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1
INTRODUCTION
RATIO ANALYSIS
A sustainable business and mission requires effective planning and financial management.
Rat...
2
 Calculated using reliable, accurate financial information (does your financial information
reflect your true cost pict...
3
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
There is majority of evidence prove that ratio analysis since the late1800s has been widely
used i...
4
nature of ratios, particularly for the purpose of predicting the health of a business, continued
unabated during this pe...
5
WHAT IS A RATIO
In general, a ratio is a way of concisely showing the relationship between two quantities of
something. ...
6
DIFFERENT MODES OF EXPRESSING AN
ACCOUNTING RATIO
Ratio may be expressed in different ways. They are as follows:
a) Simp...
7
NATURE OF RATIO ANALYSIS
Though ratio analysis is ‘all the rage’ among the users of accounting information, it is better...
8
OBJECTIVES OF RATIOS
Ratios are worked out to analyse the following aspects of a business organisation:
a. Solvency:
i. ...
9
only after it is compared with the ratio. For this purpose four types of standards are
employed:-
(A) ABSOLUTE STANDARDS...
10
However, the difficulty in using such ratios is that no two firms are similar in size, accounting
policies and corporat...
11
SIGNIFICANCE AND USEFULNESS OF RATIO
ANALYSIS
Ratios as a tool of financial analysis provide symptoms with the help of ...
12
all quarters of management.
5. Control is more Effective:
System of planning and forecasting establishes budgets, devel...
13
for formulating national policies and planning. In the absence of dependable information,
Govt. plans and policies may ...
14
STANDARDS TO BE APPLIED:
Any ratio in itself i.e. in isolation is meaningless. It must be compared with some standard t...
15
INTERPRETATION OF ACCOUNTING RATIOS
Calculation of ratios is comparatively simple, routine clerical in nature but inter...
16
financial statements are usually drawn. Ratios calculated based on such projected financial
statements shall act as the...
17
ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF RATIO
ANALYSIS
Financial ratio analysis is a useful tool for users of financial statement...
18
CLASSIFICATION OF RATIOS
Financial ratios have been classified in several ways. A number of standpoints may be used
as ...
19
BALANCE SHEET RATIOS:
Financial ratios quantify many aspects of a business and are an integral part of financial
statem...
20
margin ratios show relationship between profit and sales. Rate of return ratios reflect the
relationship between profit...
21
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IMPORTANCE:
This basis of classification of ratios has been recommended by the British Inst...
22
COMPILATION OF RATIOS
Ratio analysis is rightly considered as an invaluable tool of analysis. However, one has to
exerc...
23
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS Co. Ltd.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. is a South Korean multinational electronics company
headquar...
24
HISTORY
Samsung Group, based in Seoul, is South Korea's largest business group. The multinational
conglomerate contains...
25
1998: Samsung completes the development of flat-screen televisions and begins the first mass
production of digital TVs....
26
BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
Samsung Electronics, Co., Ltd., a part of Samsung Group, is the world’s largest technology
company...
27
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
REVENUE STATEMENT
Currency in
Millions of South
Korean Wons and
USD
As of: Dec 31
2013
KRW
Dec 31
...
28
EBT, EXCLUDING UNUSUAL
ITEMS 37,324,475.0 28,441,097.0 31,289.1 23,842.2
Impairment of Goodwill -- -- -- --
Gain (Loss)...
29
BALANCE SHEET
Currency in
Millions of South
Korean Wons
As of: Dec 31
2013
KRW
Dec 31
2014
KRW
Dec 31
2013
USD
Dec 31
2...
30
Deferred Tax Assets, Long Term 4,621,780.0 4,526,595.0 3,874.4 3,794.6
Deferred Charges, Long Term 752,669.0 1,239,933....
31
Other Non-Current Liabilities 2,580,141.0 4,564,151.0 2,162.9 3,826.1
TOTAL LIABILITIES 64,059,008.0 62,334,770.0 53,70...
32
RATIOS
A] BALANCE SHEET RATIOS
1. CURRENT RATIO =
CURRENT ASSETS
CURRENT LIABILITIES
For 2013,
CURRENT RATIO =
11076027...
33
3. DEBT EQUITY RATIO =
LONG−TERM DEBTS
SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS
For 2013,
DEBT EQUITY RATIO =
2213783
150016010
= 0.015
For 2...
34
5. PROPRIETARY RATIO =
PROPRIETORS FUNDS
TOTAL ASSETS
× 100
For 2013,
PROPRIETARY RATIO =
150016010
214075018
× 100
= 7...
