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# Course on Optimal Transport

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# Course on Optimal Transport

Course on Optimal Tranport, Symposium on Geometry Processing, Paris 2018

Course on Optimal Tranport, Symposium on Geometry Processing, Paris 2018

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### Course on Optimal Transport

1. 1. Mathématiques - Informatique Bruno Lévy ALICE Géométrie & Lumière CENTRE INRIA Nancy Grand-Est Symposium on Geometry Processing – Paris – 2018 Course on Numerical Optimal Transport – Bruno Lévy
2. 2. Part. 1. Goals and Motivations Part. 2. Introduction to Optimal Transport Part. 3. Semi-Discrete Optimal Transport Part. 4. Applications in Computational Physics OVERVIEW
3. 3. Goals and Motivations 1
4. 4. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Goal #1: “Understanding”
5. 5. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Goal #1: “Understanding” What I can’t create I don’t understand Richard Feynman
6. 6. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Goal #1: “Understanding” Jos Stam, Stable Fluids, 1999 The art of fluid sim. Understand fluids Explain Program
7. 7. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Goal #1: “Understanding” I wrote code
8. 8. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Goal #1: “Understanding” Your mission statement: 1. Understand the stuff 2. Explain it in simple terms Be a good teacher, to others and to yourself Know what you know and what you don’t know Try to know what you don’t know 3. Program it
9. 9. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Measuring distances between functions
10. 10. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Measuring distances between functions
11. 11. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Measuring distances between functions
12. 12. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Measuring distances between function
13. 13. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
14. 14. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
15. 15. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
16. 16. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
17. 17. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
18. 18. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
19. 19. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
20. 20. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
21. 21. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
22. 22. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
23. 23. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
24. 24. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Interpolating functions
25. 25. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Gaspard Monge - 1784
26. 26. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Gaspard Monge – geometry and light ANR TOMMI Workshop
27. 27. Cédric Villani Optimal Transport Old & New Topics on Optimal Transport Yann Brenier The polar factorization theorem (Brenier Transport) Part. 1 Optimal Transport Monge-Brenier-Villani, the french connection
28. 28. Part. 1 Optimal Transport [Castro, Merigot, Thibert 2014] Optimal transport geometry and light [Caffarelli, Kochengin, and Oliker 1999]
29. 29. Part. 1 Optimal Transport – Image Processing Barycenters / mixing textures Video-style transfer, A.I., “data sciences” [Nicolas Bonneel, Julien Rabin, Gabriel Peyŕe, Hanspeter Pfister] [Nicolas Bonneel, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Sylvain Paris, Hanspeter Pfister] [Marco Cuturi, Gabriel Peyré]
30. 30. Part. 1 Optimal Transport Optimal transport - geometry and light [Chwartzburg, Testuz, Tagliasacchi, Pauly, SIGGRAPH 2014]
31. 31. Part. 1. Motivations Discretization of functionals involving the Monge-Ampère operator, Benamou, Carlier, Mérigot, Oudet arXiv:1408.4536 The variational formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation Jordan, Kinderlehrer and Otto SIAM J. on Mathematical Analysis Geostrophic current
32. 32. Part. 1 Optimal Transport How to “morph” a shape into another one of same mass while minimizing the “effort” ? ? T
33. 33. Part. 1 Optimal Transport How to “morph” a shape into another one of same mass while minimizing the “effort” ? ? T The “effort” of the best T defines a distance between the shapes
34. 34. Part. 1 Optimal Transport How to “morph” a shape into another one while preserving mass and minimizing the effort ? ? T
35. 35. Part. 1 Optimal Transport
36. 36. Part. 1 Optimal Transport How to “morph” a shape into another one while preserving mass and minimizing the effort ? ? T “minimum action principle”
37. 37. Part. 1 Optimal Transport How to “morph” a shape into another one while preserving mass and minimizing the effort ? ? T “minimum action principle”“conservation law”
38. 38. Part. 1 Optimal Transport “minimum action principle subject to conservation law” OT= Yann Brenier: “Each time the Laplace operator is used in a PDE, it can be replaced with the Monge-Ampère operator”
39. 39. Part. 1 Optimal Transport “minimum action principle subject to conservation law” OT= Yann Brenier: “Each time the Laplace operator is used in a PDE, it can be replaced with the Monge-Ampère operator” New ways of simulating physics with a computer
40. 40. Part. 1 Optimal Transport “minimum action principle subject to conservation law” OT= Yann Brenier: “Each time the Laplace operator is used in a PDE, it can be replaced with the Monge-Ampère operator” New ways of simulating physics with a computer Fast Fourier Transform
41. 41. Part. 1 Optimal Transport “minimum action principle subject to conservation law” OT= Yann Brenier: “Each time the Laplace operator is used in a PDE, it can be replaced with the Monge-Ampère operator” New ways of simulating physics with a computer Fast Fourier Transform Fast OT algo. ???
