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Sci10 tg u1

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Sci10 tg u1

  1. 1. D EPED C O PY 10 Science Department of Education Republic of the Philippines This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations. Teacher’s Guide Unit 1 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015. VISIT DEPED TAMBAYAN http://richardrrr.blogspot.com/ 1. Center of top breaking headlines and current events related to Department of Education. 2. Offers free K-12 Materials you can use and share.
  2. 2. D EPED C O PY ii Science – Grade 10 Teacher’s Guide First Edition 2015 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Teacher’s Guide. Those who have not entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and authors directly. Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02) 439-2204, respectively. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD Printed in the Philippines by: REX Book Store, Inc. Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Building, DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072 E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com Development Team of the Teacher’s Guide Authors: Herma D. Acosta, Liza A. Alvarez, Dave G. Angeles, Ruby D. Arre, Ma. Pilar P. Carmona, Aurelia S. Garcia, Arlen Gatpo, Judith F. Marcaida, Ma. Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic S. Rosales and Nilo G. Salazar. Reviewers: Eligio C. Obille Jr., Marlene Ferido, Ma. Helen DH Catalan, Vic Marie Camacho, Lilia M. Rabago and Cerilina M. Maramag Illustrators: Joseph V. Bales, Ramon C. Gatpo, Regaele A. Olarte, Marivic S. Rosales, Ruel C. Quindoy, Antonio I. Basilla, and Jose Leo Vic O. Albaño DepEd Specialists: Joseph R. Jacob and Maria Amparo R. Ventura Photo Credits: Herma D. Acosta, Dave G. Angeles, Liza A. Alvarez, Ruby D. Arre, Aurelia S. Garcia, Judith F. Marcaida, Regaele A. Olarte, Jane Chavarria and Nilo G. Salazar, Layout Artists: Joselito B. Asi and John Ralph G. Sotto All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  3. 3. D EPED C O PY TABLE OF CONTENTS Unit 1: Earth and Space Introduction .............................................................................................2 Module 1: Plate Tectonics........................................................................3 Overview .......................................................................................... 3 Pre-Assessment ...............................................................................4 What is Plate Tectonics?....................................................................6 Activity 1. Find the Center...........................................................7 Activity 2. Let’s Mark the Boundaries........................................10 Activity 3. Head-On Collision.....................................................12 Part A. Converging Continental Plant and Oceanic Plate...14 Part B. Convergence of Two Oceanic Plates......................14 Part C. Two Continental Plates Converging.....................................15 Activity 4. Going Separate Ways...............................................16 Activity 5. Slide and Shake........................................................18 Activity 6. Drop it Like It’s “Hot Spot”.........................................19 Performance Task............................................................................20 Summary/Synthesis/Feedback.........................................................22 Glossary of Terms.............................................................................24 References and Links.......................................................................26 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  4. 4. D EPED C O PY Module 2. The Earth’s Interior...............................................................27 Overview...........................................................................................27 Answers to Pre-assessment............................................................29 Studying the Earth’s Interior.............................................................32 Activity 1. Amazing Waves!........................................................33 The Composition of the Earth’s Interior............................................34 Activity 2. Our Dynamic Earth...................................................36 The Earth’s Mechanism....................................................................37 Activity 3. Let’s Fit it!.................................................................38 Activity 4. Drifted Supercontinent!.............................................38 Activity 5. Split and Separate!....................................................40 Activity 6. How fast does it go?.................................................41 Plate Tectonic Theory Activity 7. Push me up and aside..............................................42 Performance Task............................................................................43 Summary/Synthesis/Feedback........................................................43 Summative Assessment...................................................................46 Glossary of Terms.............................................................................50 References and links........................................................................51 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  5. 5. D EPED C O PY RepublicofthePhilippines DepartmentofEducation DepEdComplex,MeralcoAvenue PasigCity December2013 Kto12CurriculumGuide SCIENCE (Grade10) All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  6. 6. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK Scienceeducationaimstodevelopscientificliteracyamonglearnersthatwillpreparethemtobeinformedandparticipativecitizenswhoareabletomakejudgments anddecisionsregardingapplicationsofscientificknowledgethatmayhavesocial,health,orenvironmentalimpacts. Thesciencecurriculumrecognizestheplaceofscienceandtechnologyineverydayhumanaffairs.Itintegratesscienceandtechnologyinthesocial,economic, personalandethicalaspectsoflife.Thesciencecurriculumpromotesastronglinkbetweenscienceandtechnology,includingindigenoustechnology,thuspreservingour country’sculturalheritage. TheKto12sciencecurriculumwillprovidelearnerswitharepertoireofcompetenciesimportantintheworldofworkandinaknowledge-basedsociety.Itenvisions thedevelopmentofscientifically,technologically,andenvironmentallyliterateandproductivemembersofsocietywhoarecriticalproblemsolvers,responsiblestewardsof nature,innovativeandcreativecitizens,informeddecisionmakers,andeffectivecommunicators.Thiscurriculumisdesignedaroundthethreedomainsoflearningscience: understandingandapplyingscientificknowledgeinlocalsettingaswellasglobalcontextwheneverpossible,performingscientificprocessesandskills,anddevelopingand demonstratingscientificattitudesandvalues.Theacquisitionofthesedomainsisfacilitatedusingthefollowingapproaches:multi/interdisciplinaryapproach,science- technology-societyapproach,contextuallearning,problem/issue-basedlearning,andinquiry-basedapproach.Theapproachesarebasedonsoundeducationalpedagogy namely,constructivism,socialcognitionlearningmodel,learningstyletheory,andbrain-basedlearning. SciencecontentandscienceprocessesareintertwinedintheKto12Curriculum.Withoutthecontent,learnerswillhavedifficultyutilizingscienceprocessskillssince theseprocessesarebestlearnedincontext.Organizingthecurriculumaroundsituationsandproblemsthatchallengeandarouselearners’curiositymotivatesthemtolearn andappreciatescienceasrelevantanduseful.Ratherthanrelyingsolelyontextbooks,variedhands-on,minds-on,andhearts-onactivitieswillbeusedtodeveloplearners’ interestandletthembecomeactivelearners. Asawhole,theKto12sciencecurriculumislearner-centeredandinquiry-based,emphasizingtheuseofevidenceinconstructingexplanations.Conceptsandskillsin LifeSciences,Physics,Chemistry,andEarthSciencesarepresentedwithincreasinglevelsofcomplexityfromonegradeleveltoanotherinspiralprogression,thuspavingthe waytoadeeperunderstandingofcoreconcepts.Theintegrationacrosssciencetopicsandotherdisciplineswillleadtoameaningfulunderstandingofconceptsandits applicationtoreal-lifesituations. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  7. 7. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM TheConceptualFrameworkofScienceEducation Developingand DemonstratingScientific AttitudesandValues Brain-based learning Scientific,Technologicaland EnvironmentalLiteracy All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  8. 8. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CORELEARNINGAREASTANDARD:(SCIENCEFORTHEENTIREKTO12) Thelearnersdemonstrateunderstandingofbasicscienceconceptsandapplicationofscience-inquiryskills.Theyexhibitscientificattitudesandvaluestosolve problemscritically,innovatebeneficialproducts,protecttheenvironmentandconserveresources,enhancetheintegrityandwellnessofpeople,makeinformed decisions,andengageindiscussionsofrelevantissuesthatinvolvescience,technology,andenvironment. KEYSTAGESTANDARDS:(STANDARDSFORSCIENCELEARNINGAREASFORK-3,4-6,7-10AND11-2) K–34–67–1011-12 AttheendofGrade3,the learnersshouldhaveacquired healthfulhabitsand havedevelopedcuriosityabout selfandtheirenvironment usingbasicprocessskillsof observing,communicating, comparing,classifying, measuring,inferringand predicting.Thiscuriositywill helplearnersvaluescienceas animportanttoolinhelping themcontinuetoexploretheir naturalandphysical environment.Thisshouldalso includedevelopingscientific knowledgeorconcepts. AttheendofGrade6,thelearners shouldhavedevelopedtheessential skillsofscientificinquiry–designing simpleinvestigations,usingappropriate procedure,materialsandtoolstogather evidence,observingpatterns, determiningrelationships,drawing conclusionsbasedonevidence,and communicatingideasinvariedwaysto makemeaningoftheobservations and/orchangesthatoccurinthe environment.Thecontentandskills learnedwillbeappliedtomaintaingood health,ensuretheprotectionand improvementoftheenvironment,and practicesafetymeasures. AttheendofGrade10,thelearnersshould havedevelopedscientific,technological,and environmentalliteracyandcanmakethat wouldleadtorationalchoicesonissues confrontingthem.Havingbeenexposedto scientificinvestigationsrelatedtoreallife, theyshouldrecognizethatthecentralfeature ofaninvestigationisthatifonevariableis changed(whilecontrollingallothers),the effectofthechangeonanothervariablecan bemeasured.Thecontextoftheinvestigation canbeproblemsatthelocalornationallevel toallowthemtocommunicatewithlearners inotherpartsofthePhilippinesorevenfrom othercountriesusingappropriatetechnology. Thelearnersshoulddemonstratean understandingofscienceconceptsandapply scienceinquiryskillsinaddressingreal-world problemsthroughscientificinvestigations. AttheendofGrade12,thelearners shouldhavegainedskillsinobtaining scientificandtechnologicalinformation fromvariedsourcesaboutglobal issuesthathaveimpactonthe country.Theyshouldhaveacquired scientificattitudesthatwillallowthem toinnovateand/orcreateproducts usefultothecommunityorcountry. Theyshouldbeabletoprocess informationtogetrelevantdatafora problemathand.Inaddition,learners shouldhavemadeplansrelatedto theirinterestsandexpertise,with considerationfortheneedsoftheir communityandthecountry—to pursueeitheremployment, entrepreneurship,orhighereducation. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  9. 9. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Kindergarten Thelearnerswilldemonstrateanemergingunderstandingofthepartsoftheirbodyandtheirgeneralfunctions;plants,animalsandvaried materialsintheirenvironmentandtheirobservablecharacteristics;generalweatherconditionsandhowtheseinfluencewhattheywear;and otherthingsintheirenvironment.Understandingoftheirbodiesandwhatisaroundthemisacquiredthroughexploration,questioning,and carefulobservationastheyinferpatterns,similarities,anddifferencesthatwillallowthemtomakesoundconclusions. Grade1 AttheendofGrade1,learnerswillusetheirsensestolocateanddescribetheexternalpartsoftheirbody;toidentify,externalpartsofanimals andplants;totelltheshape,color,texture,taste,andsizeofthingsaroundthem;todescribesimilaritiesanddifferencesgiventwoobjects;to differentiatesoundsproducedbyanimals,vehiclescars,andmusicalinstruments;toillustratehowthingsmove;to,describetheweatherand whattodoindifferentsituations;touseappropriatetermsorvocabularytodescribethesefeatures;tocollect,sort,count,draw,takethings apart,ormakesomethingoutofthethings;topracticehealthyhabits(e.g.,washinghandsproperly,choosingnutritiousfood)andsafety measures(e.g.,helpingtocleanorpackawaytoys,askingquestionsandgivingsimpleanswers/descriptionstoprobingquestions). Grade2 AttheendofGrade2,learnerswillusetheirsensestoexploreanddescribethefunctionsoftheirsenses,comparetwoormoreobjectsand usingtwoormoreproperties,sortthingsindifferentwaysandgiveareasonfordoingso,describethekindofweatherorcertaineventsinthe homeorschoolandexpresshowtheseareaffectingthem,dosimplemeasurementsoflength,tellwhysomethingsaroundthemareimportant, decideifwhattheydoissafeordangerous;givesuggestionsonhowtopreventaccidentsathome,practiceelectricity,water,andpaper conservation,helptakecareofpetsorofplants,andtellshortstoriesaboutwhattheydo,whattheyhaveseen,orwhattheyfeel. Grade3 AttheendofGrade3,learnerscandescribethefunctionsofthedifferentpartsofthebodyandthingsthatmakeuptheirsurroundings---rocks andsoil,plantsandanimals,theSun,Moonandstars.Theycanalsoclassifythesethingsassolid,liquidorgas.Theycandescribehowobjects moveandwhatmakesthemmove.Theycanalsoidentifysourcesanddescribeusesoflight,heat,sound,andelectricity. Learnerscandescribechangesintheconditionsoftheirsurroundings.Thesewouldleadlearnerstobecomemorecuriousabouttheir surroundings,appreciatenature,andpracticehealthandsafetymeasures. Grade4 AttheendofGrade4,learnerscaninvestigatechangesinsomeobservablepropertiesofmaterialswhenmixedwithothermaterialsorwhen forceisappliedonthem.Theycanidentifymaterialsthatdonotdecayandusethisknowledgetohelpminimizewasteathome,school,andin thecommunity. Learnerscandescribethefunctionsofthedifferentinternalpartsofthebodyinordertopracticewaystomaintaingoodhealth.Theycanclassify plantsandanimalsaccordingtowheretheyliveandobserveinteractionsamonglivingthingsandtheirenvironment.Theycaninferthatplants andanimalshavetraitsthathelpthemsurviveintheirenvironment. Learnerscaninvestigatetheeffectsofpushorpullonthesize,shape,andmovementofanobject. Learnerscaninvestigatewhichtypeofsoilisbestforcertainplantsandinfertheimportanceofwaterindailyactivities.Theylearnedaboutwhat makesupweatherandapplytheirknowledgeofweatherconditionsinmakingdecisionsfortheday.TheycaninfertheimportanceoftheSunto lifeonEarth. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  10. 10. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade5 AttheendofGrade5,learnerscandecidewhethermaterialsaresafeandusefulbyinvestigatingaboutsomeoftheirproperties.Theycaninfer thatnewmaterialsmayformwhentherearechangesinpropertiesduetocertainconditions. Learnershavedevelopedhealthfulandhygienicpracticesrelatedtothereproductivesystemafterdescribingchangesthataccompanypuberty. Theycancomparedifferentmodesofreproductionamongplantandanimalgroupsandconductaninvestigationonpollination.Theyhave becomeawareoftheimportanceofestuariesandintertidalzonesandhelpintheirpreservation. Learnerscandescribethemovementofobjectsintermsofdistanceandtimetravelled.Learnersrecognizethatdifferentmaterialsreact differentlywithheat,light,andsound.Theycanrelatetheseabilitiesofmaterialstotheirspecificuses. Learnerscandescribethechangesthatearthmaterialsundergo.Theycanmakeemergencyplanswiththeirfamiliesinpreparationfortyphoons. TheycanobservepatternsinthenaturaleventsbyobservingtheappearanceoftheMoon. Grade6 AttheendofGrade6,learnersrecognizethatwhenmixedtogether,materialsmaynotformnewonesthusthesematerialsmayberecovered usingdifferentseparationtechniques.Theycanprepareusefulmixturessuchasfood,drinksandherbalmedicines. Learnersunderstandhowthedifferentorgansystemsofthehumanbodyworktogether.Theycanclassifyplantsbasedonreproductive structures,andanimalsbasedonthepresenceorlackofbackbone.Theycandesignandconductaninvestigationonplantpropagation.They candescribelargerecosystemssuchasrainforests,coralreefs,andmangroveswamps. Learnerscaninferthatfrictionandgravityaffecthowpeopleandobjectsmove.Theyhavefoundoutthatheat,light,sound,electricity,and motionstudiedearlierareformsofenergyandtheseundergotransformation. Learnerscandescribewhathappensduringearthquakesandvolcaniceruptionsanddemonstratewhattodowhentheyoccur.Theycaninfer thattheweatherfollowsapatterninthecourseofayear.Theyhavelearnedaboutthesolarsystem,withemphasisonthemotionsoftheEarth asprerequisitetothestudyofseasonsinanothergradelevel. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  11. 11. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade7 AttheendofGrade7,learnerscandistinguishmixturesfromsubstancesthroughsemi-guidedinvestigations.Theyrealizetheimportanceofair testingwhenconductinginvestigations.Afterstudyinghoworgansystemsworktogetherinplantsandanimalsinthelowergradelevels,learners canuseamicroscopewhenobservingverysmallorganismsandstructures.Theyrecognizethatlivingthingsareorganizedintodifferentlevels: Cells,tissues,organs,organsystems,andorganisms.Theseorganismscomprisepopulationsandcommunities,whichinteractwithnon-living thingsinecosystems. Learnerscandescribethemotionofobjectsintermsofdistanceandspeed,andrepresentthisintables,graphs,charts,andequations.Theycan describehowvariousformsofenergytravelthroughdifferentmediums. LearnersdescribewhatmakesupthePhilippinesasawholeandtheresourcesfoundinthearchipelago.Theycanexplaintheoccurrenceof breezes,monsoons,andITCZ,andhowtheseweathersystemsaffectpeople.Theycanexplainwhyseasonschangeanddemonstratehow eclipsesoccur. Grade8 AttheendofGrade8,learnerscandescribethefactorsthataffectthemotionofanobjectbasedontheLawsofMotion.Theycandifferentiate theconceptofworkasusedinscienceandinlayman’slanguage.Theyknowthefactorsthataffectthetransferofenergy,suchastemperature difference,andthetype(solid,liquid,orgas)ofthemedium. Learnerscanexplainhowactivefaultsgenerateearthquakesandhowtropicalcyclonesoriginatefromwarmoceanwaters.Theyrecognizeother membersofthesolarsystem. Learnerscanexplainthebehaviourofmatterintermsoftheparticlesitismadeof.Theyrecognizethatingredientsinfoodandmedicalproducts aremadeupoftheseparticlesandareabsorbedbythebodyintheformofions. Learnersrecognizereproductionasaprocessofcelldivisionresultingingrowthoforganisms.Theyhavedelveddeeperintotheprocessof digestionasstudiedinthelowergrades,givingemphasisonpropernutritionforoverallwellness.Theycanparticipateinactivitiesthatprotect andconserveeconomicallyimportantspeciesusedforfood. Grade9 AttheendofGrade9,learnershavegainedaadeeperunderstandingofthedigestive,respiratory,andcirculatorysystemstopromoteoverall health.Theyhavebecomefamiliarwithsometechnologiesthatintroducedesiredtraitsineconomicallyimportantplantsandanimals.Learners canexplainhownewmaterialsareformedwhenatomsarerearranged.Theyrecognizethatawidevarietyofusefulcompoundsmayarisefrom suchrearrangements. Learnerscanidentifyvolcanoesanddistinguishbetweenactiveandinactiveones.Theycanexplainhowenergyfromvolcanoesmaybetapped forhumanuse.Theyarefamiliarwithclimaticphenomenathatoccuronaglobalscale.Theycanexplainwhycertainconstellationscanbeseen onlyatcertaintimesoftheyear. Learnerscanpredicttheoutcomesofinteractionsamongobjectsinreallifeapplyingthelawsofconservationofenergyandmomentum. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  12. 12. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE/LEVELGrade-LevelStandards Grade10 AttheendofGrade10,learnersrealizethatvolcanoesandearthquakesoccurinthesameplacesintheworldandthatthesearerelatedtoplate boundaries.Theycandemonstratewaystoensuresafetyandreducedamageduringearthquakes,tsunamis,andvolcaniceruptions.Learners canexplainthefactorsaffectingthebalanceandstabilityofanobjecttohelpthempracticeappropriatepositionsandmovementstoachieve efficiencyandsafetysuchasinsportsanddancing.Theycananalyzesituationsinwhichenergyisharnessedforhumanusewherebyheatis released,affectingthephysicalandbiologicalcomponentsoftheenvironment.Learnerswillhavecompletedthestudyoftheentireorganism withtheirdeeperstudyoftheexcretoryandreproductivesystems.Theycanexplainingreaterdetailhowgeneticinformationispassedfrom parentstooffspring,andhowdiversityofspeciesincreasestheprobabilityofadaptationandsurvivalinchangingenvironments.Learnerscan explaintheimportanceofcontrollingtheconditionsunderwhichachemicalreactionoccurs.Theyrecognizethatcellsandtissuesofthehuman bodyaremadeupofwater,afewkindsofions,andbiomolecules.Thesebiomoleculesmayalsobefoundinthefoodtheyeat. SEQUENCEOFDOMAIN/STRANDSPERQUARTER G3G4G5G6G7G8G9G10 1stQuarterMatterMatterMatterMatterMatter Force,Motion,& Energy LivingThings andTheir Environment Earth&Space 2ndQuarter LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment LivingThings andTheir Environment Earth&SpaceMatter Force,Motion,& Energy 3rdQuarter Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy Force,Motion,& Energy MatterEarth&Space LivingThings andTheir Environment 4thQuarterEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&SpaceEarth&Space LivingThings andTheir Environment Force,Motion,& Energy Matter All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  13. 13. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM SPIRALLINGOFCONCEPTSGRADE3–GRADE10 MATTER Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 PROPERTIESOFMATTER Whenlearnersobservedifferentobjects andmaterials,theybecomeawareof theirdifferentcharacteristicssuchas shape,weight,definitenessofvolume andeaseofflow.Usingcharacteristics, objectsandmaterialscanbegrouped intosolids,liquidsorgases. Asidefrombeinggroupedinto solids,liquids,orgases,materials mayalsobegroupedaccordingto theirabilitytoabsorbwater, abilitytofloatorsink,and whethertheydecayornot Afterlearninghowtoreadandinterpret productlabels,learnerscancriticallydecide whetherthesematerialsareharmfulornot. Theycanalsodescribewaysinwhichthey canusetheirknowledgeofsolidsand liquidsinmakingusefulmaterialsand products. InGrade4,thelearnershaveobservedthe changeswhenmixingasolidinaliquidora liquidinanotherliquid. Fromtheseinvestigations,learnerscannow describetheappearanceofmixturesas uniformornon-uniformandclassifythemas homogeneousorheterogeneousmixtures. CHANGESTHATMATTERUNDERGO Usingthecharacteristicsobserved amongsolids,liquids,andgases, learnersinvestigatewaysinwhichsolid turnsintoliquid,solidintogas,liquid intogas,andliquidintosolid,as affectedbytemperature. Changesinsomecharacteristics ofsolidmaterialscanbeobserved whenthesearebent,hammered, pressed,andcut. Afterinvestigatingthechangesin someobservablecharacteristics ofmaterialsduetotemperature inGrade3,learnerscannow inquireaboutchangesobserved whenasolidismixedwitha liquidorwhenaliquidismixed withanotherliquid. Learnerslearnthatsomechanges inthecharacteristicsofaproduct suchasfoodormedicinemay affectitsquality.Onewayof findingoutisbyreadingand interpretingproductlabels.This informationhelpsthemdecide whentheseproductsbecome harmful. InGrade4,learnersinvestigatedchangesin materialsthattakeplaceatcertain conditions,suchasapplyingforce,mixing materials,andchangingthetemperature.In Grade5,theyinvestigatechangesthattake placeunderthefollowingconditions: presenceorlackofoxygen(inair),and applyingheat.Theylearnthatsomeof theseconditionscanresultinanew product.Knowingtheseconditionsenable themtoapplythe“5Rmethod”(recycling, reducing,reusing,recoveringandrepairing) athomeandinschool. Basedonthecharacteristicsofthecomponents ofaheterogeneousmixture,learners investigatewaysofseparatingthese componentsfromthemixture.Theywillinfer thatthecharacteristicsofeachofthe componentsremainthesameevenwhenthe componentispartofthemixture. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  14. 14. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 PROPERTIESANDSTRUCTUREOFMATTER InGrade6,learnerslearnedhowto distinguishhomogenousfrom heterogeneousmixtures.InGrade7, learnersinvestigatepropertiesof solutionsthatarehomogeneous mixtures.Theylearnhowtoexpress concentrationsofsolutions qualitativelyandquantitatively.They distinguishmixturesfromsubstances basedonasetofproperties. Learnersbegintodoguidedand semi-guidedinvestigations,making surethattheexperimenttheyare conductingisafairtest. Usingmodels,learnerslearnthatmatteris madeupofparticles,thesmallestofwhich istheatom.Theseparticlesaretoosmallto beseenthroughamicroscope.The propertiesofmaterialsthattheyhave observedinearliergradescannowbe explainedbythetypeofparticlesinvolved andtheattractionbetweentheseparticles. Usingtheirunderstandingofatomic structurelearnedinGrade8,learners describehowatomscanformunits calledmolecules.Theyalsolearnabout ions.Further,theyexplainhowatoms formbonds(ionicandcovalent)with otheratomsbythetransferorsharing ofelectrons. Theyalsolearnthattheforcesholding metalstogetherarecausedbythe attractionbetweenflowingelectrons andthepositivelychargedmetalions. Learnersexplainhowcovalentbonding incarbonformsawidevarietyof carboncompounds. Recognizingthatmatterconsistsofan extremelylargenumberofverysmall particles,countingtheseparticlesis notpractical.So,learnersare introducedtotheunit—mole. Learnersinvestigatehowgasesbehavein differentconditionsbasedontheir knowledgeofthemotionofanddistances betweengasparticles.Learnersthen confirmwhethertheirexplanationsare consistentwiththeKineticMolecular Theory.Theyalsolearntherelationships betweenvolume,temperature,and pressureusingestablishedgaslaws. InGrade9,learnerslearnedthatthe bondingcharacteristicsofcarbonresultin theformationoflargevarietyof compounds.InGrade10,theylearnmore aboutthesecompoundsthatinclude biomoleculessuchascarbohydrates,lipids, proteins,andnucleicacids.Further,they willrecognizethatthestructureofthese compoundscomprisesrepeatingunitsthat aremadeupofalimitednumberof elementssuchascarbon,hydrogen, oxygen,andnitrogen. CHANGESTHATMATTERUNDERGO Learnersrecognizethatmaterials combineinvariouswaysandthrough differentprocesses,contributingto thewidevarietyofmaterials.Given thisdiversity,theyrecognizethe importanceofaclassificationsystem. Theybecomefamiliarwithelements andcompounds,metalsandnon- metals,andacidsandbases. Further,learnersdemonstratethat homogeneousmixturescanbe separatedusingvarioustechniques. Learnerslearnthatparticlesarealwaysin motion.Theycannowexplainthatthe changesfromsolidtoliquid,solidtogas, liquidtosolid,andliquidtogas,involve changesinthemotionofandrelative distancesbetweentheparticles,aswellas theattractionbetweenthem. Theyalsorecognizethatthesameparticles areinvolvedwhenthesechangesoccur.In effect,nonewsubstancesareformed. Learnersexplainhownewcompounds areformedintermsofthe rearrangementofparticles.Theyalso recognizethatawidevarietyofuseful compoundsmayarisefromsuch rearrangements. InGrade9,learnersdescribedhowparticles rearrangetoformnewsubstances.In Grade10,theylearnthatthe rearrangementofparticleshappenwhen substancesundergochemicalreaction.They furtherexplainthatwhenthis rearrangementhappens,thetotalnumber ofatomsandtotalmassofnewlyformed substancesremainthesame.Thisisthe LawofConservationofMass.Applyingthis law,learnerslearntobalancechemical equationsandsolvesimplemole-mole, mole-mass,andmass-massproblems. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  15. 15. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM LIVINGTHINGSANDTHEIRENVIRONMENT Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 PARTSANDFUNCTIONOFANIMALSANDPLANTS InGrade3,learnersobserveand describethedifferentpartsofliving thingsfocusingonthesenseorgans ofhumansandthemorefamiliar externalpartsofanimalsandplants. Theyalsoexploreanddescribe characteristicsoflivingthingsthat distinguishthemfromnon-living things. InGrade4,thelearnersareintroducedto themajororgansofthehumanbody. Theyalsolearnaboutsomepartsthathelp plantsandanimalssurviveinplaceswhere theylive. AfterlearninginGrade4howthemajor organsofthehumanbodywork together,thelearnersnowfocusonthe organsofthereproductivesystemsof humans,animals,andplants. InGrade6,learnersdescribethe interactionsamongpartsofthemajor organsofthehumanbody. Theyalsolearnhowvertebratesand invertebratesdifferandhownon- floweringplantsreproduce, HEREDITY:INHERITANCEANDVARIATION Learnerslearnthatlivingthings reproduceandcertaintraitsare passedontotheiroffspring/s. Learnerslearnthathumans,animals,and plantsgothroughlifecycles.Some inheritedtraitsmaybeaffectedbythe environmentatcertainstagesintheirlife cycles. Learnerslearnhowfloweringplantsand somenon-floweringplantsreproduce. Theyarealsointroducedtothesexual andasexualmodesofreproduction. Learnerslearnhownon-floweringplants (spore-bearingandcone-bearingplants, ferns,andmosses)reproduce. BIODIVERSITYANDEVOLUTION Differentkindsoflivingthingsare foundindifferentplaces. Learnersinvestigatethatanimalsandplants liveinspecifichabitats. Learnerslearnthatreproductive structuresserveasoneofthebasesfor classifyinglivingthings. Theylearnthatplantsandanimalsshare commoncharacteristicswhichserveas basesfortheirclassification. ECOSYSTEMS Learnerslearnthatlivingthings dependontheirenvironmentforfood, air,andwatertosurvive. Learnerslearnthattherearebeneficialand harmfulinteractionsthatoccuramongliving thingsandtheirenvironmentastheyobtain theirbasicneeds. Learnersareintroducedtothe interactionsamongcomponentsof largerhabitatssuchasestuariesand intertidalzones,aswellasthe conditionsthatenablecertain organismstolive. Learnersareintroducedtothe interactionsamongcomponentsof habitatssuchastropicalrainforests, coralreefs,andmangroveswamps. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  16. 16. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 PARTSANDFUNCTION:ANIMALANDPLANTS InGrade7,learnersareintroduced tothelevelsoforganizationinthe humanbodyandotherorganisms. Theylearnthatorganismsconsistof cells,mostofwhicharegroupedinto organsystemsthatperform specializedfunctions. InGrade8,learnersgainknowledgeof howthebodybreaksdownfoodintoforms thatcanbeabsorbedthroughthedigestive systemandtransportedtocells. Learnerslearnthatgasesareexchanged throughtherespiratorysystem.This providestheoxygenneededbycellsto releasetheenergystoredinfood. Theyalsolearnthatdissolvedwastesare removedthroughtheurinarysystemwhile solidwastesareeliminatedthroughthe excretorysystem. Learnersstudythecoordinated functionsofthedigestive,respiratory, andcirculatorysystems. Theyalsolearnthatnutrientsenterthe bloodstreamandcombinewithoxygen takeninthroughtherespiratory system.Together,theyaretransported tothecellswhereoxygenisusedto releasethestoredenergy. Learnerslearnthatorganismshave feedbackmechanismsthatare coordinatedbythenervousand endocrinesystems.Thesemechanisms helptheorganismsmaintain homeostasistoreproduceandsurvive. HEREDITY:INHERITANCEANDVARIATION Afterlearninghowfloweringandnon floweringplantsreproduce,Grade7 learnersaretaughtthatasexual reproductionresultsingenetically identicaloffspringwhereassexual reproductiongivesrisetovariation. Learnersstudytheprocessofcelldivision bymitosisandmeiosis.Theyunderstand thatmeiosisisanearlystepinsexual reproductionthatleadstovariation. Learnersstudythestructureofgenes andchromosomes,andthefunctions theyperforminthetransmissionof traitsfromparentstooffspring. Learnersareintroducedtothestructure oftheDNAmoleculeanditsfunction. Theyalsolearnthatchangesthattake placeinsexcellsareinheritedwhile changesinbodycellsarenotpassedon. BIODIVERSITYANDEVOLUTION Learnerslearnthatthecellsinsimilar tissuesandorgansinotheranimals aresimilartothoseinhumanbeings butdiffersomewhatfromcellsfound inplants. Learnerslearnthatspeciesreferstoa groupoforganismsthatcanmatewithone anothertoproducefertileoffspring.They learnthatbiodiversityisthecollective varietyofspecieslivinginanecosystem. Thisservesasanintroductiontothetopic onhierarchicaltaxonomicsystem. Learnerslearnthatmostspeciesthat haveonceexistedarenowextinct. Speciesbecomeextinctwhentheyfailto adapttochangesintheenvironment. Learnersrevisitthemechanismsinvolved intheinheritanceoftraitsandthe changesthatresultfromthese mechanisms.Learnersexplainhow naturalselectionhasproduceda successionofdiversenewspecies. Variationincreasesthechanceofliving thingstosurviveinachanging environment. ECOSYSTEMS Learnerslearnthatinteractionsoccur amongthedifferentlevelsof organizationinecosystems. Learnerslearnhowenergyistransformed andhowmaterialsarecycledin ecosystems. Learnerslearnhowplantscapture energyfromtheSunandstoreenergyin sugarmolecules(photosynthesis).This Learnersinvestigatetheimpactofhuman activitiesandotherorganismson ecosystems. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  17. 17. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 Organismsofthesamekindinteract witheachothertoformpopulations; populationsinteractwithother populationstoformcommunities. storedenergyisusedbycellsduring cellularrespiration.Thesetwoprocesses arerelatedtoeachother. Theylearnhowbiodiversityinfluencesthe stabilityofecosystems. FORCE,MOTIONANDENERGY Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 FORCEANDMOTION Learnersobserveandexploreand investigatehowthingsaroundthem moveandcanbemoved.Theyalso identifythingsintheirenvironment thatcancausechangesinthe movementofobjects. Learnersnowlearnthatifforceisapplied onanobject,itsmotion,size,orshape canbechanged.Theywillfurther understandthatthesechangesdepend ontheamountofforceappliedonit (qualitative).Theyalsolearnthat magnetscanexertforceonsomeobjects andmaycausechangesintheir movements. Thistime,learnersbegintoaccurately measuretheamountofchangeinthe movementofanobjectintermsofits distancetravelledandtimeoftravel usingappropriatetools. Asidefromtheidentifiedcausesof motioninGrade3,suchaspeople, animals,wind,andwater,learners alsolearnaboutgravityandfrictionas othercausesorfactorsthataffectthe movementofobjects. ENERGY Learnersobserveandidentifydifferent sourcesoflight,heat,sound,and electricityintheirenvironmentand theirusesineverydaylife. Learnerslearnthatlight,heat,andsound travelfromthesource.Theyperform simpleactivitiesthatdemonstratehow theytravelusingvariousobjects. Note:ElectricityisnotincludedinGrade 4becausetheconceptof‘flowof charges’isdifficulttounderstandatthis gradelevel. Thistime,learnersexplorehowdifferent objectsinteractwithlight,heat,sound, andelectricity(e.g.,identifyingpoorand goodconductorsofelectricityusing simplecircuits). Theylearnabouttherelationship betweenelectricityandmagnetismby constructinganelectromagnet. Theyalsolearnabouttheeffectsoflight, heat,sound,andelectricityonpeople. Atthisgradelevel,learnersare introducedtotheconceptofenergy. Theylearnthatenergyexistsin differentforms,suchaslight,heat, soundandelectricity,anditcanbe transformedfromoneformto another.Theydemonstratehow energyistransferredusingsimple machines. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  18. 18. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 FORCEANDMOTION Fromasimpleunderstandingofmotion, learnersstudymorescientificwaysof describing(intermsofdistance,speed, andacceleration)andrepresenting (usingmotiondiagrams,charts,and graphs)themotionofobjectsinone dimension. Thistime,learnersstudytheconceptof forceanditsrelationshiptomotion. TheyuseNewton’sLawsofMotionto explainwhyobjectsmove(ordonot move)thewaytheydo(asdescribedin Grade7).Theyalsorealizethatifforce isappliedonabody,workcanbedone andmaycauseachangeintheenergy ofthebody. Todeepentheirunderstandingofmotion, learnersusetheLawofConservationof Momentumtofurtherexplainthemotion ofobjects. Frommotioninonedimensioninthe previousgrades,theylearnatthislevel aboutmotionintwodimensionsusing projectilemotionasanexample. Fromlearningthebasicsofforcesin Grade8,learnersextendtheir understandingofforcesbydescribing howbalancedandunbalancedforces, eitherbysolidsorliquids,affectthe movement,balance,andstabilityof objects. ENERGY Thistimelearnersrecognizethat differentformsofenergytravelin differentways—lightandsoundtravel throughwaves,heattravelsthrough movingorvibratingparticles,and electricalenergytravelsthroughmoving charges. InGrade5,theylearnedaboutthe differentmodesofheattransfer.This time,theyexplainthesemodesinterms ofthemovementofparticles. Learnersrealizethattransferredenergy maycausechangesinthepropertiesof theobject.Theyrelatetheobservable changesintemperature,amountof current,andspeedofsoundtothe changesinenergyoftheparticles. Learnersexplainhowconservationof mechanicalenergyisappliedinsome structures,suchasrollercoasters,andin naturalenvironmentslikewaterfalls.They furtherdescribethetransformationof energythattakesplaceinhydroelectric powerplants. Learnersalsolearnabouttherelationship betweenheatandwork,andapplythis concepttoexplainhowgeothermalpower plantsoperate. Aftertheyhavelearnedhowelectricityis generatedinpowerplants,learners furtherdeveloptheirunderstandingof transmissionofelectricityfrompower stationstohomes. Learnersacquiremoreknowledgeabout thepropertiesoflightasappliedin opticalinstruments. Learnersalsousetheconceptofmoving chargesandmagneticfieldsinexplaining theprinciplebehindgeneratorsand motors. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  19. 19. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM EARTHANDSPACE Grade3Grade4Grade5Grade6 GEOLOGY Learnerswilldescribewhatmakesup theirenvironment,beginningwith thelandformsandbodiesofwater foundintheircommunity. Afterfamiliarizingthemselveswith thegenerallandscape,learnerswill investigatetwocomponentsofthe physicalenvironmentinmoredetail: soilandwater.Theywillclassifysoils intheircommunityusingsimple criteria.Theywillidentifythe differentsourcesofwaterintheir community.Theywillinferthe importanceofwaterindaily activitiesanddescribewaysofusing waterwisely. Inthisgradelevel,learnerswilllearnthat oursurroundingsdonotstaythesame forever.Forexample,rocksundergo weatheringandsoiliscarriedawayby erosion.Learnerswillinferthatthesurface oftheEarthchangeswiththepassageof time. Learnerswilllearnthatasidefromweathering anderosion,thereareotherprocessesthat mayalterthesurfaceoftheEarth:earthquakes andvolcaniceruptions.Onlytheeffectsof earthquakesandvolcaniceruptionsaretaken upinthisgradelevel,nottheircauses(which willbetackledinGrades8and9).Learners willalsogatherandreportdataonearthquakes andvolcaniceruptionsintheircommunityor region. METEOROLOGY Learnerswilldescribethedifferent typesoflocalweather, Aftermakingsimpledescriptions abouttheweatherintheprevious grade,learnerswillnowmeasurethe componentsofweatherusingsimple instruments.Theywillalsoidentify trendsinasimpleweatherchart. Learnerswilllearnthattheweatherdoes notstaythesamethewholeyearround. Weatherdisturbancessuchastyphoons mayoccur.Learnerswilldescribethe effectsoftyphoonsonthecommunityand thechangesintheweatherbefore,during, andafteratyphoon. Afterlearninghowtomeasurethedifferent componentsofweatherinGrades4and5, learnerswillnowcollectweatherdatawithin thespanoftheschoolyear.Learnerswill interpretthedataandidentifytheweather patternsintheircommunity. ASTRONOMY Learnerswilldescribethenatural objectsthattheyseeinthesky. Afterdescribingthenaturalobjects thatareseeninthesky,learnerswill nowfocusonthemainsourceof heatandlightonEarth:theSun,its roleinplantgrowthand development,anditseffectonthe activitiesofhumansandother animals. AfterlearningabouttheSun,learnerswill nowfamiliarizethemselveswiththeMoon andthestars.Theywilldescribethe changesintheappearanceoftheMoonand discoverthatthechangesarecyclical,and thatthecycleisrelatedtothelengthofa month.Learnerswillidentifystarpatterns thatcanbeseenduringcertaintimesofthe year. InGrade6,learnerswillturntheirattentionto Earthasanothernaturalobjectinspace(in additiontotheSun,Moon,andstars). Learnerswilllearnaboutthemotionsofthe Earth:rotationandrevolution.Learnerswill alsocomparethedifferentmembersthat makeuptheSolarSystemandconstruct modelstohelpthemvisualizetheirrelative sizesanddistances. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  20. 20. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM Grade7Grade8Grade9Grade10 GEOLOGY Learnerswillexploreandlocateplaces usingacoordinatesystem.Theywill discoverthatourcountry’slocation neartheequatorandalongtheRingof Fireinfluenceselementsofup Philippineenvironment(e.g.,natural resourcesandclimate). AsaresultofbeinglocatedalongtheRing ofFire,thePhilippinesisproneto earthquakes.Usingmodels,learnerswill explainhowquakesaregeneratedby faults.Theywilltrytoidentifyfaultsinthe communityanddifferentiateactivefaults frominactiveones. BeinglocatedalongtheRingofFire,the Philippinesishometomanyvolcanoes.Using models,learnerswillexplainwhathappens whenvolcanoeserupt.Theywilldescribethe differenttypesofvolcanoesanddifferentiate activevolcanoesfrominactiveones.They willalsoexplainhowenergyfromvolcanoes maybetappedforhumanuse. Usingmaps,learnerswilldiscover thatvolcanoes,earthquake epicenters,andmountainrangesare notrandomlyscatteredindifferent placesbutarelocatedinthesame areas.Thiswillleadtoan appreciationofplatetectonics—a theorythatbindsmanygeologic processessuchasvolcanismand earthquakes. METEOROLOGY Learnerswillexplaintheoccurrenceof atmosphericphenomena(breezes, monsoons,andITCZ)thatare commonlyexperiencedinthecountry asaresultofthePhilippines’location withrespecttotheequator,and surroundingbodiesofwaterand landmasses. BeinglocatedbesidethePacificOcean,the Philippinesispronetotyphoons.InGrade 5,theeffectsoftyphoonsweretackled. Here,learnerswillexplainhowtyphoons develop,howtyphoonsareaffectedby landformsandbodiesofwater,andwhy typhoonsfollowcertainpathsastheymove withinthePhilippineAreaofResponsibility. Inthisgradelevel,learnerswilldistinguish betweenweatherandclimate.Theywill explainhowdifferentfactorsaffectthe climateofanarea.Theywillalsobe introducedtoclimaticphenomenathatoccur overawidearea(e.g.,ElNiñoandglobal warming). Note:Thetheoryofplatetectonics isthesoletopicinEarthandSpace inGrade10.Thisisbecausethe theorybindsmanyofthetopicsin previousgradelevels,andmore timeisneededtoexplore connectionsanddeepenlearners’ understanding. ASTRONOMY Learnerswillexplaintheoccurrenceof theseasonsandeclipsesasaresultof themotionsoftheEarthandthe Moon.Usingmodels,learnerswill explainthatbecausetheEarthrevolves aroundtheSun,theseasonschange, andbecausetheMoonrevolvesaround theEarth,eclipsessometimesoccur. Learnerswillcompletetheirsurveyofthe SolarSystembydescribingthe characteristicsofasteroids,comets,and othermembersoftheSolarSystem. LearnerswillnowleavetheSolarSystemand learnaboutthestarsbeyond.Theywillinfer thecharacteristicsofstarsbasedonthe characteristicsoftheSun.Usingmodels, learnerswillshowthatconstellationsmovein thecourseofanightbecauseofEarth’s rotation,whiledifferentconstellationsare observedinthecourseofayearbecauseof theEarth’srevolution. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  21. 21. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM GRADE10 CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE Grade10–EarthandSpace FIRSTQUARTER/FIRSTGRADINGPERIOD 1.PlateTectonics 1.1Distribution 1.1.1volcanoes 1.1.2earthquakeepicenters 1.1.3mountainranges 1.2Plateboundaries 1.3Processesandlandformsalong plateboundaries 1.4InternalstructureoftheEarth 1.5Mechanism(possiblecausesof movement) 1.6Evidenceofplatemovement Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: therelationshipamongthe locationsofvolcanoes, earthquakeepicenters,and mountainranges Thelearnersshallbeable to: 1.demonstratewaysto ensuredisaster preparednessduring earthquakes,tsunamis, andvolcaniceruptions 2.suggestwaysbywhich he/shecancontribute togovernmentefforts inreducingdamagedue toearthquakes, tsunamis,andvolcanic eruptions Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.describethedistributionof activevolcanoes,earthquake epicenters,andmajor mountainbelts; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.1 2.describethedifferenttypesof plateboundaries; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.2 3.explainthedifferent processesthatoccuralong theplateboundaries; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.3 4.describetheinternalstructure oftheEarth; S9ES–Ia-j- 36.4 5.describethepossiblecauses ofplatemovement;and S9ES–Ia-j- 36.5 6.enumeratethelinesof evidencethatsupportplate movement S9ES–Ia-j-36.6 Grade10–Force,Motionand,Energy SECONDQUARTER/SECONDGRADINGPERIOD 1.ElectromagneticSpectrum Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: thedifferentregionsofthe electromagneticspectrum Thelearnerss hallbeableto: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.comparetherelative wavelengthsofdifferent formsofelectromagnetic waves; S10FE-IIa-b-47 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  22. 22. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 2.citeexamplesofpractical applicationsofthedifferent regionsofEMwaves,such astheuseofradiowavesin telecommunications; S10FE-IIc-d-48 3.explaintheeffectsofEM radiationonlivingthingsand theenvironment; S10FE-IIe-f-49 2.Light 2.1ReflectionofLightinMirrors 2.2RefractionofLightinLenses theimagesformedbythe differenttypesofmirrors andlenses 4.predictthequalitative characteristics(orientation, type,andmagnification)of imagesformedbyplane andcurvedmirrorsand lenses; S10FE-IIg-50 5.applyraydiagramming techniquesindescribingthe characteristicsandpositions ofimagesformedbylenses; S10FE-IIg-51 6.identifywaysinwhichthe propertiesofmirrorsand lensesdeterminetheirusein opticalinstruments(e.g., camerasandbinoculars); S10FE-IIh-52 3.ElectricityandMagnetism 3.1Electromagneticeffects therelationshipbetween electricityandmagnetismin electricmotorsand generators 7.demonstratethegeneration ofelectricitybymovement ofamagnetthroughacoil; and S10FE-IIi-53 8.explaintheoperationofa simpleelectricmotorand generator. S10FE-IIj-54 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  23. 23. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE Grade10–LivingThingsandTheirEnvironment THIRDQUARTER/THIRDGRADINGPERIOD 1.CoordinatedFunctionsofthe Reproductive,Endocrine,and NervousSystems Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof: 1.organismsashaving feedbackmechanisms, whicharecoordinated bythenervousand endocrinesystems 2.howthesefeedback mechanismshelpthe organismmaintain homeostasisto reproduce Thelearnersshouldbe ableto: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.describethepartsofthe reproductivesystemand theirfunctions; S10LT-IIIa-33 2.explaintheroleofhormones involvedinthefemaleand malereproductivesystems; S10LT-IIIb-34 3.describethefeedback mechanismsinvolvedin regulatingprocessesinthe femalereproductivesystem (e.g.,menstrualcycle); S10LT-IIIc-35 4.describehowthenervous systemcoordinatesand regulatesthesefeedback mechanismstomaintain homeostasis; S10LT-IIIc-36 2.Heredity:Inheritanceand Variation 1.theinformationstoredin DNAasbeingusedto makeproteins 2.howchangesinaDNA moleculemaycause changesinitsproduct 3.mutationsthatoccurin sexcellsasbeing heritable 5.explainhowproteinismade usinginformationfrom DNA; S10LT-IIId-37 6.explainhowmutationsmay causechangesinthe structureandfunctionofa protein; S10LT-IIIe-38 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  24. 24. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 3.BiodiversityandEvolutionhowevolutionthrough naturalselectioncanresult inbiodiversity writeanessayonthe importanceof adaptationasa mechanismforthe survivalofaspecies 7.explainhowfossilrecords, comparativeanatomy,and geneticinformationprovide evidenceforevolution; S10LT-IIIf-39 8.explaintheoccurrenceof evolution; S10LT-IIIg-40 4.Ecosystems 4.1FlowofEnergyandMatterin Ecosystems 4.2BiodiversityandStability 4.3PopulationGrowthand CarryingCapacity 1.theinfluenceof biodiversityonthe stabilityofecosystems 2.anecosystemasbeing capableofsupportinga limitednumberof organisms 9.explainhowspecies diversityincreasesthe probabilityofadaptation andsurvivaloforganismsin changingenvironments; S10LT-IIIh-41 10.explaintherelationship betweenpopulation growthandcarrying capacity;and S10LT-IIIi-42 11.suggestwaystominimize humanimpactonthe environment. S10LT-IIIj-43 Grade10–Matter FOURTHQUARTER/FOURTHGRADINGPERIOD 1.GasLaws 1.1KineticMolecularTheory 1.2Volume,pressure,and temperaturerelationship 1.3Idealgaslaw Thelearnersdemonstrate anunderstandingof… howgasesbehavebased onthemotionandrelative distancesbetweengas particles Thelearnersshallbeable to: Thelearnersshouldbeable to… 1.investigatetherelationship between: 1.1volumeandpressureat constanttemperatureof agas; 1.2volumeandtemperature atconstantpressureofa gas; 1.3explainsthese relationshipsusingthe kineticmoleculartheory; S10MT-IVa-b- 21 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  25. 25. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CONTENTCONTENTSTANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS LEARNINGCOMPETENCYCODE 2.Biomolecules 2.1Elementspresentinbiomolecules 2.2Carbohydrates,lipids,proteins, andnucleicacids 2.2.1FoodLabels thestructureof biomolecules,whichare madeupmostlyofalimited numberofelements,such ascarbon,hydrogen, oxygen,andnitrogen 2.recognizethemajor categoriesofbiomolecules suchascarbohydrates, lipids,proteins,andnucleic acids; S10MT-IVc-d-22 3.Chemicalreactionsthechemicalreactions associatedwithbiological andindustrialprocesses affectinglifeandthe environment usinganyformofmedia, presentchemical reactionsinvolvedin biologicalandindustrial processesaffectinglife andtheenvironment 3.applytheprinciplesof conservationofmassto chemicalreactions;and S10MT-IVe-g- 23 4.explainhowthefactors affectingratesofchemical reactionsareappliedin foodpreservationand materialsproduction, controloffire,pollution, andcorrosion. S10MT-IVh-j-24 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  26. 26. D EPED C O PY Kto12BASICEDUCATIONCURRICULUM CODEBOOKLEGEND Sample:S8ES-IId-19 LEGENDSAMPLE FirstEntry LearningAreaand Strand/Subjector Specialization Science S8 GradeLevelGrade8 UppercaseLetter/s Domain/Content/ Component/Topic EarthandSpaceES - RomanNumeral *Zeroifnospecificquarter QuarterSecondQuarterII LowercaseLetter/s *Putahyphen(-)inbetween letterstoindicatemorethana specificweek WeekWeekfourd - ArabicNumberCompetency InferwhythePhilippines ispronetotyphoons 19 DOMAIN/COMPONENTCODE LivingthingsandtheirEnvironmentLT Force,Motion,andEnergyFE EarthandSpaceES MatterMT All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  27. 27. D EPED C O PY 1 UNIT 1 Earth and Space All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  28. 28. D EPED C O PY 2 Unit 1: Earth and Space Introduction In your Grade 9 Science, part of the lessons was about volcanoes. Learners have learned about the position of the Philippines in the Ring of Fire and its relationship to the presence of active and inactive volcanoes in our country. For this quarter, the topics will focus solely on the theory that explains the existence of volcanoes and other geologic features. The learners will work on two modules to understand this theory better. In the first module, learners will use some of the science skills like graphing, measuring, analyzing and interpreting data, and inferring for them to attain the desired outcomes. What are the outcomes that are expected from the learners? First, learners should identify the types of boundaries created because of lithospheric movements. Secondly, they must relate the movement of Earth’s lithosphere to the occurrence of different geologic changes. Finally, the learners will explain the processes that are taking place along the boundaries. In the second module, learners will perform an activity that will allow them to probe the Earth’s interior by analyzing the behavior of seismic waves (Primary and Secondary waves). Learners will also have an opportunity to simulate one of the properties of the materials present in the mantle. Lastly, included in the module, and the most important part is the series of activities that will give learners an idea about the driving mechanism behind the motion of Earth’s lithosphere. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  29. 29. D EPED C O PY 3 Content Standard Performance Standard The learner demonstrates understanding of the relationship among the locations of volcanoes, earthquake epicenter, and mountain ranges The learners shall be able to demonstrate ways to ensure disaster preparedness during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Overview: In the previous grade level, the students became familiar with the different types of volcanoes. They were also able to determine the factors that give the distinct conical shapes of volcanoes. Lastly, they understood how energy can be harnessed from volcanic activities. In this particular module, the activities included will allow the students to find out what causes volcanism. The learners will also determine the relationship among the locations of volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and mountain ranges. Furthermore, they will have a chance to figure out what causes the formation of different geologic features such as mountain ranges, volcanic arcs, trenches, mid-ocean ridges, and rift valleys. Learning Competencies/Objectives In this Learner’s Material, the learners should be able to: 1. Describe the distribution of active volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and major mountain belts. 2. Describe the different types of plate boundaries. 3. Explain the different processes that occur along the plate boundaries. Unit 1 MODULE 1 Suggested time allotment: 12 to 16 hours Plate Tectonics All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  30. 30. D EPED C O PY 4 Pre-Assessment A. Choose the letter of the best answer. For questions 1 and 2, refer to the figure above: 1. You were provided with data showing the arrival time of the P and S waves recorded from three seismic stations. Which of these can you possibly determine? a. the damage at the focus c. the intensity of the earthquake b. the distance to the earthquake d. the location of the epicenter Answer: d 2. From the seismogram, the distance to the epicenter can be determined by measuring a. the arrival time of surface wave b. the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves c. the ratio of the amplitude of the largest P and S waves d. the speed of the surface wave Answer: b 3. When two tectonic plates collide, the oceanic crust usually subducts beneath the continental crust because it is a. denser than continental crust c. thicker than continental crust b. less dense than continental crust d. thinner than continental crust Answer: a 4. If you will visit a place in the Pacific known to be along converging plates, which of these should you not expect to see? a. active volcanoes c. rift valleys b. mountain ranges d. volcanic islands Answer: c All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  31. 