35
2. OPERATING RATIO =
OPERATING COST
NET SALES
× 100
For 2013,
OPERATING RATIO =
54211345
228692667
× 100
= 23.70%
For 2...
36
4. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSE RATIO =
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES
NET SALES
× 100
For 2013,
RESEARCH AND DE...
37
6. NET PROFIT AFTER TAX RATIO =
NET PROFIT AFTER TAX
NET SALES
× 100
For 2013,
NET PROFIT AFTER TAX RATIO =
29821215
22...
38
8. STOCK TURNOVER RATIO =
COST OF GOODS SOLD
AVERAGE STOCK
Average Stock = Opening Stock + Closing Stock
For 2013,
STOC...
39
2. TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO =
SALES
TOTAL ASSETS
For 2013,
TOTAL ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO =
228692667
214075018
= 1.07 ...
40
4. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED =
NET PROFIT BEFORE INTEREST AND TAX
CAPITAL EMPLOYED
× 100
For 2013,
RETURN ON CAPITAL E...
41
6. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO =
CREDIT SALES
AVERAGE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
For 2013,
DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO =
228692667
24988...
42
CONCLUSION
Samsung Electronics, Co., Ltd., a part of Samsung Group, is the world’s largest technology
company by revenu...
43
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.demonstratingvalue.org/resources/financial-ratio-analysis
http://www.businessdictionary.com/def...
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Ratio Analysis of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.

Ratio Analysis of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.

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Ratio Analysis of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.

  1. 1. 1 INTRODUCTION RATIO ANALYSIS A sustainable business and mission requires effective planning and financial management. Ratio analysis is a useful management tool that will improve your understanding of financial results and trends over time, and provide key indicators of organizational performance. Managers will use ratio analysis to pinpoint strengths and weaknesses from which strategies and initiatives can be formed. Funders may use ratio analysis to measure your results against other organizations or make judgments concerning management effectiveness and mission impact. Ratio analysis is the process of determining and interpreting numerical relationships based on financial statements. A ratio is a statistical yardstick that provides a measure of the relationship between two variables or figures. This relationship can be expressed as a percent or as a quotient. Ratios are simple to calculate and easy to understand. The persons interested in the analysis of financial statements can be grouped under three heads, i) Owners or Investors ii) Creditors and iii) Financial Executives. Although all these three groups are interested in the financial conditions and operating results, of an enterprise, the primary information that each seeks to obtain from these statements differ materially, reflecting the purpose that the statement is to serve. Investors desire primarily a basis for estimating earning capacity. Creditors are concerned primarily with liquidity and ability to pay interest and redeem loan within a specified period. Management is interested in evolving analytical tools that will measure costs, efficiency, liquidity and profitability with a view to make intelligent decisions. For ratios to be useful and meaningful, they must be:
  2. 2. 2  Calculated using reliable, accurate financial information (does your financial information reflect your true cost picture?)  Calculated consistently from period to period  Used in comparison to internal benchmarks and goals  Used in comparison to other companies in your industry  Viewed both at a single point in time and as an indication of broad trends and issues over time  Carefully interpreted in the proper context, considering there are many other important factors and indicators involved in assessing performance. Ratios can be divided into four major categories:  Profitability Sustainability  Operational Efficiency  Liquidity  Leverage (Funding – Debt, Equity, Grants) DEFINITION Single most important technique of financial analysis in which quantities are converted into ratios for meaningful comparisons, with past ratios and ratios of other firms in the same or different industries. Ratio analysis determines trends and exposes strengths or weaknesses of a firm.
