ¢hiš² q−u fË¢nr−Zl pÇfLÑ¢V h¤T−a f¡l−he H−L Af−ll f¢lQu fËc¡e AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ H−L Af−ll p−‰ fË¢nr−Ll hš²hÉ ab¡ fË¢nr−Ll p−‰ f¢l¢Qa q−he L¡−XÑ ¢m¢fhÜ L−l −cJu¡−m fË¢nr−Zl ¢hou, fÜ¢a J p¤−k¡N ¤ V¡P¡−e¡ pð−å pL−m AhNa q−he 1 .2 30 ¢j¢eV ¢hfkÑu J Eæu−el pÇfLÑ j¡eh −L¢¾cÊL Eæu−el d¡le¡ Ae¤k¡u£, â¥a ¢Q¿¹e j¡e¤o ¢e−Sl Eæue p¡d−e j§MÉ i¨¢jL¡ cª−nÉl j¡dÉ−j ¢hou hÙ¹¥l f¡me L−l z hZÑe¡ j¡eh −L¢¾cÊL Eæue fË¢œ²u¡u AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl j−dÉ j¡eh¡¢dL¡l ¢i¢šL L¡kÑfe¡m£C Ë B−m¡Qe¡ (Right Based Approach) qm j¤MÉ ¢hou…¢ml pw¢rçLlZ j§MÉ z pj−ul ANËN¢al p¡−b S£he d¡l−Zl j¡e Eæ¢a Ll¡ J jkÑ¡c¡l p¡−b −hy−Q b¡L¡C qm Eæue z hý L−ø A¢SÑa Eæue ¢hfkÑ−ul L¡l−Z eø q−u k¡u z c§−kÑ¡N J ¢hfæa¡l ¢jme ¢hfkÑu 12
  13. 13. −X−L B−e z haÑj¡e ¢hfæa¡l p¡−b pj¡−Sl haÑj¡e rja¡, pj¡−Sl Efl Ty¢¥ Ll dle J j¡œ¡ ¢eZÑ−u …l¦aÆf§ZÑ i¨¢jL¡ f¡me L−l z (c§−kÑ¡N × ¢hfæa¡) / rja¡ = Ty¢¥ Ll j¡œ¡1 .3 90 ¢j¢eV p¤¤l¢ra pj¡S NW−el L¡S ¢ÙÛ¢aÙÛ¡fL pj¡S NW−el °h¢nøÉ AwnNËqej§mL B−m¡Qe¡ (Resilient Community) c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡ L¡−Sl j§MÉ Hm¡L¡ …¢m ¢Q¢q²aLlZ ¢hfkÑu qÊÊ¡pLlZ ab¡ Eæue L¡−Sl j§MÉ ¢hou¢i¢šL HL¡m¡…¢m ¢Q¢q²aLlZ1 .4 125 ¢j¢eV ¢ÙÛ¢aÙÛ¡fL pj¡S NW−e n¡pehÉhÙÛ¡ L¡−L h−m a¡ −h¡T¡ Hhw B−m¡Qe¡ f’¡−u−al i¨¢jL¡ Hl °h¢nøÉ…−m¡ S¡e¡ Fig 1 −L −c¢M−u hZÑe¡ f’¡−ua hÉhÙÛ¡l NWe fË−aÉ−Ll hÉ¢š²Na a¡¢mL¡ ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−Z NË¡j f’¡−u−al h¡e¡−e¡ i¨¢jL¡ hZÑe¡1 .5 75 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ Hhw ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L ü¡ÙÛÉ qm Hje HL¢V AhÙÛ¡ kMe â¥a ¢Q¿¹e qÊÊ¡pLlZ j¡e¤o n¡¢ll£L, j¡e¢pL, p¡j¡¢SL ab¡ cª−nÉl hÉhq¡l BdÉ¡¢aÈL i¡−h i¡−m¡ b¡−L z F- Diagram cª−nÉl hÉhq¡l −l¡Nj¤š² b¡L¡V¡C ü¡ÙÛÉ eu z fËnÀ Eš−ll j¡dÉ−j ü¡ÙÛÉ f¢l−oh¡u ¢hfkÑu Ty¢¥ L AwnNËqZj§mL B−m¡Qe¡ 13