42. 42. Optimal Transport an elementary introduction 2
43. 43. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem (X;μ) (Y;ν) Two measures μ, ν such that ∫dμ(x) = ∫dν(x) X Y
44. 44. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem A map T is a transport map between μ and ν if μ(T-1(B)) = ν(B) for any Borel subset B of Y (X;μ) (Y;ν) (Borel subset = subset that can be measured)
45. 45. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem A map T is a transport map between μ and ν if μ(T-1(B)) = ν(B) for any Borel subset B of Y B (X;μ) (Y;ν)
46. 46. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem A map T is a transport map between μ and ν if μ(T-1(B)) = ν(B) for any Borel subset B of Y B T-1(B) (X;μ) (Y;ν)
47. 47. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem A map T is a transport map between μ and ν if μ(T-1(B)) = ν(B) for any Borel subset B of Y Notation: if T is a transport map between μ and ν then one writes ν = T#μ (ν is the pushforward of μ) (X;μ) (Y;ν)
48. 48. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) (X;μ) (Y;ν)
49. 49. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) • Difficult to study • If μ has an atom (isolated Dirac), it can only be mapped to another Dirac (T needs to be a map)
50. 50. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Transport from a measure concentrated on L1 onto another one concentrated on L2 and L3
51. 51. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Transport from a measure concentrated on L1 onto another one concentrated on L2 and L3
52. 52. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Transport from a measure concentrated on L1 onto another one concentrated on L2 and L3
53. 53. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge’s problem Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Transport from a measure concentrated on L1 onto another one concentrated on L2 and L3 The infimum is never realized by a map, need for a relaxation
54. 54. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Kantorovich’s problem (1942): Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dν(y) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y)
55. 55. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dν(y) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) “γ(x,y)” : How much sand goes from x to y
56. 56. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dν(y) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Everything that is transported from x sums to “μ(x)”
57. 57. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Monge’s problem: Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dν(y) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Everything that is transported to y sums to “ν(y)”
58. 58. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 1/4 : translation of a segment
59. 59. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 1/4 : translation of a segment
60. 60. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 2/4 : spitting a segment
61. 61. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich
62. 62. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich
63. 63. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich
64. 64. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 3/4 : splitting a Dirac into two Diracs
65. 65. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 3/4 : splitting a Dirac into two Diracs (No transport map)
66. 66. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 4/4 : splitting a Dirac into two segments
67. 67. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich Transport plan – example 4/4 : splitting a Dirac into two segments (No transport map)
68. 68. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality
69. 69. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Duality is easier to understand with a discrete version Then we’ll go back to the continuous setting.
70. 70. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
71. 71. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn Є IRmn
72. 72. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn c = c11 c12 … c1n c22 … c2n … … cmn Є IRmnЄ IRmn
73. 73. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn c = c11 c12 … c1n c22 … c2n … … cmn cij = || xi – yj ||2 Є IRmnЄ IRmn
74. 74. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn c = c11 c12 … c1n c22 … c2n … … cmn cij = || xi – yj ||2 mn X m Є IRmnЄ IRmn
75. 75. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn c = c11 c12 … c1n c22 … c2n … … cmn cij = || xi – yj ||2 mn X n mn X m Є IRmnЄ IRmn
76. 76. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 γ = γ11 γ12 … γ1n γ22 … γ2n … … γmn c = c11 c12 … c1n c22 … c2n … … cmn Є IRmnЄ IRmn mn X n mn X m
77. 77. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 < u, v > denotes the dot product between u and v
78. 78. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> Remark: Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] = < c, γ> if P1 γ = u and P2 γ = v φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
79. 79. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> Remark: Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] = < c, γ> if P1 γ = u and P2 γ = v φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn = +∞ otherwise (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
80. 80. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> Remark: Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] = < c, γ> if P1 γ = u and P2 γ = v φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn = +∞ otherwise Consider now: Inf [ Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
81. 81. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> Remark: Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] = < c, γ> if P1 γ = u and P2 γ = v φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn = +∞ otherwise Consider now: Inf [ Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] ] = Inf [ < c, γ> ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 γ ≥ 0 P1 γ = u P2 γ = v (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
82. 82. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality Consider L(φ,ψ) = <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> Remark: Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] = < c, γ> if P1 γ = u and P2 γ = v φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn = +∞ otherwise Consider now: Inf [ Sup[ L(φ,ψ) ] ] = Inf [ < c, γ> ] (DMK) φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 γ ≥ 0 P1 γ = u P2 γ = v (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
83. 83. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Inf [ Sup[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
84. 84. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Inf [ Sup[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] Exchange Inf Sup (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
85. 85. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Inf [ Sup[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ < γ,c-P1 t φ – P2 t ψ > + <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] ] Exchange Inf Sup Expand/Reorder/Collect (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
86. 86. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Inf [ Sup[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ <c, γ> - <φ, P1 γ - u> - <ψ, P2 γ - v> ] ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ < γ,c-P1 t φ – P2 t ψ > + <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] ] Exchange Inf Sup Expand/Reorder/Collect Interpret (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0
87. 87. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ < γ,c-P1 t φ – P2 t ψ > + <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] ] Interpret Sup[ <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn P1 t φ + P2 t ψ ≤ c (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 (DDMK)