  3. 3. 3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND There is majority of evidence prove that ratio analysis since the late1800s has been widely used in the analysis and valuation of published financial data such as security analysis firms (e.g., Dun & Bradstreet) have published, and presumably have profited from publishing, listings of annual financial ratio values for various firms and industries. In addition, the use of ratio analysis is emphasizes in the literature on financial statement analysis. The historical development of ratio analysis can be divided broadly into four phases. In the first phase beginning approximately in 1870 we see a spurt in the development of ratios for managerial and credit analysis. During this period, current ratio is the most important ratio that had been developed which continues to draw the attention of the analysts even today. However, the proliferation of ratios created problems for discerning the right kind of ratios for business analysis. Attempts were made to resolve the problem by developing a coherent system of ratios. In 1919, the du Pont RoI chart developed by bliss is the first such attempt and during the same period the emergence of industry-wise ratios also been found. Well- known business schools and credit agencies began publishing these ratios on a regular basis. In the second phase, beginning 1930, attempts were made to understand the statistical nature and empirical basis of financial ratios. A considerable volume of literature was produced on the subject but the empirical findings of major researchers were found to be more contradictory than corroborative. The statistical approach to ratio analysis also led to the development of ratio models for predicting corporate bankruptcy. Most important among those works are those of Merwin (1942) and Beaver (1967), Altman (1968) and Ohlson (1980). While emphasis on empirical research enriched the discipline of ratio analysis it retarded the development of a comprehensive theory of ratios. In the third phase, beginning in the later part of the 1960s, rigorous scientific investigation being made into the information content of financial ratios with the help of Entropy Law and decomposition theory. The problem of aggregation and consequent information loss was investigated with the help of sophisticated mathematical tools but the findings remained inconclusive. However, these studies revealed for the first time that accounting does not really have a satisfactory conceptual framework. The research on understanding the statistical
  4. 4. 4 nature of ratios, particularly for the purpose of predicting the health of a business, continued unabated during this period and is also being carried forward to the present. Since 1980 the discipline has entered into its fourth logical phase where the search of a theory of financial ratios has begun. Serious attempts are being made to find a comprehensive testable theory of financial ratios. This discipline is now ripe enough to give birth to its own theory. The first attempt to present a historical review of ratio analysis was made by Horrigan (1968) followed by Barnes (1987) and Salmi and Martikainen (1994). The present review, though following in their footsteps, differs from them in the sense that here, the logical development of ratio analysis is traced to its present stage from a managerial perspective.
  5. 5. 5 WHAT IS A RATIO In general, a ratio is a way of concisely showing the relationship between two quantities of something. The most formal way of stating a ratio is by separating the two quantities with a colon (:) although sometimes a division sign (/) is used in place of the colon. For a ratio to have meaning, both numbers must be nonzero. In mathematics, a ratio is a quotient used to compare quantities of the same units of measure. In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second. a ratio can be a fraction as opposed to a whole number. The numbers compared in a ratio can be any quantities of a comparable kind, such as objects, persons, lengths, or spoonfuls. A ratio is written "a to b" or a:b, or sometimes expressed arithmetically as a quotient of the two. When the two quantities have the same units, as is often the case, their ratio is a dimensionless number. A rate is a quotient of variables having different units. But in many applications, the word ratio is often used instead for this more general notion as well.
  6. 6. 6 DIFFERENT MODES OF EXPRESSING AN ACCOUNTING RATIO Ratio may be expressed in different ways. They are as follows: a) Simple or Pure Ratios, b) Percentages, c) Rate. A) SIMPLE OR PURE RATIOS Simple or pure ratio is merely a quotient arrived by simple division of one number by another. Example: When the current assets of a business organisation are Rs. 60,000 and current liabilities are Rs. 15,000 the ratio is derived by dividing Rs. 60,000 by Rs. 15,000. It will be expressed as ( 60000 15000 )4 or as 4:1 B) PERCENTAGES Ratios are expressed as percentage relations when the simple or ratios are multiplied by 100. The resulting ratios are known as percentage ratios. Example: Thus, the current ratio in the above example — expressed in percentage by multiplying 4 by 100. The ratio will be as 400%. i.e, 60000 15000 × 100= 400% C) RATE Sometimes, ratios are expressed as rates which refer to ratios over a period of time. Example: Stock has turned over 6 times a year’.
  7. 7. 7 NATURE OF RATIO ANALYSIS Though ratio analysis is ‘all the rage’ among the users of accounting information, it is better to understand the nature of ratios so that they can be employed judiciously under appropriate conditions.  The relation between two or more financial data brought out by an accounting ratio is not an end in itself. They are means to get to know the financial position of an organisation.  An Individual ratio may not be capable of providing the answers required for the various problems facing an executive.  Industrial ratios may provide valuable information only when they are studied and compared with several other related ratios.  Ratio analysis will tend to be more meaningful when certain standards and norms are laid down so that what the ratios indicate can be compared with the said standards. This provides a base for decision-making and assists in taking measures to rectify any drawback or deficiency. COMPARISONS BY RATIOS Accounting ratios are very useful in assessing the financial position and profitability of a business enterprise. this can be achieved through comparison by ratios. such a comparison may take any of the under-mentioned forms: a) For the same enterprise over a number of years (horizontal analysis). b) For one enterprise against another in the same industry (third-dimensional analysis). c) For one enterprise against the industry as a whole. d) For one enterprise against the pre-determined standards. d) For inter-departmental comparisons within an organisation.