  14. 14. qÊÊ¡pLl−Zl Ef¡c¡e…¢m qm - ü¡ÙÛÉ hÉhÙÛ¡, ü¡ÙÛÉ hÉhÙÛ¡l NWe/L¡W¡−j¡ ab¡ pwœ²¡jL Hhw Apwœ²¡jL hÉ¡¢d ¢eu¿»Z z f¢ÕQjh−‰l ü¡ÙÛÉ hÉhÙÛ¡ J a¡l NWe pÇf−LÑ S¡e¡ Sl¦l£ z M¡cÉ J j−ml j¡dÉ−j ¢Li¡−h −l¡N Rs¡u Hhw ¢Li¡−h a¡ fË¢a−l¡d Ll¡ k¡u; k¡−a Seü¡−ÙÛÉl Ty¥¢L Lj−h z1 .6 45 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢hfkÑ−ul f−l, ü¡ÙÛÉ HL¢V hs â¥a ¢Q¿¹e E−à−Nl L¡lZ hÉ¡MÉ¡ Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ hÉhÙÛ¡ ¢hfkÑ−ul f−l R¢h / p¡lZ£ / a¡¢mL¡ Seü¡−ÙÛÉl Efl Bp£e fËi¡h…¢m−L hÉhq¡l Lj¡u z p¡lZ£ hÉhq¡l1 .7 60 ¢j¢eV pwœ²¡jL hÉ¡¢d f¢ÕQjh−‰ Seü¡ÙÛÉ ¢houL ¢LR¥ L¡−XÑl j¡dÉ−j cmNa L¡S pwœ²¡jL hÉ¡¢d…¢m qm - X¡C¢lu¡, q¡a −d¡Ju¡ AiÉ¡p ¢eE−j¡¢eu¡, jÉ¡−m¢lu¡, q¡j, kr¡ z R¢h à¡l¡ hÉ¡MÉ¡ HC hÉ¡¢d…¢ml fËd¡e mre J EfpNÑ VIDEO X¡C¢lu¡ fË¢a−l¡−dl ¢h¢iæ Ef¡u eSlc¡l£ fËe¡m£ L¡−Sl SeÉ abÉ plhl¡q Ll−he1 .8 15 ¢j¢eV ¢g−l −cM¡ (Feed Back) AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl A¢d−hne, fË¢nrZ, j¿¹hÉ pwNËq fË¢nrZ hÉhÙÛ¡ CaÉ¡¢c ¢ho−u j¿¹hÉ j¿¹hÉ…¢m pLm−L S¡e¡−e¡ 14
  15. 15. Ll¡l A¢dL¡l B−R z AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl CµR¡e¤p¡−l fË¢nr−Zl N¢a, hÉ¡MÉ¡l dle CaÉ¡¢c−a f¢lhaÑ−el j¡dÉ−j fË¢nre−L B−l¡ Eæa Ll¡ −k−a f¡−l z fË¢nrZ f¢lQ¡mL c−ml (TMT) pcpÉl¡ pL−ml j¿¹hÉ pwNËq L−l a¡ fË¢nrL−cl p−‰ B−m¡Qe¡l à¡l¡ ea¥e ¢nr¡ ASÑe Ll−h z ¢àa£u ¢ce2 .1 30 ¢j¢eV fËbj ¢c−el j§m ¢nr¡…¢ml B−Nl ¢c−el j§m ¢nr¡…¢ml TMT ¢eeÑu Ll−h - −L¡e f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡ f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡l j¡dÉ−j AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ fÜ¢a a¡l¡ Ae¤plZ Ll−h ¢nr¡…¢m hý¢ce d−l j−e l¡M−a f¡l−h z j§m ¢nr¡…¢m ¢iæ ¢iæ fË¢œ²u¡u f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡ Ll¡ k¡u2 .2 60 ¢j¢eV Apwœ²¡jL hÉ¡¢d / Ap¤¤ÙÛa¡ HC f¢l−fË¢r−a, Apwœ²¡jL hÉ¡¢d / â¥a ¢Q¿¹e Ap¤¤ÙÛa¡ hm−a −h¡T¡u - BO¡a, S−m R¢hl p¡q¡−kÉ hZÑe¡, â¥a cmNa −X¡h¡, j¡e¢pL Q¡f (Post Traumatic L¡S Stress Disorder / PTSD) Hhw p¡−f AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl −cJu¡ abÉ f¡W L¡V¡ z q¡−a Lm−j L−l −cM¡−e¡ fË¡b¢jL fË¢a¢hd¡−el pjÉL ‘¡e b¡L−m hZÑe¡ a¡s¡a¡¢s Bqa hÉ¢š²l önË¥o¡ Ll¡ k¡u z 15
