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Literature Review.ppt

  1. Literature Review  Literature Review is the critical evaluation of prior research that is relevant to your research studies.  The review of related literature involves systematically identifying, locating, and analyzing documents pertaining to the research problem.  The major purpose of reviewing the literature is to identify information that already exists about your research problem.  The literature review can point out research strategies, procedures, and instruments that have and have not been found to be productive in investigating your research problem.
  2. Cont…  A smaller, well-organized review is preferred to a review containing many studies that are less related to your research problem.  Heavily researched areas usually provide enough references directly related to a problem to eliminate the need for reporting less-related or secondary studies. Little researched problems usually require review of any study related in some meaningful way so that the researcher may develop a logical framework and rationale for the study.
  3. Cont…  Qualitative researchers are more likely to construct the review after starting their study, whereas quantitative researchers are more likely to construct the review prior to starting their study.  The qualitative research review of related literature may demonstrate the underlying assumptions behind the research questions, convince proposal reviewers that the researcher is knowledgeable about intellectual traditions, provide the researcher with an opportunity to identify any gaps in the body of literature and how the proposed study may contribute to the existing body of knowledge, and help the qualitative researcher to refine research questions.
  4. Cont…  How to Review Literature?  Identifying Keywords: Most sources have an alphabetical subject index or a thesaurus to help you locate information on your research problem. In addition, most databases generate subject headings or descriptors with the search results. Maintaining a list of keywords should guide your literature search.  Identifying Your Sources: A good way to start a review of related literature is with a narrow search of pertinent educational encyclopedias, handbooks, and annual reviews found in libraries. These resources provide broad overviews of issues in various subject areas. Consult with the subject librarian who specializes in your discipline to learn what sources are available and how to access and retrieve needed information.
  5. Cont..  Most libraries use an online catalog system as well as collective catalogs to access materials from other libraries. You should familiarize yourself with your library, the library website, and the resources available within and beyond your library.  An article or report written by the person who conducted the study is a primary source.  A brief description of a study written by someone other than the original researcher is a secondary source.  Primary sources are preferred in the review.
  6. Cont..  Internet search tools and resources continue to develop to include more primary sources and background information. Good research goes beyond simply googling a problem to searching Google Scholar, Google Books, YouTube EDU, blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, discussion groups, and more.  Evaluating Your Sources: It is important to evaluate all literature sources by determining the following: What is the problem statement of the study? Is the study relevant given your research interests? Who or what are the sample groups studied? Where was the study published? When was the study conducted? How was study conducted?
  7. Cont..  Summarizing your sources: Summarize and classify your sources on the basis of quality, relevance, accuracy and importance to your work.  The main advantage of beginning with the latest references on your research problem is that the most recent studies are likely to have profited from previous research. References in recent studies often contain references to previous studies you have not yet identified.  For each source work, list the complete bibliographic record, including author's name, date of publication, title, journal name or book title, volume number, issue number, page numbers, and library call number. Briefly list main ideas. Put quotation marks around quotes taken from the source, and include page numbers.
  8. Organizing the Literature Review  Describing and reporting research call for a specialized style of writing. Technical writing requires documenting facts and substantiating opinions, clarifying definitions and using them consistently, using an accepted style manual, and starting sections with an introduction and ending them with a brief summary.  When organizing a review, make an outline; sort references by problem; analyze the similarities and differences between references in a given subheading; give a meaningful overview in which you discuss references least related to the problem first; and conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications.
  9. Characteristics of Effective Literature Reviews  Outlining important research trends  Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of existing research  Establishing a need for current and/or future research projects
  10. Principles of literature review  Do not be biased (it’s not persuasive)  Present both sides of an argument and show why your side is more important  Mix argument with explanations  Write at the level of your audience  Move from general to specific
  11. Process for writing Lit: Review  Make YOUR rough argument  Read 3 or 4 key texts of relevance  Remake YOUR rough argument  Identify points needing support  Find references covering those points  Match references to YOUR argument  Revise your argument if necessary
  12. Steps for Writing a Lit Review Planning Reading and Research Analyzing Drafting Revising
  13. Planning  What Type of Literature Review Am I Writing?
  14. Reading and Researching  What Materials Am I Going to Use?
  15. Analyzing  How Do I Assess Existing Research?
  16. Drafting  What Am I Going to Write?
  17. Revising  How Can I Fine-tune My Draft?
  18. What should you write?  the accepted facts in the area  the popular opinion  the main variables  the relationship between concepts and variables  shortcomings in the existing findings  limitations in the methods used in the existing findings  the relevance of your research  suggestions for further research in the area.
  19. A Good Literature Review is:  Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic.  Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take any more space than you need to present your ideas.  Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a smooth, logical progression from one idea to the next
  20. Cont;  Developed - Don’t leave the story half told.  Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies different than others? Your paper should stress how all the studies reviewed contribute to your topic.  Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the cutting edge of your topic.
  21. Elements of LR  Literature reviews should comprise the following elements:  An overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along  objectives of the literature review  Division of works under review into categories (e.g. those in support of a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative theses entirely)  Explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others  Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research
  22. Layout Make sure your literature review have an academic and professional appearance. Here are some points to make the look of your report appealing to the reader  White space: leave space between sections, especially from the abstract. This gives an uncluttered effect.  Headings/sub-headings: these help to separate ideas.  Text boxes: you can use these for quotations or paraphrasing to separate them from the rest of your text. It is also pleasing to the eye.
  23. Cont;  Graphics: centre your graphics, such as diagrams or tables, to have space around them. Try not to bury graphics in your text.  Pagination: you can number pages or sections or both, but the important thing to do is to be consistent. The cover page normally is not numbered. The content page and abstract page usually have a separate numbering system to the body of your literature review.
  24. Cont;  Language focus  Create a balance between direct quotation (citation) and paraphrasing.  Avoid too much direct quoting.  The verb tense chosen depends on your emphasis:  When you are citing a specific author's findings, use the past tense: (found, demonstrated);  When you are writing about an accepted fact, use the present tense: (demonstrates, finds); and  When you are citing several authors or making a general statement, use the present perfect tense: (have shown, have found, little research has been done).
  25. Citation styles  Sentence-initial citations – Prensky (2004) argues that mobile phones have become a part of most students’ identities.  Clause-final citations – Mobile phones have become a part of most students’ identities (Prensky, 2004).  Rough rule: 80+% of citations should be clause- final  Sentence-initial citations are used mainly for in- depth explanations of theory
  26. Final checklist Have I fulfilled the purpose of the literature review? Is it written at a level appropriate to its audience? Are its facts correct? Is all the information included relevant? Are the layout and presentation easy on the eye? Is the language clear, concise and academic?
  27. Cont;  What is the scope of my literature review?  How good was my information seeking?  Has my search been wide enough to ensure I've found all the relevant material?  Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material?  Is the number of sources I've used appropriate for the length of my paper?
  28. Cont; Does the abstract summarizes the entire review? Does the introduction adequately introduce the topic? Is the body organized logically? Have I acknowledged all sources of information through correct referencing? Have I checked spelling, grammar and punctuation? Have I carefully proof-read the final draft?
  29. References  Lectures of Dr. Arshad at I.E.R session 2012  Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.  American Psychological Association (APA)(1994).Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (Fourth edition). Washington, DC.  Centre of Advanced Study in Education (1999- 2000).Research Methodology, Vadodara : The M.S.University of Baroda..  Cohen, L. and Manion, L.(1989). Research methods in education, 3rd edition. London: Croom Helm.  Krathwohl, D. R. (1988). How to prepare a research proposal: