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Training Functions, Training Needs Assessment, Action Research, Organizational Objectives and Training


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Training Functions, Training Needs Assessment, Action Research, Organizational Objectives and Training

  1. 1.  Training Functions  Training Needs Assessment  Action Research  Organizational Objectives and Training
  2. 2. Lecture - 1
  3. 3.  Training function covers many bases.  Training involves from – New employee orientation to leadership training What training can do?
  4. 4. According to, Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM), The functions of Training are -  Retain employees and  Creates a productive workforce.
  5. 5.  Orientation prepares the employees for new roles, and get used to, to the company.  Employees who undergo an orientation process feel more connected to their job.  The length of orientation sessions are varying by the employees' positions in the company.
  6. 6. Compliance training is highly recommended by the Department of Labor. This encompasses –  workplace violence,  sexual harassment,  drug and alcohol, and  safety in the workplace. Offering this type of training puts employees on alert, and helps the company avoid costly lawsuits.
  7. 7.  This Training prepares employees for the challenges of management, and begins the succession planning process.  Succession planning helps fill high- level positions by molding current employees. Retirement is inevitable, and some positions are difficult to fill.
  8. 8.  Counseling employees is an effective way to determine their career goals, and can help them remain a part of the organization for years to come.  Companies that offer career counseling show they care about their employee's future. It is an important component of succession planning.
  9. 9. A large component of the HR training function is research. Skill development programs are ever- changing. Conducting research should be an on-going training activity.  It will assure the programs are fresh and relevant.  Assessing the needs of incumbent employees will better shape them for future success.
  10. 10.  Training and development is potentially a powerful strategic function.  It can make a major contribution to organizational, group and individual effectiveness, efficiency, growth and success.
  11. 11. Maintaining Training standard is useful to: • A specialist who sees the management of training and development as a career route • A manager for whom a period managing training and development activities is part of a career path • A senior practitioner operating as a consultant in a training organization.
  12. 12. 1. A clear vision of the goal and mission of training 2. Activities tightly linked to organizational objectives 3. Line management commitment and involvement 4. Excellent management practice within the training function 5. An emphasis on reality and practicality
  13. 13. 6. Use of multiple sources to assist them 7. Consistency of delivery 8. A strong sense of urgency 9. The achievement of critical mass – real impact 10. Thorough evaluation of results and attribution of outcomes
  14. 14. Training Need Assessment
  15. 15.  Effective training practices involve the use of an Instructional systems design process  The instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment  Before choosing a training method, it is important to determine:  What type of training is necessary? and  Whether trainees are willing to learn?
  16. 16.  Refers to the process used to determine whether training is necessary or Not?  As needs assessment is the first step in the instructional design process:  If it is poorly conducted, training will not achieve the outcomes or financial benefits the company expects i.e. training will be failure.
  17. 17. Reasons or “Pressure Points” Outcomes What is the Context? •Legislation •Lack of Basic Skills •Poor Performance •New Technology •Customer Requests •New Products •Higher Performance Standards •New Jobs •What Trainees Need to Learn •Who Receives Training •Type of Training •Frequency of Training •Buy Versus Build Training Decision •Training Versus Other HR Options Such as Selection or Job Redesign •How Training Should Be Evaluated Who Needs the Training? In What Do They Need Training? Organization Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis
  18. 18.  Organizational Analysis – Involves determining:  The appropriateness of training, given the business strategy  Resources available for training  Support by managers and peers for training  Person Analysis – Involves:  Determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability or from a motivational or work design problem  Identifying who needs training  Determining employees’ readiness for training  Task Analysis – involves:  Identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks
  19. 19. Upper-Level Managers Midlevel Managers Trainers Organizational Analysis Is training important to achieve our business objectives? How does training support our business strategy? Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Do I have the budget to buy training services? Will managers support training? Person Analysis What functions or business units need training? Who should be trained? Managers? Professionals? Core employees? How will I identify which employees need training? Task Analysis Does the company have the people with the knowledge, skills, and ability needed to compete in the marketplace? For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service? What tasks should be trained? What knowledge, skills, ability, or other characteristics are necessary?
  20. 20. Needs Assessment Techniques
  21. 21. Interviews Focus Groups Documentation Observation Questionnaires
  22. 22. Technique Advantages Disadvantages Observation Generates data relevant to work environment Minimizes interruption of work Needs skilled observer Employees’ behavior may be affected by being observed Questionnaires Inexpensive Can collect data from a large number of persons Data easily summarized Requires time Possible low return rates, inappropriate responses Lacks detail Only provides information directly related to questions asked
  23. 23. Technique Advantages Disadvantages Interviews Good at uncovering details of training needs Good at uncovering causes and solutions of problems Can explore unanticipated issues that come up Questions can be modified Time consuming Difficult to analyze Needs skilled interviewer Can be threatening to small organizations Difficult to schedule Few organizations/ Employee only provide information they think you want to hear Focus Groups Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to explore Questions can be modified to explore unanticipated issues Time consuming to organize Group members provide information they think you want to hear Status or position differences may limit participation
  24. 24. Technique Advantages Disadvantages Documentation (Technical Manuals and Records) Good source of information on procedure, Objectives Good source of task information for new jobs and jobs in the process of being created You may not be able to understand technical language Materials may be obsolete
  25. 25. The Needs Analysis Process
  26. 26. Do We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training? Person Analysis Person Characteristics • Input • Output • Consequences • Feedback Task Analysis or Develop a Competency Model • Work Activity (Task) • KSAs • Working Conditions Organizational Analysis • Strategic Direction • Support of Managers, Peers & Employees for Training Activities • Training Resources
  27. 27. Needs assessment analyze present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast money on training and development (6% to 15% of the budget or 30 days to 58 days training annually) So, before committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors.
  28. 28. The first step in the training process in an organization assessment i.e. Study about objectives and strategies of the organization 1. What business are we in? 2. At what level of quality do we wish to provide? 3. Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.
  29. 29.  How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business?  How might the training content affect our employees’ relationship with our customers?  What might suppliers, customers, or partners need to know about the training program?  Should organizational resources be devoted to this program?
  30. 30.  What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed?  What features of the work environment might interfere with training?  Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program?
  31. 31.  Will employees perceive the training program as:  an opportunity?  reward?  punishment?  waste of time?
  32. 32.  Whether Employees have the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job?  Whether the work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance?
  33. 33.  Person Characteristics  Ability and skill  Attitudes and motivation  Input  Understand need to perform  Necessary resources (equipment, etc.)  Interference from other job demands  Opportunity to perform
  34. 34.  Output  Standard to judge successful performers  Consequences  Positive consequences/incentives to perform  Few negative consequences to perform  Feedback  Frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed
  35. 35.  Self-efficacy - the employees believe that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training program  The job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the past  The training environment can also be threatening to people who have not received training or formal education for some length of time
  36. 36.  The purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify incompetent areas.  Providing as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training  Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs  Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program
  37. 37.  Provide materials, time, job-related information, and other work aids necessary for employees to use new skills or behavior before participating in training programs  Speak positively about the company’s training programs to employees  Let employees know they are doing a good job when they are using training content in their work
  38. 38.  If employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform and the other factors are satisfactory, training is needed  If employees have the knowledge and skill to perform but input, output, consequences, or feedback are inadequate, training may not be the best solution
  39. 39. 3. Task Analysis
  40. 40.  Task analysis includes –  Description of work activities,  Tasks performed by the employee  Knowledge, skills, and abilities required to complete the tasks  It should only be undertaken after determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training
  41. 41. 1. Select the job(s) to be analyzed 2. Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the job 3. Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks 4. Identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task
  42. 42. 1. Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the job 2. Task analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasks 3. Use more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis
  43. 43. 4. For task analysis to be useful, information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs) SMEs include:  Job incumbents  Managers  Employees familiar with the job 5. In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company’s goals and objectives
  44. 44. Scope of Needs Assessment
  45. 45. a. Time constraints can limit the length and detail obtained from needs assessment b. The scope of the needs assessment depends on the size of the potential “pressure point” c. You will be able to anticipate training needs if you are attuned to the: i. Business problems ii. Technological developments iii. Other issues facing the organization
  46. 46.  Know the objectives of the organization towards training  Decide on the data needed and how to collect it  Prepare and execute a project plan  Turn the data into usable information  Isolate performance improvement potential  Develop and execute learning or change solutions
  47. 47.  Surveys  Individual Interviews / Focus Groups  Existing Standards / Procedures  Statistics / Records  Past suggestions  Meetings, Reports, and Newsletters
  48. 48.  Your sales director complains that her representatives are not making their monthly quotas. She is convinced they need more sales training to address this issue and asks you to design something by the end of the week.  What would you do?
  49. 49. 1. Discuss the role of a training needs assessment to address performance issues. 2. Discuss the reasons to complete a training needs assessment. 3. Discuss the three steps to conduct a training needs assessment: organization, person/learner, and task analysis. 4. Describe the methods available to collect needs assessment data. 5. Design a needs assessment plan based on a performance issue.
