Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Present a taught lesson, complete with lesson plan, classroom
resources and a rationale for your teaching and learning met...
opportunity for L2 learning is when it is relevant to curriculum learning.
Grammar, in similarity to phonics or spellings,...
vocabulary from the book where singular and plural forms of nouns were made
explicit.
The novella was chosen by the Englis...
ability to write at length, to listen in different contexts, to use punctuation
marks like full stops and capital letters,...
Reading: reads fluently in his first language and is able to find specific information in a text very quickly
Writing: can...
The learning intentions/ objectives:
1. Recognising basic parts of speech by referring to word-translations, visual
clues,...
regular and irregular 2D shapes and name them, aimed to consolidate
students' knowledge gained in their recent Maths lesso...
irregular verbs verbs list and
cross-curricular
links as a tool to
decide whether a
verb is regular or
irregular.
comparin...
and vocabulary.
LESSON ORGANISATION AND SCAFFOLDING
Scaffolding means providing temporary support for a newly or recently
...
interaction between them. New arrivals were mixed with recent arrivals to
foster language development, improve social skil...
approaches to second language teaching and testing, Applied linguistics, 1 (1):
1-47
Cummins, J (1981) Bilingualism and mi...
NALDIC (2000), A language in common: Assessing English as an additional
language, Available at: http://www.naldic.org.uk
(...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Lesson analysis