  8. 8. 8 OBJECTIVES OF RATIOS Ratios are worked out to analyse the following aspects of a business organisation: a. Solvency: i. Long-term. ii. Short-term. iii. Immediate. b. Stability. c. Profitability. d. Operational Efficiency. e. Credit Standing. f. Structural Standing. g. Effective Utilisation of Resources. h. Leverage or External Financing. STANDARDS FOR COMPARISON A number of financial tools have come into existence for the analysis of financial statements. Financial statement analysis means a meaningful study of the financial statements, the balance sheet and the profit and loss account, relating to a period of an industry, to ascertain the prevailing state of affairs and reasons there for. It is not enough to say that firm A is more profitable than firm B; one must also be able to say the causes and factors that are probably responsible for this. The object of the financial statement analysis is of great importance; for example, one’s approach to comparison of two firms will be different from the approach of assessing profitability of investment in a firm. Standards are creatures of experiences, which are modified from time to time to meet changing conditions; they are an ideal or an average or normal results to be attained under certain conditions. Because of the changing nature of standards, constant acquaintance with the conditions under which they are set up is essential so that causes of variations from the standard can be intelligently appreciated. Standard ratios provide a bench – mark against which actual ratios can be compared. The significance of a ratio calculated can be grasped
  9. 9. 9 only after it is compared with the ratio. For this purpose four types of standards are employed:- (A) ABSOLUTE STANDARDS: These ratios are determined by the rule of thumb. For example, in the case of current ratio 2:1 is considered to be desirable. This type of standards are those which become generally recognised as being desirable regardless of the company, its type, the time, stage of the business cycles, or the objectives of the analyst. “The absolute standard is the weakest of all, for it suggests the existence of some inherent trait common to all business, which is generally far from the case,” (B) HISTORICAL STANDARDS: These are the past ratios of the company. Present performance can be judged on the basis of past performance and the persons concerned can draw inferences about the improvement or otherwise of the particular aspect. Comparison with historical standards is also known as “Trend Analysis”. For this purpose, the trends rather than the actual ratios are important. Hence the behaviour of the ratios over a period is observed. By presenting a picture of operations over an extended time, trend – analysis of ratios becomes a valuable tool for the financial manager. The trend of the ratios indicates whether the concern has been moving in the direction in which it is tending to go, e. g., for measuring the rate of turnover, the ratio may be computed weekly or monthly and the points plotted on a graph to show the trend of the rate of turnover. However, it is not satisfactory from the standard point of view. It can merely compare the present efficiency with the efficiency of the past. (C) HORIZONTAL STANDARDS: These are the average ratios calculated for the entire industry or the ratios of some other firm engaged in the same line, i.e., Inter–Firm Comparison “Comparison can also be made against the achievements of other business where available. It is difficult to be sure that such comparison are on a like for like basis, even if operating in a similar market or industry, partly as to the comparison of profit, but more particularly concerning the scope of the business under comparison.”
  10. 10. 10 However, the difficulty in using such ratios is that no two firms are similar in size, accounting policies and corporate objectives. So, naturally there will be significant difference between the standard opted and the actual ratio. The ratios calculated for the industry as a whole provide a satisfactory standard to judge and interpret the ratios of the individual firm. (D) BUDGETED STANDARDS: These standards are based on budgeted figures. The actual ratios are compared with budgeted ratios and are, therefore, useful for the internal management as a tool of performance and evaluation and control. The utility even for the internal analyst depends much upon the care with which budgets are drawn up. Sometimes the assumptions made at the time of preparing the budget may go wrong because of abnormal developments. External analysts usually look to historical and / or horizontal standards. It can be concluded that ratios themselves do not directly answer the important questions about the firm. Instead they simply are relationship that, when compared to a standard of performance, identify difference or variations. Such difference can lead to understanding that brings forth changed performance. “Again as a matter of perspective, remember that the manager uses financial statements mainly to locate problems and issues that need managerial attention. And the alert manager is interested in developing and establishing valuable and realistic standards against which ratios can be measured”.