  50. 50. Perform the training need assessment for Final year students in M.B.A. program. Considering their immediate need to face interviews and to enter into corporate world.
  51. 51. Action Research
  52. 52.  “Professionals studying their own practice in order to improve it.  Applied to training, it involves gathering and interpreting "data" to better understand an aspect of your training that interests or concerns trainee.  Action research is an important recent development in the broad territory of "trainers' professional development.“
  53. 53.  Action Research is an inquiry-based research conducted by trainers that follows a process of examining existing practices, implementing new practices, and evaluating the results, leading to an improvement cycle that benefits both trainees and trainers and organization as well.
  54. 54. Models for Action Research : 1. Kurt Lewin’s Action Research 2. Carr & Kemmis approach:
  55. 55. / Inspection
  56. 56. “Action research is simply a form of self- reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own practices, their understanding of these practices, and the situations in which the practices are carried out.”
  57. 57.  Philosopher, researcher, professor of MITmade significant contributions to the theory and practice of learning. Concerned with professional learning, learning processes in organizations, and with developing critical, self-reflecting practice Donald Schon has written a book : The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals think in Action
  58. 58.  Latin “reflectere” : To bend back  Involves “shuttling back and forth between thinking and action” A reflective thinker is aware of his/her own knowledge and lack of knowledge and recognizes that there may not be only a single correct solution to a problem or interpretation of a situation, knowing that this understanding may change, as he/she gains more information and insight into the matter.
  59. 59.  1. Knowing in Action - The sorts of knowledge we reveal in our intelligent action – publicly observable, physical performances like riding a bicycle and private operations like instant analysis of a balance sheet. In both cases, the knowing is in the action. We reveal it by our spontaneous, skillful execution of the performance…”  Knowing in action: knowing more than we can say, the capacity to do the right thing (tacit knowledge).
  60. 60.  Reflection takes place in the midst of action  Capacity to respond to surprise through improvisation on the spot  Involves a surprise (an unexpected outcome/ behaviour that challenges one’s knowing in action), a response to surprise …conducting an action experiment on the spot by which we seek to solve the new problems …  This is not method but art and a talent.
  61. 61.  Pausing after an activity to see how it went – what went well, what did not, what could be changed;  We develop sets of questions and ideas about our activities and practice.
  62. 62. A professional developed a framework for trainers- Based on Action Research. Action Research Process A professional developed a framework for trainers- Based on Action Research. Action Research Process EXPLORE (Develop) EXPLORE (Develop) PRACTISE (Check) PRACTISE (Check) PERFORM (Action) PERFORM (Action) PLAN Quality Training EEnquirynquiry RReflectioneflection Process Product Habits
  63. 63. Teaching effectiveness Classroom management & discipline Use of information technology Training Material innovation Assessment methodologies Development of trainee
  64. 64.  “Trainer research will force the re-evaluation of current practices and will significantly influence what is known about organization, job, organizational culture, objectives of the organization etc.  Through the process and products of action research trainer will do – ‘T0 leave a mark on their trainee, and leave a mark on their profession.’
  65. 65. Organizational objectives & Training
  66. 66.  Training cannot DESIGNED without objectives  Objectives are your Legal CONTRACT with the organizations  Everything you do in your session MUST support the accomplishment of the objective.
  67. 67.  The objective is NOT how you are going to do it, but what will be the Outcome or result when training is completed.  Training success and training impact cannot be evaluated without objectives.  What the participant will be able to know (knowledge), do (skill), or value (attitudes) after successfully completing instruction. This is called as “KSA” or “ASK” model.
  68. 68. A – Audience (by specific job title) Not “students, participants, or audience” B – Behaviour desired in observable and measurable way C – Cognition under which the task is performed (optional)
  69. 69.  Money and time is invested hence Expectations are high.  Productive work time lost hence Expectations are high  Return on Investment (ROI) is calculated to measured.
  70. 70. Mr. Laborde states –  Many classic training programs fail because they are inevitably focused on what the trainer—or management—wants.  Training program managers are given a budget and a mandate to spend these funds in training that cover specified topics.  Management and trainees frustration with the results often does become a contentious subject of disagreement.
  71. 71.  “Focus on learning more than on training.” Admitting that transferring knowledge to trainees’ brains is not akin to recharging a battery.  Knowledge is developed by the person, not by the trainer. It requires the employees’ efforts and energy.
  72. 72.  Encourage employees to open their minds, change their “mental models,” and perceive learning as good and beneficial for them.  Convince employees to embrace learning resources, be willing to change their views and be open to increasing their knowledge base.
  73. 73.  Infuse these new attitudes toward training that matches your organization’s goals and Training objectives.  If company hasn’t sufficiently defined its objectives, take the lead and do so.  Convey a sense of “we,” not “they,” to your employees about corporate objectives.  Have a clear vision of what the organization wants to be and achieve. Convey this, with clarity, to your staff.
  74. 74.  Mr. Laborde, offers three simple tips and suggestions to eliminate most training program problems and help employees to achieve organizational objectives - 1. Training is a vehicle for employee to develop skills. 2. Training is a process, not an event. 3. Focus, not on training activities, but on improved performance and increased employee knowledge.
  75. 75.  Given a cash flow forecasting spreadsheet, the financial officer will specify loan requirements for the next period. Cash flow forecasting spreadsheet [condition], Financial officer [target] Specify loan requirements for the next period [outcome behavior].
  76. 76. When confronted with a conflict situation the customer service representative will calm the client and resolve their problem
  77. 77. Given the geographical coordinates, the surveyor will locate the construction site reference point.
  78. 78. Teaching/ Training is not the equal of learning, you can offer your employees the opportunity to become more valuable to you, the organization —and, themselves. Training programs aligned with company objectives and focused on learning useful skills will achieve the objectives of the organization and the individual.
  79. 79.  To determine behavioral outcomes  To be a reference point in determining: structure, content, instructional/learning methods, and assessment & evaluation design  A communications tool to explain the course to students, trainees, other facilitators, examiners, employers, registrars, and other stakeholders  A motivational device for students/trainees in setting expectations and targets  A framework to help develop student’s/trainee’s ability for self-assessment  A selling tool for course marketers
  80. 80. Model for writing training objectives
  81. 81. In 1956, Bloom developed a continuum of the levels of learning from the low level, simple, concrete to the higher level, complex, abstract learning. He theorized six levels: 1. Knowledge - identification and recall of information 2. Comprehension - understanding (not parroting) 3. Application - use of knowledge, concepts, rules, principles to solve problems 4. Analysis - breaking down the whole into its parts 5. Synthesis - pulling together divergent pieces to create a new “whole” 6. Evaluation - judgment of value based on criteria or standards
  82. 82. LEVEL STUDENT BEHAVIOR Knowledge • Responds, Absorbs, Remembers, Recognizes Comprehension • Explains, Translates, Demonstrates, Interprets Application • Solve Problems, Demonstrates, Uses Knowledge, Constructs Analysis • Discusses, Uncovers, Lists, Dissects Synthesis • Discusses, Generalizes, Relates, Contrasts Evaluation • Judges, Disputes, Debates, Forms Opinions
  83. 83. Training of engineering students in an industrial environment is an alternative to projects undertaken within the institute. The approach becomes more challenging as it puts them in a new environment with the generally accepted goal of improving their application skills. To implement such a scheme requires a coherent effort from students, faculty members and industry supervisors. Conduct formal need assessment of engineering students' training, which forms the basis of training's, evaluation and effectiveness. The need assessment should include inherent attributes, generic attributes, technical skills and students' basic needs of training. Also access the information related to students' reaction, evaluation and relevance of training to job prospects. (Generic attributes are qualities, skills, and abilities that are valued in study, social situations and employment. They include problem solving ability, teamwork, ...)
  84. 84.  Ramesh has joined his first job after doing his MBA. For his own development he wishes to conduct action research. As HR manager, how will you help Mr. Ramesh?
  85. 85.  In a Medium scale Industry , most of the workers are HSSC or ITI qualified. Company decided to provide training to workers to improve their performance. You are asked to do training need assessment. How will you do it?

Notes de l'éditeur

  • The following suggestions specify the types of changes in jobs that are most likely to lead to improvements in each of the five core dimensions.
    (1) Combine tasks - managers should put existing fractionalized tasks back together to form a new, larger module of work. This increases skill variety and task identify.
    (2) Create natural work units - managers should design tasks that form an identifiable and meaningful whole. This increases employee “ownership” of the work and encourages employees to view their work as meaningful and important rather than as irrelevant and boring.
    (3) Establish client relationships - the client is the user of the product or service that the employee works on. Whenever possible, managers should establish direct relationships between workers and their clients. This increases skill variety, autonomy, and feedback for the employee.
    (4) Expand jobs vertically - vertical expansion means giving employees responsibilities and controls that were formerly reserved for management. It partially closes the gap between the “doing” and “controlling” aspects of the job, and it increases employee autonomy.
    (5) Open feedback channels - by increasing feedback, employees not only learn how well they are performing their jobs but also whether their performances are improving, deteriorating, or remaining at a constant level. Ideally, employees should receive performance feedback directly as they do their jobs rather than from management on an occasional basis.