278 vues

Publié le

Diploma in EAL Master's Course, EAL Academy/ Greenwich University

Publié dans : Formation
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

Lesson analysis

  1. 1. Present a taught lesson, complete with lesson plan, classroom resources and a rationale for your teaching and learning methodology. Reflect on the lesson's success, relating pedagogical approaches to a hypothesis for pupil learning and progress. EAL PEDAGOGY EAL pedagogy is designed to meet the requirements of the Teachers' Standards which expect from the teaching to be adapted "to the strengths and needs of all pupils" (p11). It is understood as a set of systematic teaching approaches and it aims to meet the learning as well as the language needs of pupils for whom English is an additional language. This includes the use of a wide range of different teaching strategies allowing teachers to teach in accordance with EAL guidelines. The EAL guidelines on teaching in an EAL way, can be found in NALDIC documents regarding planning, EAL scaffolding and distinctiveness of EAL pedagogy. To make sure that the lessons are delivered in an EAL way I have included, where possible, teaching approaches which from many pedagogical perspectives appear to be the most effective while working with bilingual learners. These include: assessment to plan future progression, scaffolding to support second language learning, following scheme of work for Spelling Punctuation and Grammar (SPAG) for students lacking grammatical skills, to improve their grammatical competence and using planning frameworks to meet all students' needs. As the current SOW for SPAG needed adjustments due to limited contextual links, I have also adapted it to make these links to the studied novella. PEDAGOGICAL PERSPECTIVES In her book, Learning to learn in a Second Language, Pauline Gibbons indicates that EAL teaching should be characterised by language-rich provision integrated with the mainstream teaching. This theory suggests that the best
  2. 2. opportunity for L2 learning is when it is relevant to curriculum learning. Grammar, in similarity to phonics or spellings, should be embedded within an integrated meaning-focus approach. A similar point of view is represented by Hymes, Canale and Swain (reference needed) who explained that children learn to communicate through spoken language and in order to do so effectively, they first have to develop a language knowledge, vocabulary and grammar, used in the right context. In this view students should be able to find the grammatical rules useful and meaningful and apply them appropriately. In accordance with Krashen's theory of comprehensible input, teaching of grammar can result in great understanding of L2, when the target language, eg. using 'there is/ are' sentences, is used a a medium of instruction. (references) Although Marton attacks some of the anti-pedagogical aspects of Krashen's theory on second language acquisition, which come from the fact that “Krashen assigns only a minimal role to language pedagogy in the process of language acquisition” (1990, p. 95), he would agree with the idea mentioned in the previous paragraph as it suggest that grammar is an important part of language acquisition when used for the right purpose. According to authors above, communicative competence includes grammatical competence, the use of “knowledge of lexical terms and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics and phonology” (1980a: 29). This type of knowledge and skills allow the language learner to make use of language resources to understand and create meanings. In both my lessons, these principles were adapted, grammar was used in conjunction with the reading book, by exploring grammatical rules through the context of certain words and sentences from the book. Specific sentences were selected from the book, in which students had to recognise verbs in the past tense and state whether they are regular or irregular, in the past or in the present tense. The writing exercise focused on students' understanding of
  3. 3. vocabulary from the book where singular and plural forms of nouns were made explicit. The novella was chosen by the English department to meet students' needs. The Twits is studied in KS1, but because students in 7F mostly represent level 2 in English and they lack of reading comprehension skills, which was proved by the completed assessments, the school ordered books which are appropriate to their reading abilities. ASSESSMENT Both English lessons were delivered to students in class 7F who are all EAL learners. Six of them are new EAL arrivals, five - recent arrivals of whom one shows SEN needs. This student has not been yet recognised as SEN by the school's SENCO due to unknown medical history of this student. The students in this class were carefully selected in order to be able to adapt SOWs in many subjects to their specific needs. Understanding of basic English vocabulary by new arrivals is secure due to learning EFL in their home countries for a period of two to three years and EAL immersion in which learning functional English is targeted. Functional English is understood as the ability to use basic vocabulary in everyday situations, being able to follow instructions and form basic phrases/ sentences in real-life situations. Recent arrivals coming from Lithuania and Latvia, whose first language is Russian and who are not fully literate in their home language, appear to have gaps in learning, both in L1 and L2, and make slower progress in National Curriculum subjects. Although they appear to be more confident in speaking, they lack of basic reading and writing skills to access higher level work. Initial EAL assessment of these students allows the teacher to recognise what are their specific L2 learning needs based on EAL-specific descriptors taken from the Language in Common. For example, understanding of vocabulary,
  4. 4. ability to write at length, to listen in different contexts, to use punctuation marks like full stops and capital letters, to use different reading strategies to establish meaning at sentence level, etc. FLA (First Language Assessments) contributed to gathering more information about L1 skills, diagnosis of specific speech or language disorders as well as assessment of the pupil’s language development patterns and extent of vocabulary knowledge. The ability to communicate, read and write with fluency in their home languages was shown by five out of six new arrivals. The one, who was unable to show literacy skills in his home language, comes from Gambia, an African country, where English is an official language and all lessons are being taught in English. As his home language - Wolof does not follow English language rules and patterns, this student appears to have insecure grammatical knowledge and thus constantly fails in his writing assessments. Some new arrivals appeared to be more fluent in their L1 than the others, where spelling or word order mistakes were rare, and they were able to work at a faster pace. This proves that these students will be able to learn the English language much faster in comparison to some other peers in the same class. Below is the example of the short EAL assessment and First Language Assessment (FLA) summary for one of the new arrivals which were carried out in November '15. These levels however, are not up-to-date as this student since then has made good progress in L2 overall, was recently moved to a higher ability group, due to a contextual grammar approach in teaching and supporting through translations into L1. EAL: Speaking: S2; can use simple words and phrases Listening: S2; can understand simple conversations, if there are clear contextual clues and can follow some instructions Reading: 1b; knows how to spell HFWs and can establish meaning at sentence level Writing: 1b; can write simple sentences, uses capital letters and full stops FLA: Communication: able to answer questions in longer sentences and talk about himself