  11. 11. 11 SIGNIFICANCE AND USEFULNESS OF RATIO ANALYSIS Ratios as a tool of financial analysis provide symptoms with the help of which any analyst is in a position to diagnose the financial health of the unit. Financial analysis may be compared with biopsy conducted by the doctor on the patient in order to diagnose the causes of illness so that treatment may be prescribed to the patient to help him recover. As, already hinted different groups of persons are interested in the affairs of any business entity, therefore, significance of ratio analysis for various groups is different and may be discussed as follows: USEFULNESS TO THE MANAGEMENT: 1. Decision Making: Mass of information contained in the financial statements may be unintelligible a confusing. Ratios help in highlighting the areas deserving attention and corrective action facilitating decision making. 2. Financial Forecasting and Planning: Planning and forecasting can be done only by knowing the past and the present. Ratio help the management in understanding the past and the present of the unit. These also provide useful idea about the existing strength and weaknesses of the unit. This knowledge is vital for the management to plan and forecast the future of the unit. 3. Communication: Ratios have the capability of communicating the desired information to the relevant persons in a manner easily understood by them to enable them to take stock of the existing situation: 4. Co-ordination is Facilitated: Being precise, brief and pointing to the specific areas the ratios are likely to attract immediate grasping and attention of all concerned and is likely to result in improved coordination from
  12. 12. 12 all quarters of management. 5. Control is more Effective: System of planning and forecasting establishes budgets, develops forecast statements and lays down standards. Ratios provide actual basis. Actual can be compared with the standards. Variances to be computed an analyzed by reasons and individuals. So it is great help in administering an effective system of control. USEFULNESS TO THE OWNERS/SHAREHOLDERS: Existing as well as prospective owners or shareholders are fundamentally interested in the (a) long-term solvency and (b) profitability of the unit. Ratio analysis can help them by analyzing and interpreting both the aspects of their unit. USEFULNESS TO THE CREDITORS Creditors may broadly be classified into short-term and long term. Short-term creditors are trade creditors, bills payables, creditors for expenses etc., they are interested in analyzing the liquidity of the unit. Long-term creditors are financial institutions, debenture holders, mortgage creditors etc., they are interested in analyzing the capacity of the unit to repay periodical interest and repayment of loans on schedule. Ratio analysis provides, both type of creditors, answers to their questions. USEFULNESS TO EMPLOYEES Employees are interested in fair wages: adequate fringe benefits and bonus linked with productivity/profitability. Ratio analysis provides them adequate information regarding efficiency and profitability of the unit. This knowledge helps them to bargain with the management regarding their demands for improved wages, bonus etc. USEFULNESS TO THE GOVERNMENT Govt. is interested in the financial information of the units both at macro as well as micro levels. Individual unit's information regarding production, sales and profit is required for excise duty, sales tax and income tax purposes. Group information for the industry is required
  13. 13. 13 for formulating national policies and planning. In the absence of dependable information, Govt. plans and policies may not achieve desired results. IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR UNDERSTANDING RATIOS ANALYSIS QUALITY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: The reliability of ratios is linked with the quality of financial statements. Financial statements which have been prepared by faithful adherence to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Generally accepted accounting principles are likely to contain reliable data. Calculation of ratios from such financial statements is bound to be more useful and trustworthy. PURPOSE OF ANALYSIS: Users of accounting information are different such as short-term and long-term creditors; owners and would be investors; trade unions; tax authorities; competitors etc., object of each group of interested parties is also different such as liquidity or solvency or profitability, etc. So, before undertaking the analysis, one should be clear about the object of analysis. It is the object of analysis which determines the area (liquidity, solvency, profitability, leverage, activity etc.) to be studied, analyzed and interpreted. SELECTION OF RATIOS: There is no end to the number of ratios which can be calculated. In 1919, Alexander Wall developed an elaborated system of ratio analysis. The same has been extended and modified over the period of time. So the ratios to be calculated should be selected judiciously taking into consideration the object of analysis. The ratios selected should serve the purpose of analysis. For example, short term creditors 'purpose is liquidity whereas owners' purpose may be served by solvency.
  14. 14. 14 STANDARDS TO BE APPLIED: Any ratio in itself i.e. in isolation is meaningless. It must be compared with some standard to arrive at any logical conclusion. The analyst can choose the comparing standard from (a) Rule of thumb (b) past ratios (c) projected standards or (d) industry standards. Selection of standards for the purpose of interpretation will also depend upon the object of the analysis and the capacity of the analyst. For example, management (being the insider) can opt. for project standards whereas any outsider's choice shall be limited to the published information of the unit. CAPABILITY OF THE ANALYST: Analysis is a tool in the hands of the analyst. Knife (as a tool) in the hands of a criminal may take the life but the knife (as a tool) in the hands of a surgeon may give new life to a patient. Interpretation depends on the educational background; professional skill; experience and intuition of the professional conducting it. RATIOS TO BE USED ONLY AS GUIDE: Ratios can provide, at the best, the starting point. The analyst, before arriving at the conclusion, should take into consideration all other relevant factors financial and non- financial; macro and micro. For example, general condition of economy; values of society; priorities of the government etc., are the important factors.
