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  1. 1. Towards an Educated India सफलता की पर्ची........ Team: Abhijit Singh | Dhruvil Patel | Dhiraj Kumar | Saumil Mehta | Deep ShahCollege: IIT Madras
  2. 2. TOWS Matrix/Current situation Strengths – S • High Enrollment • Accessibility of schools Weakness – W • Quality of education • Infrastructure • Lack of motivation and accountability teachers • Dropout ratio of the students Opportunities- O • Participation of private players • Increase in education expenditure as a % of GDP in future SO • Implementing PPP model in the government schools WO • Private players will bring in more accountability • Improving the quality of education imparted • Infrastructure improvement Threats – T • Perception towards government schools • Degrading of moral values ST • Implementing the model will increase the quality of education and change the perception WT • Focusing on reducing the drop out ratio • Increasing the quality of education and infrastructure
  3. 3. Proposed Solution(1/3) Objective: Towards improving the quality of education in the government schools through Public private partnership (PPP) and voucher based fee payment Scope: Government schools in Urban cities What is a Voucher ?* A certificate or a card which promises to pay the holder of the same a certain amount of money Eligibility: Children belonging to the backward economic class Reasons for initiating voucher schemes in urban areas first are as follows: • More qualified teachers are currently available and can be quickly ramped up through training • Better basic infrastructure (e.g. electricity, sanitation) exists – hence learning is not disrupted by students leaving the school to return home • A competitive market with a pool of quality schools is likely to already exist • Entrepreneurs and investors who might actively help develop the market further are present. *Idea inspired from: Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman’s Voucher based model Execution: Each student will eligible for one voucher per year Parents need to submit the vouchers instead of the fees Parents can choose from a pool of government schools
  4. 4. Proposed Solution(2/3) Gains For Education System • Schools compete with each other for more students • Competition among schools increases which improves the performance and hence the quality of the education Parents: • Choose that school which provides the best quality of education Private Player: • Lower entry barrier for them to enter in education • Immediate returns on investment through vouchers Working of PPP Model • Administration and the running of the government schools to be outsourced to the private players • Basic infrastructure like land, building, school facilities already in place • The private players to make capital investment in improving and building the necessary infrastructure needs • Government will bear 35% cost of this capital investment but it will spread over a period of 5 years • The amount of the voucher will be set in such a way that it will help the private players in covering their cost expenses Teachers • Mandatory biennial training for all teachers • The performance report on the government teachers to be submitted to the government after annual performance appraisal cycle • Schools will be allowed to add private teachers on their own cost
  5. 5. Proposed Solutions (3/3) • Independent rating agency which will rate the schools on different factors • Dropout Rate • School Infrastructure • Teacher Performance • Student Learning Assessment/Achieveme nts • Student Teacher ratio • Based on the rating schools and teachers will get recognition Features of Voucher • State governments could distribute non-transferable vouchers (for each child) to parents in urban centres that meet certain pre- requisites • Regulatory institutions are required to monitor the use of the voucher scheme – e.g. actual attendance, literacy outcomes, the qualifications of teachers, non-discriminatory admission policies, etc.
  6. 6. Impact Assessment Outcomes Indicator Baseline - 2013-14 Target - 2016-17 Achievement - 2016-17 Frequency of Report Data Collection Instruments Responsibilities of Data Collection Infrastructure - 20% increase Annual As per Right To Education(RTE) standard State, central and independent Quality of Teachers - Performance efficiency should increase by 30% Biennial >Assessment Test at the end of training >Peer feedback State, central and independent Pupil Teacher Ratio(PTR) 34/1 25/1 Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent Reduction in dropout rate - By 20% decrease Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent Transition Rates from primary to upper primary Increase by 15% Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent Retention at Primary level - Increase by 15% Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent Retention at Elementary Level - Increase by 20% Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent Gross Completion Ratio - Increase by 25% Annual Independent Sample study instruments State, central and independent TeachersInfraStudents
  7. 7. Financial Aspects • White paper submitted by Praja.org on “Municipal Education in Mumbai (2008-09 to 2011-12)” indicate an average per student spending over 5 years to be Rs.36531 • Hence, the allocated spending per student in both government and private schools in urban cities are comparable. • According to SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) portal finding, around 80% of the allocated budget to government schools is only actually spent. • This gap in allocation and spending is a lucrative prospect for the private parties who can bring in investments in government schools and yet gain profit. Name of State/UT OB as as on 1.4.2011* GOI releases State Releases 13th FC Award Other receipts Total funds available Expenditure till 31st Dec., 2011 Total 594724.39 1703902.28 850581.40 249835.00 18045.26 3417088.33 2714040.23 *All numbers are in crore of Indian Rupees
  8. 8. Challenges and Risks • Operational inefficiency: The delay in the reimbursement of vouchers by the government to the PPP schools will demotivate the private parties to take up such projects and will act as a bottleneck for scaling the system. • Risks involved with scalability: Studies show that students in a voucher program benefit because they are put in classrooms with high-achieving peers. Should the system be scaled, research indicated that achievement can be expected to go down because there will be more competition for schools to recruit the best performing, highest achieving students. Students under a large-scale voucher scheme will be self-segregated into high-performing and low-achieving classrooms, thus dissolving the very advantage the education vouchers propose to fix. • Grade Inflation: In an effort to secure a solid reputation and attract students, a school may focus less on the calibre of education and more on attracting students. Should there not be uniform standardized tests in place throughout the school system, a school may be incentivized to lower the education standards for progression through school in order to attract students. • Expansion to villages: It will be a real challenge to implement the model in rural India, as it will be difficult to attract private players to villages. RiskChallenge
  9. 9. References • Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan Portal • ASER Survey • Ernst & Young Database • http://www.praja.org/praja_downloads/Report%20on%20Stat us%20of%20Municipal%20Education%20in%20Mumbai%20%28 Academic%20Years%202008-09%20to%202011-12%29.pdf • http://www.ccs.in/ccsindia/policy/ed/studies/wp0072.pdf • http://infrastructure.gov.in/pdf/Paper_on_School_Education.p df • http://facultycourse.insead.edu/dutt/emdc/projects/EMDC%2 0Projects%28MarApr07%29/EMDC_Education%20Vouchers.pdf • http://www.accountabilityindia.in/