  5. 5. Reading: reads fluently in his first language and is able to find specific information in a text very quickly Writing: can write at a fast pace, uses punctuation marks, capital letters, commas and full stops Literacy reading and writing assessments for KS1 carried out by their teachers of English, proved that there is a high demand for language focused teaching and learning, and additional lessons on grammar are necessary to improve students' confidence when applying their writing skills and understanding of specific language patterns. These assessments helped me with planning my lessons and to recognise students' specific needs. Common mistakes made by these students were as follows: omission of the verb 'to be' in sentences, difficulty in writing using the past tense, word order and subject-verb agreement mistakes. From the English department perspective, lessons delivered to 7F should be delivered in a language-rich way, where EAL concepts, like scaffolding, should be consulted with the EAL specialist in the school, especially that these students are not timetabled for additional EAL provision. According to the proposed solution immersing students in mainstream lessons, without taking into consideration language and content, cannot provide optimal learning opportunities (Mohan, 2001). This has to be done by co-planning involving both the EAL specialist and subject teacher. Although my lessons were not planned directly with the teacher, who is an NQT, they were consulted with the Literacy Coordinator and the Head of English department in our school. LEARNING OBJECTIVES As mentioned previously, the topic of the lesson was taken from SOW for SPAG in which the students have to be familiar with grammatical terms like adjectives, nouns and verbs, as well as being able to use syntax, plural and singular nouns to support spellings. It was designed for 7F students by their English teachers with consultation with the EAL specialist in the school, to target and improve students' linguistic and communicative confidence, abilities and knowledge in relation to language and its use in context.
  6. 6. The learning intentions/ objectives: 1. Recognising basic parts of speech by referring to word-translations, visual clues, examples and definitions By referring to translations in their home languages, new arrivals were able to give examples of different parts of speech in their home languages and then in English. Visual clues and key visuals were used throughout both lessons to support understanding of new words and grammatical rules, thus most students succeeded in completing their tasks without further explanations. 2. Using the irregular verbs list to classify a verb By referring to the irregular verbs list, students were able to find specific irregular verbs. The conclusion given by one student was that 'this list does not have regular verbs' and this is how we can find out if a verb is regular or irregular. 3. Explaining and remembering rules for forming regular verbs and nouns Many visual clues, pictures from the book and cross-curricular links were used to improve students' understanding of new vocabulary, e.g. >1 (P), 1 (S). They helped students with recognising which nouns are regular and irregular and that there is a rule for forming regular nouns. One student said that regular nouns have '-s' in plural and irregular nouns have no '-s'. 4. Applying reading strategies, like syntax, to understand a text. These reading strategies were taken from Language in Common and EAL descriptors suggested by OFSTED. By referring to the word irregular, students noticed that the prefix 'ir' means 'not', in similarity to 'in' in the word 'incorrect', 'un' in the word 'uneven' and 'a' in 'asymmetrical. The cross-curricular links when the students had to find
  7. 7. regular and irregular 2D shapes and name them, aimed to consolidate students' knowledge gained in their recent Maths lesson. 5. Using success-criteria as a self-assessment measure At the end of the second lesson, students had to look at the success criteria and reflect on their learning. Eight students managed to recognise what they learnt in both lessons and what they found difficult. It appeared that the majority of students struggled with syntax, especially suffixes like '-less' and '- full', which they were not familiar with yet. Using graphics, phonics and context as reading strategies helped with completing some parts of the reading comprehension tasks successfully. In addition, most students used subject- verb agreement correctly as they remembered that 'there is' suggests using one thing or person (singular), and 'there are' suggests using more than one (plural). PLANNING FRAMEWORKS The lesson was planned to meet students' specific needs and to raise awareness of grammatical terminology and rules among students, which were then reinforced in other subjects, for example history and science when then they were expected to write in the past and present tenses. The scaffolding techniques, which are commonly used in MFL lessons, were used to support L2 acquisition and improve students' understanding. The planning framework suggested by Pauline Gibbons, helped to integrate the curriculum content with the language learning needs of pupils with EAL. The first two columns relate to the content taught. The next three, focus mainly on the language which is relevant to the levels of the students, and which relates to the chosen topic. TOPIC ACTIVITIES LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VOCABULARY Regular and Using the irregular clarifying (Repetitive (Taken from the