  15. 15. 15 INTERPRETATION OF ACCOUNTING RATIOS Calculation of ratios is comparatively simple, routine clerical in nature but interpretation of ratios is highly sophisticated and intricate phenomenon. The benefit of ratio analysis depends a great deal upon the correct interpretation. It needs skill, intelligence, training, farsightedness and intuition of high order on the part of the analyst. The following are different ways in which ratios may be interpreted: INDIVIDUAL RATIO: Individual ratio may have significance of its own. For example, if the current ratio unit continuously falls, it may indicate probable insolvency. But generally single ratio may not convey any sense. However single ratio may be studied with reference to certain popular rules of thumb which can only give approximations. Care must be exercised because such comparison may be erroneous or unrealistic. GROUP RATIOS: Ratios may be interpreted by considering group of several related ratios. Such interpretation may be more meaningful. For example, current ratio may be studied along with liquid ratio. Similarly profitability ratios may be studied along with return on investment. COMPARISON WITH PAST: Ratios may be interpreted by making comparison over a period of time i.e. the same ratio be studied over a period of years of the same unit. It will highlight the significant trend revealing use, decline or stability of the phenomenon. Average value of the ratio for the past number of years can serve as a standard against which current performance may be measured. While interpreting ratios from comparison over a period of time one should be careful about the changes which might have taken place during the time. For example, price index; changes in managerial policies or changes in accounting practices etc. COMPARISON WITH PROJECTIONS: In a business unit where system of budgetary control and forecast is in existence, projected
  16. 16. 16 financial statements are usually drawn. Ratios calculated based on such projected financial statements shall act as the standards with which the ratios calculated from the present financial statements shall be compared. Variances shall be calculated and analyzed by reasons and persons. It shall enable to take corrective action wherever required. INTER-FIRM OR INTER-INDUSTRY COMPARISON: Ratios of one unit may be compared with the ratios of another identical unit or with the industry average at the same point of time. Such comparison is useful for evaluating relative financial position of the unit vis-à-vis other units or industry. While making such comparison, care must be taken regarding the difference of accounting methods, policies, procedures and terminology being followed by different units.
  17. 17. 17 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF RATIO ANALYSIS Financial ratio analysis is a useful tool for users of financial statement. It has following advantages: ADVANTAGES  It simplifies the financial statements.  It helps in comparing companies of different size with each other.  It helps in trend analysis which involves comparing a single company over a period.  It highlights important information in simple form quickly. A user can judge a company by just looking at few numbers instead of reading the whole financial statements. LIMITATIONS  Despite usefulness, financial ratio analysis has some disadvantages. Some key demerits of financial ratio analysis are:  Different companies operate in different industries each having different environmental conditions such as regulation, market structure, etc. Such factors are so significant that a comparison of two companies from different industries might be misleading.  Financial accounting information is affected by estimates and assumptions. Accounting standards allow different accounting policies, which impairs comparability and hence ratio analysis is less useful in such situations.  Ratio analysis explains relationships between past information while users are more concerned about current and future information.