88. 88. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Duality φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn γ ≥ 0 Sup[ Inf[ < γ,c-P1 t φ – P2 t ψ > + <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] ] Interpret Sup[ <φ,u> + <ψ, v> ] φ Є IRm ψ Є IRn P1 t φ + P2 t ψ ≤ c φi + ψj ≤ cij (i,j) A (DMK): Min <c, γ> P1 γ = u s.t. P2 γ = v γ ≥ 0 (DDMK)
89. 89. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem (Continuous): Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φdμ + ∫Y ψdν
90. 90. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φdμ + ∫Y ψdν Your point of view: Try to minimize transport cost
91. 91. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φdμ + ∫Y ψdν Point of view of a “transport company”: Try to maximize transport price Your point of view: Try to minimize transport cost
92. 92. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν What they charge for loading at x Your point of view: Try to minimize transport cost
93. 93. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν What they charge for loading at x What they charge for unloading at y Your point of view: Try to minimize transport cost
94. 94. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Kantorovich dual Kantorovich’s problem: Find a measure γ defined on X x Y such that ∫x in X dγ(x,y) = dμ(x) and ∫y in Y dγ(x,y) = dν(x) that minimizes ∫∫X x Y || x – y ||2 dγ(x,y) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν What they charge for loading at x What they charge for unloading at y Price (loading + unloading) cannot be greater than transport cost (else you do the job yourself) Your point of view: Try to minimize transport cost
95. 95. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-conjugate functions Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν
96. 96. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-conjugate functions Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν If we got two functions φ and ψ that satisfy the constraint Then it is possible to obtain a better solution by replacing ψ with φc defined by: For all y, φc(y) = inf x in X ½|| x – y ||2 - φ(y)
97. 97. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-conjugate functions Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find two functions φ in L1(μ) and ψ in L1(ν) Such that for all x,y, φ(x) + ψ(y) ≤ ½|| x – y ||2 that maximize ∫X φ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν If we got two functions φ and ψ that satisfy the constraint Then it is possible to obtain a better solution by replacing ψ with φc defined by: For all y, φc(y) = inf x in X ½|| x – y ||2 - φ(y) • φc is called the c-conjugate function of φ • If there is a function φ such that ψ = φc then ψ is said to be c-concave • If ψ is c-concave, then ψ cc = ψ
98. 98. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-conjugate functions Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν
99. 99. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-conjugate functions Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν ψ is called a “Kantorovich potential”
100. 100. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential What about our initial problem ? ψ is called a “Kantorovich potential” Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν
101. 101. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential What about our initial problem ? (i.e., this is T() that we want to find …) ψ is called a “Kantorovich potential” Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν
102. 102. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential
103. 103. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10.
104. 104. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
105. 105. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
106. 106. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
107. 107. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
108. 108. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
109. 109. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter):
110. 110. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter): w
111. 111. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Proof: see OTON, chap. 10. Heuristic argument (at the beginning of the same chapter): -w
112. 112. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν
113. 113. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – c-subdifferential Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν { grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x))
114. 114. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – convexity Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν { grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x)) ψ is convex
115. 115. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – convexity Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν { grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x)) ψ is convex
116. 116. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – convexity Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν { grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x)) ψ is convex
117. 117. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – no collision If T(.) exists, then T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) {grad ψ (x) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν ψ is convex Two transported particles cannot “collide”
118. 118. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – no collision If T(.) exists, then T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) {grad ψ (x) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν ψ is convex Two transported particles cannot “collide”
119. 119. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – no collision If T(.) exists, then T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) {grad ψ (x) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν ψ is convex Two transported particles cannot “collide”
120. 120. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge-Ampere What about our initial problem ? If T(.) exists, then one can show that: T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) { for all borel set A, ∫A dμ = ∫T(A) (|JT|) dν (change of variable) Jacobian of T (1st order derivatives) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x))
121. 121. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge-Ampere What about our initial problem ? If T(.) exists, then one can show that: T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) { for all borel set A, ∫A dμ = ∫T(A) (|JT|) dν = ∫T(A) (H ψ ) dν Det. of the Hessian of ψ (2nd order derivatives) Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x))
122. 122. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – Monge-Ampere What about our initial problem ? T(x) = x – grad ψ(x) = grad (½ x2- ψ(x) ) { When μ and ν have a density u and v, (H ψ(x)). v(grad ψ(x)) = u(x) Monge-Ampère equation for all borel set A, ∫A dμ = ∫T(A) (|JT|) dν = ∫T(A) (H ψ ) dν Dual formulation of Kantorovich’s problem: Find a c-concave function ψ that maximizes ∫X ψ(x)dμ + ∫Y ψc(y)dν {grad ψ(x) with ψ(x) := (½ x2- ψ(x))
123. 123. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – summary Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x)
124. 124. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – summary Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) After several rewrites and under some conditions…. (Kantorovich formulation, dual, c-convex functions)
125. 125. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – summary Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) After several rewrites and under some conditions…. (Kantorovich formulation, dual, c-convex functions) Monge-Ampère equation (When μ and ν have a density u and v resp.) Solve (H ψ(x)). v(grad ψ(x)) = u(x)
126. 126. Part. 2 Optimal Transport – summary Find a transport map T that minimizes C(T) = ∫X || x – T(x) ||2 dμ(x) After several rewrites and under some conditions…. (Kantorovich formulation, dual, c-convex functions) Brenier, Mc Cann, Trudinger: The optimal transport map is then given by: T(x) = grad ψ(x) Solve (H ψ(x)). v(grad ψ(x)) = u(x) Monge-Ampère equation (When μ and ν have a density u and v resp.)