31. D EPED C O PY 5 5. You are an oceanographer and want to map the ocean floor on the east coast of the Philippines. As you do your study, you noticed that there is a portion of the ocean floor which is relatively much deeper than the rest. What most likely is that deeper part? a. linear sea c. rift valley b. oceanic ridge d. trench Answer: d 6. What do you expect to find at a mid-ocean ridge? a. relatively young rocks c. thick accumulation of sediments b. reverse fault d. very ancient rocks Answer: a 7. Crustal Plate A is moving away from Crustal Plate B. What is the expected average rate of change in position between A and B? a. a few centimeters per year c. a few millimeters per century b. a few meters per month d. a few millimeters per day Answer: a 8. Which plate boundary is formed between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate? a. convergent c. reverse fault b. divergent d. transform fault Answer: a 9. Which of these is false true about crustal plates: a. have the same thickness everywhere b. include the crust and upper mantle c. thickest in the mountain region d. vary in thickness Answer: a 10. Which of these is not true about the Philippine Islands? a. Most are part of the Philippine Mobile Belt except for Palawan, Mindoro, and Zamboanga b. formed because of the convergence of the Philippine Plate and the Pacific Plate c. Originated geologically in an oceanic-oceanic convergence d. Some are products of subduction process Answer: b All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  32. 32. D EPED C O PY 6 What is Plate Tectonics? Lithosphere consists of crust and the upper portion of the mantle. Figure 1 in the LM shows two types of crust, the continental crust and the oceanic crust. The continental crust is thicker but less dense than the oceanic crust. Because of the difference in density, continental crust floats higher than the oceanic crust. Figure 1. Kinds of crust The lithosphere is said to be in constant but slow motion. These motions can range widely. The Arctic Ridge has the slowest rate (less than 2.5 cm/yr), and the East Pacific Rise near Easter Island, in the South Pacific about 3,400 km west of Chile, has the fastest rate (more than 15 cm/yr). This movement of the lithosphere is called tectonics. Figure 2 in the LM is a map showing the lithosphere of the Earth divided into segments called plates. But what are the basis of scientists in dividing the lithosphere in such manner? Continental crust Oceanic crust Mantle All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  33. 33. D EPED C O PY 7 Figure 2. Map of plate boundaries http://pubs.usgs.gov The next two activities will answer the question posted in previous page. Activity 1 Find the Center Teaching Tips 1. Let the students recall the different types of seismic waves particularly the body waves (Primary and Secondary waves). Students must recall also that Primary waves travel faster than Secondary waves. 2. Explain to them, that because of this difference in velocity between P and S waves, the distance of earthquake epicenter from the recording station can be determined. If they have data from three recording stations, the exact position of an earthquake epicenter can be located using the triangulation method. 3. Introduce Activity 1 “Find the Center,” which will allow the students to use the triangulation method in locating the epicenter of a hypothetical earthquake. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  34. 34. D EPED C O PY 8 Answers to questions Using the formula d = Where: d=distance (km) Td=time difference of P-wave and S-wave (seconds) Recording station Time difference of P-wave and S-wave (seconds) Distance of epicenter from the station (km) Batangas 44.8 560 Puerto Princesa 32 400 Davao 38.4 480 Since the scale of the Philippine map on page 9 of the LM is 1.5 cm: 200 km, set the drawing compass to the following computed distances on the map. Recording station How to compute the distance on the map Computed distance on the map (cm) Batangas 560 km (1.5 cm/200 km) 4.2 Puerto Princesa 400 km (1.5 cm/200 km) 3 Davao 480 km (1.5 cm/200km) 3.6 Q1. Where is the epicenter of this hypothetical earthquake? Answer: Since the three circles drawn intersect in Cebu City, it is where the epicenter is. Q2. What difficulty will you encounter if you only have data from two recording stations? Answer: Assuming that the two circles will intersect, the circles will intersect at two points. Therefore, there will be two locations that could possibly be the epicenter. The distance-time graph on page 10 of the LM shows that the S-P interval is about 10 minutes. Td ------------ = 100 km 8 seconds All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  35. 35. D EPED C O PY 9 Q3. What is the distance of the epicenter from the seismic station? Answer: 9000 km Q4. What do you think is the importance of determining the epicenter of an earthquake? Possible answer: * Locating earthquake epicenters will pinpoint which fault lines are active. Usually, the less active fault line stores great amount of potential energy that could cause major earthquake once released. Therefore, places near fault lines that remain inactive for a long period of time are due to experience a major earthquake. Key concepts: • In order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake, you need to determine the time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves (the S-P interval) on the seismograms from at least three different stations. You have to measure the interval to the closest second and then use a graph (Distance-time graph on page 10 of the LM) to convert the S-P interval to the epicentral distance. • Once you have the epicentral distances, you can draw circles to represent each distance on a map. The radius of each circle corresponds to the epicentral distance for each seismic recording station. Once you have drawn all three circles and located the point where all three intersect, you will have successfully located (triangulated) the epicenter of the earthquake. For instructions on how to perform triangulation method you may visit this website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBS7BKqHRhs All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  36. 36. D EPED C O PY 10 Activity 2 Let’s Mark the Boundaries Teaching Tips 1. Let the students look at Figure 2: Map of Plate Boundaries on page 7 and you may ask them the following questions; a. What is the difference between Figure 1 and a regular World map? b. What do you think is the basis of dividing the world in such manner? 2. Introduce to the learners Activity 2 “Let’s Mark the Boundaries” and tell them that the next activity will help them confirm their answers to the last question. Answers to questions: Q5. How are earthquakes distributed on the map? Answer: The world’s earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth’s surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. Q6. Where are they located? Answer: Some are located near the edges of the continents, some are in mid- continents, while others are in oceans . But not ALL edges of continents,mid-continents,or oceans can be places where earthquake might occur. Q7. Where are places with no earthquakes? Answer: Answers may vary. Some of the possible answers are: large part of the Pacific ocean, northernmost Asia, majority of Europe, eastern portion of North and South America and western Africa. Q8. Why do you think it is important for us to identify areas which are prone to earthquakes? Answer: It is important to identify areas which are prone to earthquakes so that necessary precautions could be done if ever you’re living in one of those places. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  37. 37. D EPED C O PY 11 Q9. How are volcanoes distributed? Answer: Volcanoes are not randomly distributed. Majority of them are found along the edges of some continents. Q10. Where are they located? Answer: Majority are found along the edges of some continents, particularly in the western coast of North and South America, East and South East Asia. Q11. Based on the map, state a country that is unlikely to experience a volcanic eruption? Answer: Answers may vary Q12. Compare the location of majority of earthquake epicenters with the location of volcanoes around the world. Answer: Earthquake epicenters and volcanoes are both situated at the same locations. Q13. How will you relate the distribution of mountain ranges with the distribution of earthquake epicenters and volcanoes? Answer: Mountain ranges are found in places where volcanoes and/or earthquake epicenters are also located. Q14. What do you think is the basis of scientists in dividing Earth’s lithosphere into several plates? Answer: Geologic activities such as seismicity (occurrence of earthquake), volcanism and mountain formation are the basis of scientists in dividing Earth’s lithosphere. Key concepts: • Plates are large pieces of the upper few hundred kilometers of Earth that move as a single unit as it floats above the mantle. • The plates are in constant motion. As they interact along their margins, important geological processes take place, such as the formation of mountain belts, earthquakes, and volcanoes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  38. 38. D EPED C O PY 12 To view an interactive map that will show the relationship between plate boundaries and different geologic processes, you may visit; http://ees.as.uky. edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module04swf.swf Activity 3 Head-On Collision Teaching tips: 1. Let the students recall that there are two types of crust, continental and oceanic. Between the two, the oceanic crust is denser. 2. Introduce to the students that plates could either be a continental crust-leading plate or an oceanic crust-leading plate. 3. Introduce the next activity, Part A “Converging Continental plate and Oceanic plate.” This activity will allow the students to determine the effects of colliding oceanic and continental plates. Answers to Questions: Part A: Converging Continental Plate and Oceanic Plate Q15. What type of plate is Plate A? What about Plate B? Why did you say so? Answer: Plate A is an oceanic plate because it is relatively thinner compared to plate B. While Plate B is a continental plate because it is thicker and floats higher than the other plate. Q16. Describe what happens to Plate A as it collides with Plate B? Why? Answer: Plate A bends downward because Plate A is denser than Plate B. Tell the students that this sinking of plate beneath the other plate is called subduction. Point out also to the students that, because of the subduction process, a depression on the ocean floor called trench is also formed. Q17. What do you think will happen to the leading edge of PlateAas it continues to move downward? Why? Answer: The leading edge of Plate A will start to melt because the temperature beneath the crust (mantle) is higher. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  39. 