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Chemistry in our daily life and its importance

Chemistry in our daily life and its importance
A Short Introduction to Chemistry and its branches.
There are five main branches of Chemistry:
1)Organic Chemistry
2)Inorganic Chemistry
3)Analytical Chemistry
4)Physical Chemistry
5)Biochemistry
Presented By: Amir Hassan Chemistry Department, Government Post Graduate College Mardan KP Pakistan.

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Chemistry in our daily life and its importance

  1. 1. Chemistry in Our Daily Life and its Importance Amir Hassan Govt: Post Graduate College Mardan KP Pakistan
  2. 2. Definition Of Chemistry • Chemistry is the study of the substances, specially their structure, properties, transformations and the energy changes accompanying these transformation. • Or, the branch of science that deals with the identification of the substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact, combine, and change; and the use of these processes to form new substances.
  3. 3. Some Uses of Chemistry • Everything is made of chemicals. Many of the changes we observe in the world around we see that caused by chemical reactions. • Chemistry is very important because it helps us to know the composition, structure& changes of matter. All the matters are made up of chemistry. • In our every day like various chemical are being used in various form, some of those are being used as food, some of those used clangingetc.
  4. 4.  Industries and Transport  Food Security andAgriculture  Science and Technology  Cooking  Cooking  Cleaning  Medicine  Environmental Issues  Polymers  Building Materials , etc.
  5. 5. • There are five main branches of Chemistry:  Organic Chemistry  Inorganic Chemistry  Analytical Chemistry  Physical Chemistry  Biochemistry
  6. 6. Organic Chemistry • Organic Chemistry is the study of compounds that contain the elements carbon and hydrogen. • Or, Organic chemistry involves the study of the structure, properties, and preparation of chemical compounds that consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen. Examples: Petroleum, almost all medicine, food
  7. 7. ORGANIC Known as carbon chemistry Food chemistry Organic Chemistry ORGANIC Fossil Fuels
  8. 8. Organic Chemistry • Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including- Medicinal chemistry —the design, development, and synthesis of medicinal drugs. It overlaps with pharmacology (the study of drug action). pharmacology (the study of drug action). Organometallic chemistry — the study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal. Polymer chemistry — the study of the chemistry of polymers.
  9. 9. • The study of compounds that are made of only one or no carbon elements. It covers all chemical compounds except carbon elements. It covers all chemical compounds except organic compounds. • Inorganic chemistry study things such as crystal structures, minerals, metals, catalysts, and most elements in the Periodic Table.
  10. 10. INORGANIC Involves all elements Metals/Materials chemistry Inorganic Chemistry INORGANIC chemistry Chemical Reactions
  11. 11. Inorganic Chemistry • Branches of inorganic chemistry include: Bioinorganic chemistry — the study of the interaction of metal ions with living tissue, mainly through their direct metal ions with living tissue, mainly through their direct effect on enzyme activity. Geochemistry — the study of the chemical composition and changes in rocks, minerals, and atmosphere of the earth or a celestial body.
  12. 12. • It is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials. It has qualitative analysis which is more on artificial materials. It has qualitative analysis which is more on the physical properties and identity and quantitative analysis the measurement and amount of a certain substance. • Analytical chemistry involves the qualitative and quantitative determination of the chemical components of substances.
  13. 13. ANALYTICAL Identifies, Evaluates, Compares Uses instruments to find answers Analytical ChemiAstry ANALYTICAL Basis of Chemical Research
  14. 14. Analytical Chemistry • Examples of areas using analytical chemistry include:  Forensic chemistry — the application of chemical principles, techniques, and methods to the investigation of crime.  Environmental chemistry —the study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in the environment. It relies heavily on analytical chemistry and includes atmospheric, aquatic, and soil chemistry.  Bioanalytical Chemistry — the examination of biological materials such as blood, urine, hair, saliva, and sweat to detect the presence of specific drugs.
  15. 15. Physical Chemistry • Chemistry that relies on a lot of physics and math to study the changes in energy that happen to matter. • The study of the shape of non-living matter and how that affects matter at the visible scale. • Physical chemists typically study the rate of a chemical reaction, the interaction of molecules with radiation, and the calculation of structures and properties.
  16. 16. PHYSICAL Heating/Freezing Involves matter and energy PHYSICAL Heating/Freezing of materials Exothermic, Endergonic— Nuclear chemistry
  17. 17. • Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry in biological processes of all living organisms. There is an evident overlapping of different branches of chemistry but they are all observed in the systems of chemistry but they are all observed in the systems of living things. • Biochemical research includes cancer and stem cell biology, infectious disease, and cell membrane and structural biology.
  18. 18. BIOCHEMISTRY “Living” Chemistry; Environmental Proteins, Amino Acids, DNA, food BIOCHEMISTRY Medical research Acids, DNA, food
  19. 19. • It spans molecular biology, genetics, biochemical pharmacology, clinical biochemistry, and agricultural biochemistry. Sub-branches of biochemistry is-  Molecular biology — the study of the interactions between the various systems of a cell, such as the different types of DNA, RNA, various systems of a cell, such as the different types of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis.  Genetics — the study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.  Pharmacology — the study of mechanisms of drug action and the influence of drugs on an organism.