127. 127. Semi-Discrete Optimal Transport 3
128. 128. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – how to program ? Continuous (X;μ) (Y;ν)
129. 129. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – how to program ? Continuous Semi-discrete (X;μ) (Y;ν)
130. 130. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – how to program ? Continuous Semi-discrete Discrete (X;μ) (Y;ν)
131. 131. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – how to program ? Continuous Semi-discrete Discrete (X;μ) (Y;ν)
132. 132. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) (X;μ) (Y;ν)
133. 133. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete (X;μ) (Y;ν) ∑j ψ(yj) vj ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK)
134. 134. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) ∑j ψ(yj) vj
135. 135. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) ∫X inf yj ЄY [ || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) ] dμ ∑j ψ(yj) vj
136. 136. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) ∑j ∫Lagψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ ∫X inf yj ЄY [ || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) ] dμ ∑j ψ(yj) vj
137. 137. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) Where: Lag ψ(yj) = { x | || x – yj ||2 – ψ(yj) < || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj’) } for all j’ ≠ j
138. 138. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) Where: Lag ψ(yj) = { x | || x – yj ||2 – ψ(yj) < || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj’) } for all j’ ≠ j Laguerre diagram of the yj’s (with the L2 cost || x – y ||2 used here, Power diagram)
139. 139. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) Where: Lag ψ(yj) = { x | || x – yj ||2 – ψ(yj) < || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj’) } for all j’ ≠ j Laguerre diagram of the yj’s (with the L2 cost || x – y ||2 used here, Power diagram) Weight of yj in the power diagram
140. 140. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – semi-discrete G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) Where: Lag ψ(yj) = { x | || x – yj ||2 – ψ(yj) < || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj’) } for all j’ ≠ j Laguerre diagram of the yj’s (with the L2 cost || x – y ||2 used here, Power diagram) Weight of yj in the power diagram ψ is determined by the weight vector [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)]
141. 141. Voronoi diagram: Vor(xi) = { x | d2(x,xi) < d2(x,xj) } Part. 3 Power Diagrams
142. 142. Power diagram: Pow(xi) = { x | d2(x,xi) – ψi < d2(x,xj) – ψj } Voronoi diagram: Vor(xi) = { x | d2(x,xi) < d2(x,xj) } Part. 3 Power Diagrams
143. 143. Part. 3 Power Diagrams
144. 144. Part. 3 Optimal Transport Theorem: (direct consequence of MK duality alternative proof in [Aurenhammer, Hoffmann, Aronov 98] ): Given a measure μ with density, a set of points (yj), a set of positive coefficients vj such that ∑ vj = ∫ dμ(x), it is possible to find the weights W = [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)] such that the map TS W is the unique optimal transport map between μ and ν = ∑ vj δ(yj)
145. 145. Part. 3 Optimal Transport Theorem: (direct consequence of MK duality alternative proof in [Aurenhammer, Hoffmann, Aronov 98] ): Given a measure μ with density, a set of points (yj), a set of positive coefficients vj such that ∑ vj = ∫ dμ(x), it is possible to find the weights W = [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)] such that the map TS W is the unique optimal transport map between μ and ν = ∑ vj δ(yj) Proof: G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Is a concave function of the weight vector [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)]
146. 146. Part. 3 Optimal Transport Theorem: (direct consequence of MK duality alternative proof in [Aurenhammer, Hoffmann, Aronov 98] ): Given a measure μ with density, a set of points (yj), a set of positive coefficients vj such that ∑ vj = ∫ dμ(x), it is possible to find the weights W = [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)] such that the map TS W is the unique optimal transport map between μ and ν = ∑ vj δ(yj) Proof: G(ψ) =∑j ∫Lag ψ(yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj Is a concave function of the weight vector [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)]
147. 147. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) The (unknown) weights W = [ψ(y1) ψ(y2) … ψ(ym)]
148. 148. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) T : an arbitrary but fixed assignment.
149. 149. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) T : an arbitrary but fixed assignment.
150. 150. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) T : an arbitrary but fixed assignment.
151. 151. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) T : an arbitrary but fixed assignment.