  16. 16. p¡−f L¡V¡ −l¡N£l Efk¤š² ¢Q¢Lvp¡l SeÉ ¢ho¡š² p¡f−L pe¡š²LlZ Ll−a q−h, k¡−a Efk¤š² hÉhÙÛ¡ NËqZ Ll¡ k¡u z2 .3 75 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ J ¢hfæa¡ ü¡−ÙÛÉl −fË¢r−a ph−Q−u ¢hfæ −nËe£l hÉ¡MÉ¡ j¡e¤o q−me NiÑha£ / fËp¢§ a, k¤hL / RL, R¢h hÉhq¡l k¤ha£, hªÜ / hªÜ¡, fË¢ahå£, HIV / â¥a ¢Q¿¹e, A¢ieu AIDS Bœ²¡¿¹ hÉ¡¢š² z AwnNËqZj§mL B−m¡Qe¡ NiÑha£ j¡−ul NiÑhÙÛ¡u J p¿¹¡e fËp−hl f−l k−bø kaÀ ¢e−a q−h z ¢hfæ −nËe£l j¡e¤−ol fË−u¡Se J a¡l f¢lj¡f Ae¤p¡−l a¡l pj¡d¡e Ll−a q−h z2 .4 90 ¢j¢eV p¡j¡¢SL AwnNËqZ / pj¡−Sl ÙÛ¡e£u j¡e¤o Hm¡L¡l −L¡e pjpÉ¡ c§l c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡ p¡−b p¢Çj¢ma q−u L¡S Ll¡ Ll¡ / Lj¡−e¡l ph−Q−u hs pÇfc z AwnNËqZj§mL B−m¡Qe¡ pj¡−Sl p¡−b L¡S Ll¡l j¡−e −Lhmj¡œ L−uLSe hÉ¢š²−L ¢e−u L¡S Ll¡ eu z Hl AbÑ HL¢V L¡l−Z ph −m¡−L−cl HLp−‰ ¢e−u Bp¡ z ¢h¢iæ ¢hfæ −nËZ£l j¡e¤o −kje, ¢nö, j¢qm¡, huú, fË¢ahå£ pLm−L ¢Q¢q²a L−l a¡−cl AwnNËqZ p¤¢¤ e¢ÕQa Ll−a q−h z pjpÉ¡l pj¡d¡−el SeÉ fËi¡¢ha 16
  17. 17. hÉ¢š²−cl p−‰ L¡S Ll−a q−h z2 .5 60 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ T¥y¢L j§mÉ¡ue ü¡ÙÛÉ T¥y¢L ¢edÑ¡l−Zl SeÉ ¢LR¥ hÉ¡MÉ¡ AwnNËqZ j§mL ¢nr¡ J L¡kÑLm¡f AwnNËqej§mL B−m¡Qe¡ (PLA/PRA) hÉhq¡l Ll¡ k¡u z q¡−a Lm−j Ll¡ Hl j¡dÉ−j NË¡−jl j¡e¤−ol AwnNËqe b¡L¡l SeÉ HC fÜ¢a−a ü¡ÙÛÉ ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L…¢m pq−SC j§mÉ¡ue Ll¡ k¡u z j§mÉ¡u−el SeÉ f§−hÑC a¡¢mL¡ °al£ L−l ¢e−m p¤¤¢hd¡ qu z H−a M¤h −R¡V OVe¡ k¡ …l¦aÆf§eÑ h¡ −k pjÙ¹ ¢hfcNËÙ¹ j¡e¤o r¢al p−‰ S¢s−u B−R a¡l¡ E−f¢ra qu e¡ z2 .6 60 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ pðå£u ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L ü¡ÙÛÉ ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L AeÉ¡eÉ ¢ho−ul