39. D EPED C O PY 13 You may add the fact that as the plate moves deeper into the mantle, it carries with it water which also causes the melting of rocks. Q18. What do you call this molten material? Answer: This molten material is called magma. Q19. What is formed on top of Plate B? Answer: Volcanoes are formed on top of Plate B. Tell the students that volcanoes are mountains that are built by the accumulation of their own eruptive products such as lava. Parallel to the trench, point out in the diagram that volcanoes are formed. Q20. As the plates continue to grind against each other, what other geologic event could take place? Answer: Earthquake could take place as the plates continue to grind against each other. Key concepts: 1. During the convergence of an oceanic plate and a continental plate, the denser oceanic plate slides under the continental plate. This process is called subduction. 2. Geologic events such as formation of volcanoes and trenches as well as occurrence of earthquake will take place because of this process. You can end the lesson at this point. An animated diagram of subduction process can be seen on this website; http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/eoc/teachers/t_tectonics/p_subduction.html All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  40. 40. D EPED C O PY 14 Part B: Convergence of Two Oceanic Plates Teaching tips: 1. Recall the subduction process and the geologic events that will take place because of the process. 2. Tell the students that two oceanic plates could also collide because of plate tectonics. 3. Introduce the next activity. This time the students will use the knowledge they acquired from the previous activity in predicting what events could take place due to this type of collision. 4. You may ask the students to draw a diagram showing what they think would be the outcome of this event. Q21. What are the geologic processes/events that will occur out of this plate movement? Answer: Possible answers are: • Plate B undergoes subduction process or the sinking of plate towards the mantle. • Earthquakes can happen since the two plates are grinding against each other. • Trench/es will form. • Volcanoes will form at the surface of Plate A. Q22. What geologic features might form at the surface of Plate A? Answer: Volcanoes might form at the surface of Plate A. The volcanic deposits pile up until they break through the surface of the ocean and form an island arc. Examples of island arcs created in this way are the Aleutians, the Kuriles, Japan, and the Philippines. Q23. If the edge of Plate A suddenly flicks upward, a large amount of water may be displaced. What could be formed at the surface of the sea? Answer: Tsunami is formed at the surface of the sea. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  41. 41. D EPED C O PY 15 Key concepts: 1. When two oceanic plates converge they also undergo subduction process. This gives rise to the formation volcanic island arcs, trenches and generates shallow, intermediate, or deep earthquakes. 2. Strong earthquakes generated at the ocean floor may cause displacement of large volume of water and launch big waves called tsunami. Part C: Two Continental Plates Converging Teaching tips: 1. You may start the lesson by asking questions such as; a. What is the highest peak in the Philippines? Mt. Apo about 3144 meters b. How about the highest mountain in the world? Mt. Everest c. Do you have any idea how tall Mount Everest is? 8848 meters d. How do you think most of the tall mountains of the world are formed? 2. Just gather all the ideas the students will mention regarding the last question. After all the ideas had been presented, tell them that they will check their answers after they perform the next activity. Q24. What happened to the strips of clay as they were pushed from opposite ends? Answer: The strips of clay buckled upward. Q25. If the strips of clay represent the Earth’s lithosphere, what do you think is formed in the lithosphere? Answer: Mountains are formed in the lithosphere. Q26. What other geologic event could take place with this type of plate movement aside from your answer in Q25? Answer: Earthquakes will occur due to the collision of the two plates. (Since there is no subduction, only shallow earthquakes will happen) Q27. In terms of the consequences on the Earth’s lithosphere, how will you differentiate this type of convergent plate boundary with the other two? Answer: Since the two plates involved are both continental plates there is no subduction process (because both plates are low in density). As a result, mountains are formed instead of volcanoes. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  42. 42. D EPED C O PY 16 Key concept: 1. When two continental plates meet head-on, neither is subducted. Instead, the crust tends to buckle and be pushed upward causing formation of mountain ranges and other highlands. Activity 4 Going Separate Ways Teaching tips: 1. You may start the lesson by saying this: “In a convergent plate boundary, the leading plates undergo destruction process as the crust is consumed in the mantle. But what do you think is happening on the other end of each plates?” (creation of new crust) (We cannot expect that the students will be able to answer this question correctly. This will just serve as the springboard for the next lesson.) 2. To find out the answer to this question, students will study the next type of plate boundary-the Divergent plate boundary. 3. The next activity “Going Separate Ways,” will require students to analyze four pictures. The two topmost pictures are rift valleys while the bottom two are oceanic ridges. Answers to Questions: Q28 What are common in the four pictures? Answers: All four pictures show a fissure or a crack between two land masses. Q29. What do you think is happening to the Earth’s crust in those pictures? Answer: The land masses are moving away from each other. Q30. If this event continues for millions of years, what do you think will be the effect on the crust? Answer: The distance between the land masses will be far greater than what is shown in the picture. Q31. Complete the drawing below to illustrate your answer in question number 3. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  43. 43. D EPED C O PY 17 Answer: The illustration of the students should show a wider crack or fissure between the two land masses. Key concepts: 1. Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates are moving apart and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle. 2. Effects that are found at a divergent boundary between oceanic plates include: a submarine mountain range such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; volcanic activity in the form of fissure eruptions; shallow earthquake activity; creation of new seafloor; and a widening ocean basin. 3. If a divergent boundary is between continental plates, the effects are: rift valley formation which will soon develop into linear sea; shallow earthquake activities, and numerous normal faults. After millions of years All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  44. 44. D EPED C O PY 18 Activity 5 Slide and Shake Teaching tips: 1. The next activity will be a simulation-type activity where students will simulate how transform-fault boundary is formed. 2. After the activity has been performed, you may ask the following questions: a. If the blocks of wood were plates, what kind of plate boundary is formed between Blocks 1 and 2? between 3 and 4? (divergent) b. Describe the relative motion of Blocks 2 and 3; Blocks 1 and 3; Blocks 2 and 4. (Same answer with guide questions 3 and 4) 3. Inform the students that this is another type of plate boundary called transform-fault boundary. 4. Tell students that most transform-fault boundaries are found in the ocean basins. Only few of which are found in the continents. The best example of transform-fault boundary in a continent is the San Andreas Fault. 5. Ask the students what they think would the consequence be if plates move horizontally past each other, (Shallow earthquakes). Answers to Questions: Q32. Were you able to pull the blocks of wood easily? Why or why not? Answer: No, because of the friction between the edges of the block of wood. Q33. What can you say about the relative motion of Blocks 1 and 2? How about Blocks 3 and 4? Answer: Block 2 is moving away from Block 1, while Block 3 is moving away from Block 4. Q34. How will you describe the interaction between Blocks 2 and 3 as you pull each block? Answer: Blocks 2 and 3 are sliding past each other. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  45. 45. D EPED C O PY 19 Q35. What is the interaction between Blocks 1 and 3? How about between Blocks 2 and 4? Answer: Block 3 is sliding past block 1 while Block 2 is sliding past Block 4. Key concepts: 1. Transform-fault boundaries are where two plates are sliding horizontally past one another. 2. Most transform faults are found on the ocean floor. They commonly offset active spreading ridges, producing zig-zag plate margins, and are generally defined by shallow earthquakes.  Activity 6 Drop It Like It’s “Hot Spot” Teaching tips: 1. Show the students an aerial picture of the Hawaiian islands.http:// www.aimforawesome.com/media-photos-ebooks-audio-videos/ photos/hawaiian-islands-aerial-satellite-photograph/ 2. Tell them that the Hawaiian islands are volcanic islands. 3. Let them realize that Hawaii is situated in the middle of Pacific plate and not along the plate boundaries. Ask them what gives rise to Hawaiian islands. 4. Introduce to them the next activity which is about intraplate activities. 5. The activity will simulate how hot spots give rise to volcanic islands. 6. You can also watch a video clip on this website:http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=AhSaE0omw9o Answers to questions Q36. What can you see on the surface of the paper? Answer: The surface of the paper which is directly in contact with the test tube became wet. Q37. Let’s say that the paper represents the Earth’s crust; what do you think is represented by the water in the test tube? Answer: Magma from the mantle is represented by the water in the test tube. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  46. 46. D EPED C O PY 20 Q38. What geologic feature do you think will be formed at the surface of the crust? Answer: Volcanoes will be formed. Q39. Which of the features at the surface of the crust will be the oldest? the youngest? Label these on your paper. Answer: The oldest volcano will be the first one that developed while the youngest volcano is the last one that was formed. Q40. Which of the features will be the most active? The least active? Label these on your paper. Answer: The most active volcano is the youngest one (the one that is currently on top of the magma source). While the least active volcano, is the oldest (because it is already cut-off from the source of magma). Key concepts: 1. A “hot spot” is an area in the mantle from which hot materials rise as a thermal plume. 