152. 152. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) W fT(W) fT(W)
153. 153. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) W fT(W) fT(W)
154. 154. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W fT(W) W fT(W) Fixed T
155. 155. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W f TW (W) : defined by Laguerre diagram fT(W) fixed W W
156. 156. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W f TW (W) = minT fT(W) fT(W) fixed W W
157. 157. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W f: W → f TW (W) is concave !! (because its graph is the lower enveloppe of linear functions) fT(W) W fT(W) f TW (W) = minT fT(W)
158. 158. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W f: W → f TW (W) is concave (because its graph is the lower enveloppe of linear functions) fT(W) W fT(W) f TW (W) = minT fT(W) Consider g(W) = f TW (W) + ∑vj ψj
159. 159. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the AHA paper fT(W) W fT(W) f TW (W) = minT fT(W) Consider g(W) = f TW (W) + ∑vj ψj vj -∫Lag ψ (yj) dμ(x) and g is concave.∂ g / ∂ ψ j = Idea of the proof Consider the function fT(W) = ∫(|| x– T(x) ||2 – ψ(T(X)))dμ(x) fT(W) is linear in W f: W → f TW (W) is concave (because its graph is the lower enveloppe of linear functions)
160. 160. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the algorithm Semi-discrete OT Summary: ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) G(ψ) =
161. 161. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the algorithm Semi-discrete OT Summary: G(ψ) = g(W) =∑j ∫Lag ψ (yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj is concave ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) G(ψ) =
162. 162. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the algorithm Semi-discrete OT Summary: G(ψ) = g(W) =∑j ∫Lag ψ (yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj is concave vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) (= 0 at the maximum)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) G(ψ) =
163. 163. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the algorithm Semi-discrete OT Summary: G(ψ) = g(W) =∑j ∫Lag ψ (yj) || x – yj ||2 - ψ(yj) dμ + ∑j ψ(yj) vj is concave vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) (= 0 at the maximum)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∫X ψc (x)dμ + ∫Y ψ(y)dν Sup ψ Є ψc (DMK) G(ψ) = Desired mass at yj Mass transported to yj
164. 164. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)∂ G / ∂ ψ j =
165. 165. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∂ 2 G / ∂ ψ i ψ j = - ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)
166. 166. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∂ 2 G / ∂ ψ i ψ j = - ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) yi yj
167. 167. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∂ 2 G / ∂ ψ i ψ j = - ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) yi yj ψ j ψ j + δψ j
168. 168. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian vj -∫Lag(yj)dμ(x)∂ G / ∂ ψ j = ∂ 2 G / ∂ ψ i ψ j = - ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) yi yj ψ j ψ j + δψ j Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x)
169. 169. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0
170. 170. Part. 3 Optimal Transport – the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0
171. 171. Part. 3 the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0 δx δψ j dfij = gradx(c(x,yi) - c(x,yj))dx + dψ j n
172. 172. Part. 3 the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0 δx δψ j dfij = gradx(c(x,yi) - c(x,yj))dx + dψ j n δx = δh n = δh gradx fij(x) / || gradx fij(x)||
173. 173. Part. 3 the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0 δx δψ j dfij = gradx(c(x,yi) - c(x,yj))dx + dψ j n δx = δh n = δh gradx fij(x) / || gradx fij(x)|| δh
174. 174. Part. 3 the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0 δx δψ j dfij = gradx(c(x,yi) - c(x,yj))dx + dψ j n δx = δh n = δh gradx fij(x) / || gradx fij(x)|| δh ∂ h / ∂ ψ j = -1/ || gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) ||
175. 175. Part. 3 the Hessian yi yj Reynold’s thm: ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫∂ Lag(yj) v.n dμ(x) fij(x) = 0 c(x,yi) - c(x,yj) + ψ j - ψ i = 0 δx δψ j dfij = gradx(c(x,yi) - c(x,yj))dx + dψ j n δx = δh n = δh gradx fij(x) / || gradx fij(x)|| δh ∂ h / ∂ ψ j = -1/ || gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) || ∂ / ∂ ψ j ∫Lag(yj)dμ(x) = ∫Lag(yi) ∩Lag(yj) -1/|| gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) ||dμ(x)
176. 176. Part. 3 the Hessian ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j F = ∫Lag(yi) ∩ Lag(yj) -1/|| gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) ||dμ(x) ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i 2 F = - ∑ ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j
177. 177. Part. 3 the Hessian ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j F = ∫Lag(yi) ∩ Lag(yj) -1/|| gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) ||dμ(x) ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i 2 F = - ∑ ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j c(x,y) = || x – y ||2 ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j F = ∫Lag(yi) ∩ Lag(yj) 1 / || xj – xi || dμ(x)