  18. 18. 18 CLASSIFICATION OF RATIOS Financial ratios have been classified in several ways. A number of standpoints may be used as base for classifying the ratios. It is a matter of great surprise that no uniformity has been achieved in this regard. Different authors have classified the ratios in varying groups. To illustrate, the short-term creditors main interest in the long-term solvency and profitability analysis of the firm’s financial conditions; management is interested in evaluating every activity of the firm because they have to protect the interests of all parties. Thus accounting ratios may be classified on the following bases leading to somewhat overlapping categories. CLASSIFICATION BY STATEMENTS The traditional classification is based on those statements from which information is obtained for calculating the ratios. The ratios are classified as follows: CLASSIFICATION BY STATEMENTS BALANCE SHEET RATIOS (FINANCIAL RATIOS) REVENUE STATEMENT RATIOS (OPERATING RATIOS) COMBINED RATIOS (COMPOSITE/ MIXED RATIOS)
  19. 19. 19 BALANCE SHEET RATIOS: Financial ratios quantify many aspects of a business and are an integral part of financial statement analysis. Financial ratios are categorized according to the financial aspect of the business which the ratio measures. Liquidity ratios measure the availability of cash to pay debt. Activity ratios measure how quickly a firm converts non-cash assets to cash assets. Debt ratios measure the firm's ability to repay long-term debt. Profitability ratios measure the firm's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return. Market ratios measure investor response to owning a company's stock and also the cost of issuing stock. Financial ratios allow for comparisons •between companies •between industries •between different time periods for one company •between a single company and its industry average The ratios of firms in different industries, which face different risks, capital requirements, and competition, are not usually comparable. REVENUE STATEMENT RATIOS: Profit earning is the main objective of each business concern. A company should earn profits to survive and to grow overlong period. A measure of profitability is the overall measure of efficiency. Profitability and profits are two different elements. Profit refers to the absolute quantum of profit whereas profitability refers to the ability to earn profits. It is a test of efficiency and a measure of control to the management. It is a measure of the worth of owner’s investment. It is the margin of safety to creditors. It is a source of fringe benefits to employees. Profit is a measure of taxpaying capacity to the government. To customers, it is a hint to demand for better quality and price cuts. Operation ratios and activity ratios or efficiency ratios are calculated to measure the profitability of an enterprise. There are two types of profitability ratios. They are profit margin ratios and rate of return ratios. Profit
  20. 20. 20 margin ratios show relationship between profit and sales. Rate of return ratios reflect the relationship between profit and investments. COMBINED RATIOS: This category of ratios includes those ratios, which highlight upon the activity and operational efficiency of the business concern. The funds of creditor and owners are invested in various kinds of assets to generate sales and profits. The better the management of assets, the larger the amount of sales. This category ratios use elements of both balance sheet as well as revenue statements for computation of ratios. These ratios are always expressed as turnover or in number of times i.e. rate of turning over or rotation. CLASSIFICATION BY USERS: This classification is based on the parties who are interested in making the use of ratios. CLASSIFICATION BY USERS RATIOS FOR MANAGEMENTS RATIOS FOR CREDITORS RATIOS FOR SHAREHOLDERS
  21. 21. 21 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IMPORTANCE: This basis of classification of ratios has been recommended by the British Institute of management. They are of two types: CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE/ FUNCTION This is a classification based on the purpose for which an analyst computes these ratios. The modern approach of classifying the ratios is according to purpose or object of analysis. Normally, ratios are used for the purpose of assessing the profitability and sound financial position. Thus, ratios according to the purpose are more meaningful. There can be several purposes which can be listed. For analysis, it is customary to group the purpose into broad headings. The following are the broad categories of accounting ratios from financial point of view: CLASSIFICATIONBY IMPORTANCE PRIMARY RATIOS SECONDARY RATIOS
  22. 22. 22 COMPILATION OF RATIOS Ratio analysis is rightly considered as an invaluable tool of analysis. However, one has to exercise considerable degree of caution while analyzing the financial statements with the aid of ratios. The precautions one has to take in ratio analysis are listed below: a) It is essential to ensure that the persons who use the ratios understand the terminology and the component figures employed for compiling. b) Secondly, the ratios to be compared should be capable of being compared validly. in other words, the data found in financial statements have to be horizontally consistent over a period of time. c) Thirdly, compilation of ratios has to be done speedily. They have to be worked out supplied to the different users in time for further action. d) Fourthly, ratios have to be presented in an appropriate manner. It is a usual practice to set out the major ratios first followed by less important ratios and then finish with the least important ones. e) Fifthly, a complete record of ratios is essential. CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE SOLVENCY SHORT-TERM LONG-TERM ACTIVITY PROFITABILITY EARNINGS
  23. 23. 23 SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS Co. Ltd. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. It is the flagship subsidiary of the Samsung Group, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012, and has been the world's largest information technology company by revenue since 2009. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 370,000 people. Since 2012, the CEO is Kwon Oh-Hyun. Samsung has long been a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. In recent years, the company has diversified into consumer electronics. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones fueled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and is generally regarded as pioneering the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. Samsung has been the world's largest manufacturer of LCD panels since 2002, the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. Samsung Electronics displaced Apple Inc. as the world's largest technology company in 2011 and is a major part of the South Korean economy. In June 2014 Samsung published the Tizen OS with the new Samsung Z. For over 70 years, Samsung has been dedicated to making a better world through diverse businesses that today span advanced technology, semiconductors, skyscraper and plant construction, petrochemicals, fashion, medicine, finance, hotels, and more. Our flagship company, Samsung Electronics, leads the global market in high-tech electronics manufacturing and digital media. Through innovative, reliable products and services; talented people; a responsible approach to business and global citizenship; and collaboration with our partners and customers, Samsung is taking the world in imaginative new directions.
