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Instructions concerning a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing
his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull.
Examination: If thou examinest a man having a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to
the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull, thou shouldst palpate
his wound. Shouldst thou find that smash which is in his skull like those corrugations which
form in molten copper, and something therein throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers,
like the weak place of an infant's crown before it becomes whole-when it has happened there
is no throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers until the brain of his (the patient's) skull is
rent open- and he discharges blood from both his nostrils, and he suffers with stiffness in his
Diagnosis: Thou shouldst say concerning him: "An ailment not to be treated."
Treatment: Thou shouldst anoint that wound with grease. Thou shalt not bind it; thou shalt
not apply two strips upon it: until thou knowest that he has reached a decisive point.
Gloss: As for: "Smashing his skull, (and) rending open the brain of his skull," it means the
smash is large, opening to the interior of his skull, to the membrane enveloping his brain, so
that it breaks open his fluid in the interior of his head....
Fourth Century BCE
Based on the teaching of Socrates, the soul has three distinct parts. Each part affects
our behavior in different ways.
Raphael’s The School of Athens
Jan van Noordt’s Hippocrates visiting Democritus in Abdera
Based on observations made by Alcmaeon and
others, the brain is the center of intelligence.
Fourth Century BCE
The heart is the center of intelligence.
The brain cools the blood.
Different parts of the soul can be localized to
different parts of the body. The rational aspect
of the soul is located in the brain.
Second Century CE
The Immortal Soul
The Irascible Soul
The Appetitive Soul
Second Century CE
Fourth Century CE
Different functions can be localized to the different
ventricles of the brain.
From Nemesius’ De Natura Hominis
It may seem strange that, since I have always been opposed to the neuron
theory – although acknowledging that its starting-point is to be found in
my own work – I have chosen this question of the neuron as the subject of
my lecture, and that it comes at a time when this doctrine is generally
recognized to be going out of favour.
The 1906 Nobel Lecture: Golgi vs. Cajal
In accordance with the tradition followed by the illustrious orators
honoured before me with the Nobel Prize, I am going to talk to you about
the principal results of my scientific work in the realm of the histology
and physiology of the nervous system.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Alan Hodgkin & Andrew Huxley
The Giant Squid Axon
Paul Lauterbur (1929-2007)
-Developed first MRI in Stony Brook NY.
Peter Mansfield (1933-Present)
-Conducted first MRI on human tissue.
Seigi Ogawa (1934-Present)
-Developed methods for measuring BOLD
signal to study brain activity.