178. 178. Part. 3 the Hessian ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j F = ∫Lag(yi) ∩ Lag(yj) -1/|| gradx c(x,yi) – gradx c(x,yj) ||dμ(x) ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i 2 F = - ∑ ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j c(x,y) = || x – y ||2 ∂ 2 / ∂ ψ i ∂ ψ j F = ∫Lag(yi) ∩ Lag(yj) 1 / || xj – xi || dμ(x) IP1 FEM Laplacian (not a big surprise)
179. 179. Part. 3 Optimal Transport Let’s program it ! Hierarchical algorithm [Mérigot] Geometry, 3D [L], [L, Schwindt] Damped Newton algorithm, [Kitagawa, Mérigot, Thibert]
180. 180. Optimal Transport applications in computational physics 4
181. 181. Euler Lagrange The Least Action Principle Hamilton, Legendre, Maupertuis Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system Short summary of the 1st chapter of Landau,Lifshitz Course of Theoretical Physics
182. 182. Euler Lagrange The Least Action Principle Hamilton, Legendre, Maupertuis Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system position
183. 183. Euler Lagrange The Least Action Principle Hamilton, Legendre, Maupertuis Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system position speed
184. 184. Euler Lagrange The Least Action Principle Hamilton, Legendre, Maupertuis Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system position speed time
185. 185. Euler Lagrange ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Hamilton, Legendre, Maupertuis Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system Axiom 2: The movement (time evolution) of the physical system minimizes the following integral
186. 186. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system Axiom 2: The movement (time evolution) of the physical system minimizes the following integral
187. 187. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists a function L(x,x,t) that describes the state of a physical system Axiom 2: The movement (time evolution) of the physical system minimizes the following integral Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = t=0 t=1
188. 188. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t
189. 189. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte
190. 190. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy
191. 191. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum
192. 192. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum Isotropy of space → Preservation of angular momentum
193. 193. ∫t1 t2 L(x,x,t) dt The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum Isotropy of space → Preservation of angular momentum Preserved quantities “Integrals of Motion” Noether’s theorem
194. 194. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum Isotropy of space → Preservation of angular momentum Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I)
195. 195. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum Isotropy of space → Preservation of angular momentum Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I) Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2
196. 196. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Theorem 2: ∂L ∂x x - L = cte Homogeneity of time → Preservation of energy Homogeneity of space → Preservation of momentum Isotropy of space → Preservation of angular momentum Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I) Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2
197. 197. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Particle in a field: Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 – U(x) Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I) Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2
198. 198. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Particle in a field: Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 – U(x) Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2 + U(x) Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I) Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2
199. 199. The Least Action Principle Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. change of Gallileo frame + hom. + isotrop. : x’ t’ = x+vt t Particle in a field: Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 – U(x) Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2 + U(x) Theorem 4: mx = - U (Newton’s law II) Free particle: Theorem 3: v = cte (Newton’s law I) Expression of the Lagrangian: L = ½ m v2 Expression of the Energy: E = ½ m v2
200. 200. Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. Lorentz change of frame x’ t’ = (x-vt) x γ (t – vx/c2) x γ γ = 1 / √ ( 1 – v2 / c2) The Least Action Principle (relativistic setting – just for fun…)
201. 201. The Least Action Principle (relativistic setting – just for fun…) Axiom 1: There exists L Axiom 2: The movement minimizes ∫ L Theorem 1: (Lagrange equation): ∂L ∂x d dt ∂L ∂x = Axiom 3: Invariance w.r.t. Lorentz change of frame x’ t’ = (x-vt) x γ (t – vx/c2) x γ γ = 1 / √ ( 1 – v2 / c2) Theorem 5: E = ½ γ m v2 + mc2
202. 202. The Least Action Principle (quantum physics setting – just for fun…)
203. 203. ? T Fluids – Benamou Brenier ρ1 ρ2
204. 204. ? T Fluids – Benamou Brenier Minimize A(ρ,v) = ∫t1 t2 (t2-t1) ∫Ω ρ(x,t) ||v(t,x)||2 dxdt s.t. ρ(t1,.) = ρ1 ; ρ(t2,.) = ρ2 ; d ρ dt = - div(ρv) ρ1 ρ2
205. 205. ? T Fluids – Benamou Brenier ∫t1 t2 (t2-t1) ∫Ω ρ(x,t) ||v(t,x)||2 dxdt s.t. ρ(t1,.) = ρ1 ; ρ(t2,.) = ρ2 ; d ρ dt = - div(ρv) ρ1 ρ2 Minimize C(T) = ∫Ω || x – T(x) ||2 dx s.t. T is measure-preserving ρ1(x) Minimize A(ρ,v) =
206. 206. Le schéma [Mérigot-Gallouet] Applications en graphisme: [De Goes et.al] (power particles) Part. 4 Optimal Transport – Fluids
207. 207. Part. 4 Optimal Transport – Fluids Let’s code it !