  20. 20. I Importance of mportance of hemistry hemistry in in O Our ur aily aily ife ife
  21. 21. Chemistry made us realize Chemistry made us realize that things have an expiry that things have an expiry date , and that it is important date , and that it is important to watch out for eating to watch out for eating expired food expired food. . IN MEDICINE: IN MEDICINE: The abolition of disease and The abolition of disease and major contribution to many major contribution to many improving human wealth, improving human wealth, have been made by the have been made by the modern chemical discoveries. modern chemical discoveries.
  22. 22. Salt Salt- -a chemical compound a chemical compound It is fascinating to know that It is fascinating to know that salt, a compound we eat salt, a compound we eat salt, a compound we eat salt, a compound we eat everyday, is made up of two everyday, is made up of two substances, substances, sodium and sodium and chlorine. chlorine. NaCl NaCl = = Table Salt Table Salt
  23. 23. Chemistry in the House Chemistry in the House Something Something as as simple simple as as Toothpaste Toothpaste involves involves at at least least three three chemicals, chemicals, if if not not more more. . It It is is the the mixture mixture of of fluoride, fluoride, is is the the mixture mixture of of fluoride, fluoride, peroxide peroxide and and baking baking soda soda and and its its chemical chemical reaction reaction that that keeps keeps your your teeth teeth clean clean. . From From this this course course I I got got to to know know how how to to read read the the chemicals chemicals composition composition. .
  24. 24. Gases Inside The Diving Gases Inside The Diving Cylinders Cylinders
  25. 25. Scuba Tank Pictures Scuba Tank Pictures
  26. 26. Scuba Tank Gases Scuba Tank Gases 1. 1. Nitrox Nitrox - - Nitrox is basically a mixture of Nitrox is basically a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. This particular "breathing nitrogen and oxygen. This particular "breathing gas" mixture is used by scuba divers who dive to gas" mixture is used by scuba divers who dive to a depth of up to 130 ft only. a depth of up to 130 ft only. 2. 2. Heliox Heliox - - Heliox Heliox combines both oxygen and combines both oxygen and helium in the tank. helium in the tank. 3. 3. Hydreliox Hydreliox - - Hydreliox Hydreliox combines oxygen, combines oxygen, helium and hydrogen in the scuba diving tank. helium and hydrogen in the scuba diving tank. With With Hydreliox Hydreliox in their tanks, scuba divers can in their tanks, scuba divers can safely pursue diving depths of up to 400 feet. safely pursue diving depths of up to 400 feet.
  27. 27. CHEMISTRY ELEMENT COMPOUND COMPOUND AND MIXTURE
  28. 28. What is an Element ? Element A chemical substance Simplest substance. Cannot be decomposed to a simpler substance Built up from one type of atoms only
  29. 29. Examples of Metals ( Sodium ) Na Use : Sodium Lamp
  30. 30. Copper Cu Use : Electric Conductor
  31. 31. Calcium Ca Use : Calcium ions needed to form bones and teeth
  32. 32. Aluminium Al Use: Making of cooking pots and pans
  33. 33. Gold ; AurumAu Use : Jewelry
  34. 34. Iron; Ferum Fe Use : Construction of buildings and bridges
  35. 35. Lead Pb Uses : Water pipes Pipes for wiring
  36. 36. Magnesium Mg Use : Crackers and Fireworks
  37. 37. Platinum Pt Use: Jewelry
  38. 38. Potassium K Use : Potassium salts - agricultural fertilizers
  39. 39. Silver Ag Use : Jewelry
  40. 40. Tin Sn Use : Making containers
  41. 41. Zinc Zn Uses : Dry cells; Roofing for houses
  42. 42. Mercury Hg Use : In Thermometers
  43. 43. Examples of Non-Metals Chlorine Cl Use : Killing germs in water supply
  44. 44. Argon Ar Use : Lighting Bulbs
  45. 45. Bromine Br Use : Photography
  46. 46. Boron B Use :Making Medicine in pharmacy
  47. 47. Helium He Use : Filling balloons
  48. 48. Carbon C Diamond & Graphite
  49. 49. Hydrogen H Use: Fuel
  50. 50. Iodine I Use : Antiseptic
  51. 51. Neon Ne Use : Neon Lights
  52. 52. Nitrogen N Use : Liquid Nitrogen – Refrigeration Coolant
  53. 53. Oxygen O Use : Gas for Breathing
  54. 54. Phosphorus P Use : Matches
  55. 55. Silicon Si Use : Computer CPU
  56. 56. Sulphur S Use : Manufacture of SulphuricAcid
  57. 57. What is a Compound ?  A Chemical Consists of two or more elements.  chemically combined  chemically combined Chemical Bond between the particles.
  58. 58. Examples of Compounds Ammonium Chloride Use : Dry Batteries Constituents : H , N , Cl
  59. 59. Glucose Use : Carbohydrates Constituents : H , C , O
  60. 60. Sodium Chloride Use : Flavor for Food Constituents : Na , Cl
  61. 61. Calcium carbonate Use : Building material Constituents : Ca , C, O
  62. 62. Sulphuric acid Use : Car Accumulator Constituents : H , S , O
  63. 63. Urea Use : Nitrogeneous Fetilizer Constituents : C , H , O , N
  64. 64. Copper (II) sulphate Use: Fungicide Constituents : Cu , S , O , H
  65. 65. Potassium nitrate Use : Agricultural Fertilizers Constituents : K , N , O
  66. 66. Ethanoic acid Use : Vinegar Constituents : C , H , O
  67. 67. Use : Anaesthetic Cost : C , H , Cl
  68. 68. What is a Mixture ?  Substance consisting of two or more substances physically combined. Components : Elements or/and compounds. Components can be separated by physical means.
  69. 69. Examples of Mixtures Air– Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, water vapor etc
  70. 70. Soil Constituents : Humus, sand, air, water, minerals etc.
  71. 71. Milk Components : Lactose, water, proteins, vitamins, minerals etc
  72. 72. Conclusion Now we can say from this presentation that chemistry is all around us, but the only thin is that we need to observe it carefully and notice everything around us. observe it carefully and notice everything around us. We should appreciate the work of scientists who observed those things and brought it till us.
  73. 73. T Thank hank Y You ou F For or L Listening istening

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