  8. 8. irregular verbs verbs list and cross-curricular links as a tool to decide whether a verb is regular or irregular. comparing explaining questions in the present simple to support consistency in using tenses) What do the following words mean? What does the word 'irregular' mean? How can you define the words below? reading passage) Irregular verbs: go – went sit – sat be - was Regular verbs: pull - pulled look – looked point – pointed tie-tied gasp-gasped Plural and singular nouns Using a writing frame and cross- curricular links to support L2 learning. clarifying comparing explaining (Language used for writing stories) There is... There are... (Use of prepositional language) on top, in the middle, on the bottom (Taken from the book) Regular, singular and plural nouns: monkey- monkeys trick – tricks window – windows Irregular, singular and plural nouns: woman – women foot – feet Gravelle's (2000) simple but powerful matrix (See below) supported the planning to meet the need of all EAL students, including the recent arrival who appears to have SEN needs. The left hand column reflects the cognitive abilities and the demands of the curriculum. The middle one reflects the need to consider and activate the child's previous experience and skills. The third one indicates that some additional support to bridge any gaps in learning may be needed. What does the learner bring to the task? What does the task demand of the learner? What support needs to be planned for? Linguistic There are several things which two main groups of students have in common and this should be reflected during lessons; New Arrivals: literate in their home languages, know grammatical concepts to some extent, willing to improve their L2 skills through grammar due to previous educational experience. Recent arrivals: lack of systematic grammatical knowledge, not literate in their home languages which is reflected by slower progress, gaps in curriculum To be able to work systematically and apply certain language patterns in communication, reading and writing. Scaffolding , additional teacher to support the class, translations to support L2 learning based on the knowledge of L1 (Cummins), using repetitions and simplified language to explain meanings of unfamiliar words, etc.
  9. 9. and vocabulary. LESSON ORGANISATION AND SCAFFOLDING Scaffolding means providing temporary support for a newly or recently arrived student in order to help them to complete a task successfully or acquire a specific skill. It is important for EAL learners as it enables them to move from dependent to independent learning. In consequence, it reduces the freedom in carrying out tasks in order to concentrate on the process of L2 learning (Bruner, 1978) To ensure that scaffolding was present in both lessons, the following scaffolding techniques were used: • Modelling and demonstrating language orally or in writing to the student • Adjusting language to develop the learner's language and extend vocabulary by rephrasing questions • Making the verbal curriculum more visual by using pictures and key visuals as well as writing frames • Using cross-curricular links; maths: 2D shapes, more than one (>1), one (1), science: comparing a verb stem with a flower stem • Providing opportunities for practice by completing tasks on the interactive white board, completing certain tasks independently (irregular verbs test 1) • Ensuring home languages are valued and used by incorporating collaborative L1 work into lessons as well as translations of keywords The last scaffolding technique was taken from Cummins (1981) theory of CUP (Common Underlying Proficiency), which indicates that one of the important aspects of effective teaching of EAL learners is the need to support and develop the child's competence in the mother tongue alongside the learning of English by encouraging and supporting students through communication in mother tongue or translations into L1. In both lessons students were paired up according to their preferences, gender and the same language to improve L2 development and to promote verbal
  10. 10. interaction between them. New arrivals were mixed with recent arrivals to foster language development, improve social skills and motivation. SUMMARY Incorporating EAL provision into mainstream teaching is of high importance as it supports L2 acquisition. Development of language is strictly associated with development of grammatical competence and confidence in students and it has been proved by many great language educators, including Berlitz, Sweet, Parmel or Marton. Natural acquisition process which is offered by Krashen or Chomsky “can completely fail to lead to any development of L2 competence, leaving the learner with the rather chaotic conglomeration of various ill- absorbed bits and pieces of the target language which may be not sufficient even for performing the simplest receptive or productive tasks” (Marton, 1990: 99). Thus looking at language through certain linguistic patterns, remembering them by contextualisation and meaningfulness, brings success and the pride of achievement in students, which were reached in both analysed above lessons. REFERENCES Brandt, G. L. (1986), The realisation of Anti-Racist Teaching, New York: The Falmer Press BRITISH COUNCIL (2014), Great idea: Scaffolding, Available at: https://eal.britishcouncil.org (Accessed: 5 December 2015) BRITISH COUNCIL (2014), Effective teaching of EAL learners, Available at: https://eal.britishcouncil.org (Accessed: 3 December 2015) Bruner, J. S. (1978). The role of dialogue in language acquisition, New York: Springer-Verlag Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980a) Theoretical bases of communicative
  11. 11. approaches to second language teaching and testing, Applied linguistics, 1 (1): 1-47 Cummins, J (1981) Bilingualism and minority language children. Ontario; Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION (2011), Teachers’ Standards Guidance for school leaders, school staff and governing bodies, Available at: https://www.gov.uk (Accessed: 28 November 2015) Evans, M., Jones, N., Leung, C. and Yongcan, L. (2015) EAL Assessment and Evaluation Framework, ? Gibbons, P. (2002) Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning, Portsmouth NH: Heinneman. Gravelle, M. (ed.) (2000) Planning for Bilingual Learners: an inclusive curriculum, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, 1987. Krashen, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice-Hall International, 1988. Leung, C. and Creese, A (Editors) (2010) English as an Additional Language: Approaches To Teaching Linguistic Minority Students, London: NALDIC Mohan, B. (2001), The second language as a medium of learning, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education NALDIC (2015), Planning, Available at: http://www.naldic.org.uk (Accessed: 20 December 2015)
  12. 12. NALDIC (2000), A language in common: Assessing English as an additional language, Available at: http://www.naldic.org.uk (Accessed: 13 November 2015) South, H. (ed) (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curricular discipline. Watford: NALDIC Marton, W. (1990) Some remarks on the anti-pedagogical aspects of Krashen's theory on second language acquisition, Volume Studia Anglica Posnaniensia, Issue 23, p.95-110

×