208. 208. Part. 4 Optimal Transport – Fluids
209. 209. Part. 4 Optimal Transport – Fluids
210. 210. Part. 4 Optimal Transport – Fluids
211. 211. Part. 4 To infinity and beyond…
212. 212. René Descartes - 1663 Vortices in “ether” ? Part. 4 To infinity and beyond
213. 213. The Data: #1: the Cosmic Microwave Background COBE 1992Part. 4 To infinity and beyond…
214. 214. WMAP 2003 2006 2008 2010 Part. 4 To infinity and beyond… The Data: #1 the Cosmic Microwave Background
215. 215. Part. 4 To infinity and beyond… The Data: #2 redshift acquisition surveys
216. 216. Part. 4 To infinity and beyond… The Data: #2 redshift acquisition surveys
217. 217. Part. 4 To infinity and beyond… The Data: #2 redshift acquisition surveys
218. 218. The millenium simulation project, Max Planck Institute fur Astrophysik pc/h : parsec (= 3.2 années lumières)Part. 4 To infinity and beyond…
219. 219. Part. 4 To infinity and beyond… The universal swimming pool
220. 220. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris Time = Now Early Universe Reconstruction
221. 221. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris . . . . . Early Universe Reconstruction
222. 222. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris Time = BigBang (- 13.7 billion Y) Early Universe Reconstruction
223. 223. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris “Time-warped” map of the universe Early Universe Reconstruction
224. 224. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris Cosmic Microware Background: “Fossil light” emitted 380 000 Y after BigBang and measured now “Time-warped” map of the universe Early Universe Reconstruction
225. 225. Coop. with MOKAPLAN & Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris & Observatoire de Paris Cosmic Microware Background: “Fossil light” emitted 380 000 Y after BigBang and measured now Do they match ? “Time-warped” map of the universe Early Universe Reconstruction
226. 226. Conclusions Open Questions References Online resources
227. 227. Conclusions – Open questions * Connections with physics, Legendre transform and entropy ? [Cuturi & Peyré] – regularized discrete optimal transport – why does it work ? Hint 1: Minimum action principle subject to conservation laws Hint 2: Entropy = dual of temperature ; Legendre = Fourier[(+,*) → (Max,+)]… * More continuous numerical algorithms ? [Benamou & Brenier] fluid dynamics point of view – very elegant, but 4D problem !! FEM-type adaptive discretization of the subdifferential (graph of T) ? * Can we characterize OT in other semi-discrete settings ? measures supported on unions of spheres piecewise linear densities * Connections with computational geometry ? Singularity set [Figalli] = set of points where T is discontinuous Looks like a “mutual power diagram”, anisotropic Voronoi diagrams
228. 228. Conclusions - References A Multiscale Approach to Optimal Transport, Quentin Mérigot, Computer Graphics Forum, 2011 Variational Principles for Minkowski Type Problems, Discrete Optimal Transport, and Discrete Monge-Ampere Equations Xianfeng Gu, Feng Luo, Jian Sun, S.-T. Yau, ArXiv 2013 Minkowski-type theorems and least-squares clustering AHA! (Aurenhammer, Hoffmann, and Aronov), SIAM J. on math. ana. 1998 Topics on Optimal Transportation, 2003 Optimal Transport Old and New, 2008 Cédric Villani
229. 229. Conclusions - References Polar factorization and monotone rearrangement of vector-valued functions Yann Brenier, Comm. On Pure and Applied Mathematics, June 1991 A computational fluid mechanics solution of the Monge-Kantorovich mass transfer problem, J.-D. Benamou, Y. Brenier, Numer. Math. 84 (2000), pp. 375-393 Pogorelov, Alexandrov – Gradient maps, Minkovsky problem (older than AHA paper, some overlap, in slightly different context, formalism used by Gu & Yau) Rockafeller – Convex optimization – Theorem to switch inf(sup()) – sup(inf()) with convex functions (used to justify Kantorovich duality) Filippo Santambrogio – Optimal Transport for Applied Mathematician, Calculus of Variations, PDEs and Modeling – Jan 15, 2015 Gabriel Peyré, Marco Cuturi, Computational Optimal Transport, 2018
230. 230. Online resources All the sourcecode/documentation available from: http://alice.loria.fr/software/geogram Demo: www.loria.fr/~levy/GLUP/vorpaview * L., A numerical algorithm for semi-discrete L2 OT in 3D, ESAIM Math. Modeling and Analysis, 2015 * L. and E. Schwindt, Notions of OT and how to implement them on a computer, Computer and Graphics, 2018. J. Lévy – 1936-2018 - To you Dad, I miss you so much.
231. 231. Bonus Slides The Isoperimetric Inequality
232. 232. The isoperimetric inequality For a given volume, ball is the shape that minimizes border area
233. 233. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Explanation in [Dario Cordero Erauquin] course notes The isoperimetric inequality
234. 234. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Explanation in [Dario Cordero Erauquin] course notes The isoperimetric inequality
235. 235. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Explanation in [Dario Cordero Erauquin] course notes The isoperimetric inequality
236. 236. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Consider a compact set Ω such that Vol(Ω) = Vol(B2 3) and f = the indicatrix function of Ω The isoperimetric inequality
237. 237. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Consider a compact set Ω such that Vol(Ω) = Vol(B2 3) and f = the indicatrix function of Ω Vol(∂Ω) ≥ n Vol(B2 3)1/3 Vol(B2 3)2/3 The isoperimetric inequality
238. 238. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: Given f: IRn → IR sufficiently regular Consider a compact set Ω such that Vol(Ω) = Vol(B2 3) and f = the indicatrix function of Ω Vol(∂Ω) ≥ n Vol(B2 3)1/3 Vol(B2 3)2/3 Vol(∂Ω) ≥ 4 π = Vol(∂B2 3) The isoperimetric inequality
239. 239. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] The isoperimetric inequality
240. 240. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 The isoperimetric inequality