2. High heat and lower pressure at the base of the lithosphere (tectonic plate) facilitates melting of the rock. This melt, called magma, rises through cracks and erupts to form volcanoes. 3. As the tectonic plate moves over the stationary hot spot, the volcanoes are rafted away and new ones form in their place. This results in chains of volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands.  Performance Task Teaching tips: 1. The students will be asked to prepare an emergency kit for the whole family that they can use during or after a disaster. 2. This activity will require weeks of preparation on the part of the students. Assign this activity weeks before the actual lesson. 3. Some items needed in the kit may be costly, but as much as possible let us encourage the students to do their best to complete their kits. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  47. 47. D EPED C O PY 21 4. Let students present their emergency kits in the class and explain why they think those items must be included in the kit. 5. Encourage debate and discussion. 6. Emphasize that an emergency kit must be prepared ahead of time, not right before or during an emergency 7. The scoring rubric below can be use in evaluating the emergency kit of the students. 1 pt. 2 pts. 3 pts. 4 pts. Survival Kit Items None of the items are necessary for survival during or after a disaster. .  A few of the items are clearly necessary for survival during or after a disaster.  At least 8 items are clearly necessary for survival during or after a disaster.  At least 10 items are clearly necessary for survival during or after a disaster.  Labels and Uses None of the items are labeled properly and there is no reason for including it in the survival kit.  A few of the items are labeled properly and a reason for each item is included on a separate sheet of paper.  At least 8 of the items are labeled properly and a reason for each item is included on a separate sheet of paper. At least 10 items are labeled properly and a reason for each item is stated on a separate sheet of paper.  Neatness and Effort exerted  The kit is not organized. It looks like the student threw it together at the last minute without much care.  The kit is somewhat organized and it looks like the student ran out of time or didn’t take care of the project The kit is done well with some organization and labeling. It appears the student worked hard on it.  The kit is neatly organized and labeled as necessary. Much time and effort were put into creating this project All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  48. 48. D EPED C O PY 22 Emergency kit checklist source: http://www.redcross.org/ • Water—one gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home) • Food—non-perishable, easy-to-prepare items (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home) • Flashlight • Battery-powered radio • Extra batteries • First aid kit • Medications (7-day supply) and medical items • Multi-purpose tool • Sanitation and personal hygiene items • Copies of personal documents (medication list and pertinent medical information, proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, insurance policies) • Cell phone with chargers • Family and emergency contact information • Extra cash • Emergency blanket • Map(s) of the area Summary/Synthesis/Feedback • According to the plate tectonics model, the entire lithosphere of the Earth is broken into numerous segments called plates. • Each plate is slowly but continuously moving. • As a result of the motion of the plates, three types of plate boundaries were formed: Divergent, Convergent, and Transform fault boundaries • Divergent boundary is formed when plates move apart, creating a zone of tension. • Convergent boundary is present when two plates collide. • Transform fault is characterized by plates that are sliding past each other. • Plate tectonics give rise to several geologic features and events. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  49. 49. D EPED C O PY 23 Answers to the summative assessment: 1. Any of these three are the possible answers: mountains, volcanoes or trenches. 2. d 3. b 4. Transform-fault boundary 5. a 6. b 7. d 8. a and f 9. b and e 10. c and d All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  50. 50. D EPED C O PY 24 Glossary of Terms Continental volcanic arc. Mountains formed in part by igneous activity associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent. Convergent boundary. A boundary in which two plates move toward each other, causing one of the slabs of the lithosphere to subduct beneath an overriding plate. Crust. The outer portion of the earth. Continental Crust. The thick part of the Earth’s crust, not located under the ocean. Oceanic Crust. The thin part of the Earth’s crust located under the oceans. Divergent boundary. A region where the crustal plates are moving apart. Earthquake. Vibration of Earth due to the rapid release of energy. Fault. A break in a rock along which movement has occurred. Fracture. Any break in a rock in which no significant movement has taken place. Geology. The science that studies Earth. Hot spot. A concentration of heat in the mantle capable of creating magma. Magma. A mass of molten rock form from a depth, including dissolved gases and crystals. Mid-ocean ridge. A continuous mass of land with long width and height on the ocean floor. Plate. Rigid sections of the lithosphere that moves as a unit. Plate tectonics. A theory which suggests that Earth’s crust is made up of plates that interact in various ways, thus producing earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes and other geologic features. Primary (P) wave. The first type of seismic wave to be recorded in a seismic station. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  51. 51. D EPED C O PY 25 Rocks. Consolidated mixture of minerals. Secondary (S) wave. Second type of earthquake wave to be recorded in a seismic station. Seismogram. A record made by a seismograph. Seismograph. A device used to record earthquake waves. Subduction. An event in which a slab of rock thrusts into the mantle. Transform fault boundary. A boundary produced when two plates slide past each other. Trench. A depression in the seafloor produced by subduction process. Volcanic Island arc. A chain of volcanoes that develop parallel to a trench. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  52. 52. D EPED C O PY 26 References and Links Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education. Project EASE Integrated Science 1, Module 12: Inside the Earth. Department of Education, Bureau of Secondary Education (2013). Science Grade 8 Learner’s Module. Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Tarbuck, E.J. et al. (2009). Earth Science 12th ed. Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. http://www.skoool.ie/ accessed March 3, 2014 http://earthds.info/ accessed March 3, 2014 http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu/ accessed March 4, 2014 http://thehistoryofthephilippines.blogspot.com/ accessed March 4, 2014 http://www.platetectonics.com/ accessed March 5, 2014 http://geology.com/ accessed March 5, 2014 http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ accessed March 6, 2014 http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/ accessed March 6, 2014 http://pubs.usgs.gov/ accessed March 6, 2014 http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/tectonic.htm accessed March 7, 2014 http://stream2.cma.gov.cn/pub/comet/Environment/TsunamiWarningSystems accessed March 3 2014 http://marc.fournier.free.free.fr accessed July 1, 2014 https://www.bucknell.edu/majors-and-minors/geology/location/geologic- history-of-central-pennsylvania/plate-tectonics.html accessed July 1, 2014 http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ accessed July 2, 2014 http://www.wildjunket.com/ accessed July 2, 2014 http://www.jnb-birds.com/ accessed July 2, 2014 http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/ accessed July 2, 2014 http://wowlegazpi.com/mayon-volcano-interesting-facts/#sthash.Q3mSKqYG. dpbs accessed July 2, 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  53. 53. D EPED C O PY 27 Content Standard: The learners shall demonstrate an understanding of: The relationship among the locations of volcanoes, earthquake epicenters, and mountain ranges Performance Standard: The learners shall be able to: 1. demonstrate ways to ensure disaster preparedness during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions; and 2. suggest ways by which he/she can contribute to government efforts in reducing damage due to earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Overview The topic on Plate Tectonics and the processes within the Earth’s interior conclude the spiralling concepts in Geology. In fact, Geology is the only strand discussed in Grade 10 Science because of the topic’s broadness. In this module, we focus on the Earth’s interior structure and processes. It is also discussed how these processes could possibly have affected the Earth’s surface and caused its physical appearance. There are seven activities in this module which slowly develop the concept of relating the Earth’s interior processes with the physical structure of the Earth’s surface. Unit 1 MODULE 2 Suggested time allotment: 15 to 18 hours The Earth’s Interior All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  54. 54. D EPED C O PY 28 After all these activities, a performance task is provided to connect and conclude the two modules for Earth and Space in this grade. The task is very important for the learners to understand the nature of our home planet and to instil in them how they could be part of reducing the risks brought by geologic phenomena. In the discussion, it would be best if the teacher focuses and directs the students towards the development of concepts by answering the following key questions: Learning Competencies In this module, you should be able to: 1. Describe the internal structure of the Earth. 2. Discuss the possible causes of plate movement. 3. Enumerate the lines of evidence that support plate movement. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
  55. 55. D EPED C O PY 29 Answers to Pre-Assessment Directions: A. Choose the letter of the correct answer. For questions 1 and 2, refer to the figure below that shows the cross section of the Earth as seismic waves travel through it. Seismic waves as they travel through the Earth 1. An S-wave shadow zone is formed as seismic waves travel through the Earth’s body. Which of the following statements does this S-wave shadow zone indicate? a. The inner core is liquid. b. The inner core is solid. c. The mantle is solid. d. The outer core is liquid. Answer: D All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

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