p−‰ hÉ¡MÉ¡ J AwnNËqej§mL j§mÉ¡ue S¢sa Hhw pj¡−Sl p¡¢hÑL Ty¢¥ L−L B−m¡Qe¡ fËnÙ¹ L−l z c−m i¡N q−u L¡S Ll¡ Ty¥¢L pñ¡hÉ fËi¡h Hhw fËi¡¢ha SepwMÉ¡l f¢l−fË¢r−aC ¢h−nÔoe Ll¡ fË−u¡Se z ¢h−nÔo−el Efl ¢i¢š L−l Ty¢¥ L ANË¡¢dL¡l Ll¡ E¢Qv z pñ¡hÉ pj¡d¡e fËÙ¹¡h Ll¡l SeÉ Ty¢¥ L ANË¡¢dLlZ−L j−e l¡M−a q−h z Hl ¢i¢š−aC f’¡−ua à¡l¡ ¢hfkÑu Ty¢¥ L qÊÊ¡pLlZ f¢lLÒfe¡ °al£ q−h z 17
  18. 18. 2 .7 60 ¢j¢eV f’¡−ua à¡l¡ ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ f¢ÕQjh−‰l ¢h¢iæ ÙÛ¡−e ¢LR¥ f’¡−ua â¥a ¢Q¿¹e ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−Zl p¤¤ - p¤¤ - AiÉ¡p NËqZ L−l−R z B−m¡Qe¡ AiÉ¡p HC p¤¤ - AiÉ¡p …¢m qm - fË¡¢aù¡¢eL fËph, AeÉœ ¢Q¢Lvp¡l SeÉ ÙÛ¡e¡¿¹¢la k¡eh¡qe, Sm pwNËq, ‘−Le f¡lh e¡’, DOTS Hhw Fever Depot2 .8 15 ¢j¢eV ¢g−l −cM¡ (Feed Back) AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl A¢d−hne, fË¢nre, AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ ¢eS ¢eS fË¢nrZhÉhÙÛ¡ CaÉ¡¢c ¢ho−u j¿¹hÉ Abh¡ cmNai¡−h B−m¡Qe¡l Ll¡l A¢dL¡l B−R z fl j¿¹hÉ L¡−XÑ ¢m−M Sj¡ AwnNËqZL¡l£−cl CµR¡e¤p¡−l fË¢nr−Zl −c−he N¢a, hÉ¡MÉ¡l dle CaÉ¡¢c−a f¢lhaÑ−el j¡dÉ−j fË¢nre−L B−l¡ Eæa Ll¡ −k−a f¡−l z fË¢nrZ f¢lQ¡mL c−ml (TMT) pcpÉl¡ pL−ml j¿¹hÉ pwNËq L−l a¡ fË¢nrL−cl p−‰ B−m¡Qe¡l à¡l¡ ea¥e ¢nr¡ ASÑe Ll−h z a«a£u ¢ce3 .1 30 ¢j¢eV ¢àa£u ¢c−el j§m ¢nr¡…¢ml f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡l j¡dÉ−j f§hÑ ¢c−el −nM¡ TMT ¢e−Sl fR¾cja fÜ¢a f¤el¡−m¡Qe¡ abÉ…¢m ¢nr¡bÑ£l¡ A−eL ¢ce j−e −h−R −e−h l¡M−a prj q−h z j§m ¢nr¡l pw−r−f f§el¡−m¡Qe¡ 18
  19. 19. A−eL i¡−h q−a f¡−l z3 .2 60 ¢j¢eV plL¡l£ fËLÒf HC fËLÒf…¢m f’¡−u−al j¡dÉ−j B−m¡Qe¡ L¡kÑLl£ qu k¡ Eæu−el fËLÒf…¢ml plL¡l£ B¢dL¡¢l−Ll hš²hÉ f¡n¡f¡¢n ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ deÉh¡c ‘¡fe L¡S…¢ml p¡−b pwk¤š² ü¡ÙÛÉ pÇf¢LÑa Ty¥¢L Lj¡−e¡l SeÉ L¡S L−l z3 .3 75 ¢j¢eV ü¡ÙÛÉ −r−œ ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L ¢h¢iæ dl−el Awn£c¡l −kje - B−m¡Qe¡ qÊÊ¡pLl−Zl Awn£c¡l ¢h−nÔoe pj¡S, −hplL¡l£ pwÙÛ¡, plL¡l£ cçl, Fig 1 −L −c¢M−u hZÑe¡ (Stakeholder Analysis) −Sm¡ La«fr CaÉ¡¢c pl¡p¢l Abh¡ fË−aÉ−Ll hÉ¢š²Na a¡¢mL¡ f−l¡ri¡−h Sm, ü¡ÙÛÉ¢hd¡e J h¡e¡−e¡ ü¡ÙÛÉ¢h¢d Hl p¡−b k¤š² b¡L−a f¡−l z hZÑe¡ f’¡−ua Sm, ü¡ÙÛÉ¢hd¡e J ü¡ÙÛÉ¢h¢dl p¡−b pwk¤š² ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊ¡Ê pLl−Zl fc−r−f Awn£c¡l−cl n¡¢jm Ll−a f¡−l z3 .4 90 ¢j¢eV ü¡−ÙÛÉl −r−œ Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−Z f’¡−u−al NWe B−m¡Qe¡ f’¡−u−al i¨¢jL¡ ü¡ÙÛÉ pðå£u ¢hfkÑu qÊÊ¡pLl−Z â¥a ¢Q¿¹e f’¡−u−al i¨¢jL¡ J c¡¢uaÆ cmNa L¡S3 .5 120 ¢j¢eV ¢hfkÑu Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ ü¡ÙÛÉ pð¢åa ¢hfkÑu Ty¢¥ L qÊ¡Ê pLlZ B−m¡Qe¡ f¢lLÒfe¡ fc−r−f ¢ejÀ¢m¢Ma ¢hou …¢m b¡L¡ hÉ¢š²Na L¡S clL¡l z kb¡ - pwœ²¡jL −l¡−Nl Ty¥¢L, Apwœ²¡jL −l¡−Nl Ty¢¥ L, ¢hfæ 19
  20. 20. j¡e¤−ol ü¡ÙÛÉ CaÉ¡¢c z Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLl−el fc−rf c¤C dl−el q−a f¡−l z i) NWeNa fc−rf (Hardware) ii) hÉhq¡lNa fc−rf (Software) f’¡−ua à¡l¡ Nªq£a −L¡e p¡j¢NËL Ty¥¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ f¢lLÒfe¡−L ¢i¢š L−lC Hm¡L¡ ¢i¢šL ü¡ÙÛÉ Ty¢¥ L qÊÊ¡pLlZ f¢lLÒfe¡ h¡e¡−e¡l fË−u¡Se B−R z3 .6 60 ¢j¢eV fË¢a−l¡−dl J ¢eh¡l−Zl ¢hfkÑu T¥y¢L qÊÊ¡pLlZ fË¢œ²u¡−L â¥a ¢Q¿¹e pwú«¢al Eæue −VLpC h¡e¡−e¡l SeÉ ‘¡e J abÉ NÒf / L¡¢qe£l hÉhq¡l pwNËq Hhw a¡ SeNe−L S¡e¡−e¡ AwnNËqZL¡l£ fkÑ¡−m¡Qe¡ AaÉ¿¹ Sl¦l£ z pj¡−Sl fË¢a¢V j¡e¤−ol c§−kÑ¡N, ¢hfæa¡ Hhw rja¡ ab¡ S£he p¤¤l¢ra l¡M¡l fb S¡e¡ E¢Qv z3 .7 15 ¢j¢eV fË¢nrZ j§mÉ¡ue haÑj¡e fË¢nr−Zl j§mÉ¡ue à¡l¡ hÉ¡MÉ¡ AwnNËqZL¡l£l¡ i¢hoÉ−al hÉ¡¢š²Nai¡−h j§mÉ¡ue f−œ fË¢nrZ…¢ml j¡e Eæu−e p¡q¡kÉ j¿¹hÉ −mM¡ L−le z j§mÉ¡u−el fËd¡e E−ŸnÉ qm flhaÑ£ fË¢prZ…¢ml j¡e Eæue z 20
  21. 21. j§mÉ¡ue à¡l¡ fË¢nrLNZ fË¢nr−ZlEf−k¡¢Na¡, −k±¢š²La¡, HhwAwnNËqZL¡l£−cl SeÉ a¡ pqS−h¡dÉ¢Le¡ - a¡ S¡e−a f¡l−he zj§mÉ¡uZ ¢hou-¢i¢šL qu z 21

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