241. 241. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] There exists an optimal transport T = gradΨ between f n/(n-1)(x)dx and 1B2 n/Vol(B2 n)dx We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 The isoperimetric inequality
242. 242. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] There exists an optimal transport T = gradΨ between f n/(n-1)(x)dx and 1B2 n/Vol(B2 n)dx We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
243. 243. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] There exists an optimal transport T = gradΨ between f n/(n-1)(x)dx and 1B2 n/Vol(B2 n)dx We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ Arithmetico-geometric ineq: det (H) 1/n ≤ trace(H)/n if H positive The isoperimetric inequality
244. 244. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] There exists an optimal transport T = gradΨ between f n/(n-1)(x)dx and 1B2 n/Vol(B2 n)dx We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ Arithmetico-geometric ineq: det (H) 1/n ≤ trace(H)/n if H positive det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ trace(Hess Ψ)/n The isoperimetric inequality
245. 245. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] There exists an optimal transport T = gradΨ between f n/(n-1)(x)dx and 1B2 n/Vol(B2 n)dx We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ Arithmetico-geometric ineq: det (H) 1/n ≤ trace(H)/n if H positive det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ trace(Hess Ψ)/n det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ ∆ Ψ / n The isoperimetric inequality
246. 246. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
247. 247. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Vol(B2 n) = Vol(B2 n) ∫f n/(n-1) = ∫f Vol(B2 n) f 1/(n-1) det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
248. 248. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Vol(B2 n) = Vol(B2 n) ∫f n/(n-1) = ∫f Vol(B2 n) f 1/(n-1) ≤ 1/n ∫ f ∆ Ψ det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
249. 249. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Vol(B2 n) = Vol(B2 n) ∫f n/(n-1) = ∫f Vol(B2 n) f 1/(n-1) ≤ 1/n ∫ f ∆ Ψ ∫f ∆ Ψ = - ∫ grad f . grad Ψ det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
250. 250. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Vol(B2 n) = Vol(B2 n) ∫f n/(n-1) = ∫f Vol(B2 n) f 1/(n-1) ≤ 1/n ∫ f ∆ Ψ ∫f ∆ Ψ = - ∫ grad f . grad Ψ ≤ ∫ | grad f | (T = grad Ψ Є B2 n ) det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
251. 251. ∫| grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n (∫f n/(n-1))(n-1)/n L1 Sobolev inegality: a proof with OT [Gromov] We suppose w.l.o.g. that ∫f n/(n-1) = 1 Vol(B2 n) = Vol(B2 n) ∫f n/(n-1) = ∫f Vol(B2 n) f 1/(n-1) ≤ 1/n ∫ f ∆ Ψ ∫f ∆ Ψ = - ∫ grad f . grad Ψ ≤ ∫ | grad f | (T = grad Ψ Є B2 n ) ∫ | grad f | ≥ n Vol(B2 n)1/n ■ det (Hess Ψ) 1/n ≤ (∆ Ψ)/n Monge-Ampère equation: Vol(B2 n) fn/(n-1)(x) = det Hess Ψ The isoperimetric inequality
252. 252. Bonus Slides Plotting the potential & optics
253. 253. The [AHA] paper summary: • The optimal weights minimize a convex function • The gradient and Hessian of this convex function is easy to compute Note: the weight w(s) correspond to the Kantorovich potential ψ(x) (solves a “discrete Monge-Ampere” equation) The algorithm: Summary: The algorithm computes the weights wi such that the power cells associated with the Diracs correspond to the preimages of the Diracs. μ ν Plotting the potential, “optics”
254. 254. The [AHA] paper summary: • The optimal weights minimize a convex function • The gradient and Hessian of this convex function is easy to compute Note: the weight w(s) correspond to the Kantorovich potential ψ(x) (solves a “discrete Monge-Ampere” equation) The algorithm: Summary: The algorithm computes the weights wi such that the power cells associated with the Diracs correspond to the preimages of the Diracs. μ ν Plotting the potential, “optics”
255. 255. The [AHA] paper summary: • The optimal weights minimize a convex function • The gradient and Hessian of this convex function is easy to compute Note: the weight w(s) correspond to the Kantorovich potential ψ(x) (solves a “discrete Monge-Ampere” equation) The algorithm: Summary: The algorithm computes the weights wi such that the power cells associated with the Diracs correspond to the preimages of the Diracs. μ ν Plotting the potential, “optics”
256. 256. The [AHA] paper summary: • The optimal weights minimize a convex function • The gradient and Hessian of this convex function is easy to compute Note: the weight w(s) correspond to the Kantorovich potential ψ(x) (solves a “discrete Monge-Ampere” equation) The algorithm: Summary: The algorithm computes the weights wi such that the power cells associated with the Diracs correspond to the preimages of the Diracs. μ ν Plotting the potential, “optics”
257. 257. The [AHA] paper summary: • The optimal weights minimize a convex function • The gradient and Hessian of this convex function is easy to compute Note: the weight w(s) correspond to the Kantorovich potential ψ(x) (solves a “discrete Monge-Ampere” equation) The algorithm: Summary: The algorithm computes the weights wi such that the power cells associated with the Diracs correspond to the preimages of the Diracs. μ ν Plotting the potential, “optics”
258. 258. Plotting the potential, “optics”
259. 259. Plotting the potential, “optics”
260. 260. Plotting the potential, “optics”
261. 261. Plotting the potential, “optics”
262. 262. Plotting the potential, “optics”
263. 263. Plotting the potential, “optics”
264. 264. hi Plotting the potential, “optics”
265. 265. Plotting the potential, “optics”
266. 266. Plotting the potential, “optics”
267. 267. Plotting the potential, “optics”
268. 268. Plotting the potential, “optics”
269. 269. Plotting the potential, “optics”
270. 270. Numerical Experiment: A disk becomes two disks Plotting the potential, “optics”
271. 271. End Of Line.