  24. 24. 24 HISTORY Samsung Group, based in Seoul, is South Korea's largest business group. The multinational conglomerate contains numerous subsidiaries and affiliated businesses, most of them under the Samsung brand. Here are key dates in the company's history: 1938: Samsung is founded by Lee Byung-chull as a trading company. 1953: After the Korean War, Lee forms profitable Cheil Sugar, which is followed by textile, banking and insurance enterprises. 1961: Despite a political coup, charges against Lee of illegal profiteering and a 1966 family scandal of smuggling, the company grows by diversifying into paper products, department stores and publishing. 1969: Lee, with the help of Sanyo, establishes Samsung Electronics. It produces inexpensive TVs, microwave ovens and other consumer products for Western companies such as Sears and General Electric. 1970s: Under a government policy of rapid industrialization, Samsung launches a number of enterprises in ship building, petrochemicals and aircraft engines. 1980s: The Company is exporting electronics under its own name. 1983: Samsung begins production of personal computers. 1987: Lee's son, Lee Kun-hee, assumes control of Samsung. 1988: Samsung Semiconductor and Telecommunications merges with Samsung Electronics. Its core business focus is home appliances, telecommunications and semiconductors. 1990: Samsung becomes a world leader in chip production. 1994: Samsung Motors is formed. 1996: Lee Kun-hee is involved in a corruption scandal and gets a suspended sentence for bribery.
  25. 25. 25 1998: Samsung completes the development of flat-screen televisions and begins the first mass production of digital TVs. Samsung Motors delivers its first cars. 2005: Samsung develops the first speech-recognition phone. 2007: Samsung Group is accused of political bribery and influence-peddling throughout the South Korean government, judicial branch and the media. 2012: Samsung Electronics becomes world's largest mobile phone-maker by unit sales, overtaking Nokia, the market leader. U.S. jurors rule Samsung must pay Apple (AAPL) $1.05 billion in damages for violating six Apple patents on smartphone technology.
  26. 26. 26 BUSINESS DESCRIPTION Samsung Electronics, Co., Ltd., a part of Samsung Group, is the world’s largest technology company by revenues. The company produces consumer electronics, telecoms equipment, semiconductors and home appliances. Samsung Electronics business is divided into three divisions:  Consumer electronics. Visual Display Business, Digital Appliances Business, Printing Solutions Business and Health & Medical Equipment Business.  IT and Mobile communications. Mobile Communications Business and Networks Business.  Device solutions. Memory Business, System LSI Business and LED Business. The company is the world’s largest mobile phones and smartphones vendor. It is the largest memory chip maker and the largest TV manufacturer. Company operates in 80 countries, where it sells more than 100 products. PRODUCTS Mobile Phones Tablet PC Laptops and Chrome Devices LCD and LED Televisions Cameras Home Appliances And Accessories
  27. 27. 27 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REVENUE STATEMENT Currency in Millions of South Korean Wons and USD As of: Dec 31 2013 KRW Dec 31 2014 KRW Dec 31 2013 USD Dec 31 2014 USD Revenues 228,692,667.0 206,205,987.0 191,713.1 172,862.5 TOTAL REVENUES 228,692,667.0 206,205,987.0 191,713.1 172,862.5 Cost of Goods Sold 137,696,309.0 128,278,800.0 115,430.8 107,536.1 GROSS PROFIT 90,996,358.0 77,927,187.0 76,282.2 65,326.4 Selling General & Admin Expenses, Total 38,934,012.0 37,446,184.0 32,638.4 31,391.1 R&D Expenses 14,319,402.0 14,385,506.0 12,004.0 12,059.4 Depreciation & Amortization, Total 957,931.0 1,070,426.0 803.0 897.3 OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES, TOTAL 54,211,345.0 52,902,116.0 45,445.4 44,347.8 OPERATING INCOME 36,785,013.0 25,025,071.0 30,836.9 20,978.5 Interest Expense -509,658.0 -592,940.0 -427.2 -497.1 Interest and Investment Income 1,463,768.0 3,269,596.0 1,227.1 2,740.9 NET INTEREST EXPENSE 954,110.0 2,676,656.0 799.8 2,243.8 Income (Loss) on Equity Investments 504,063.0 342,516.0 422.6 287.1 Currency Exchange Gains (Loss) -330,105.0 -250,088.0 -276.7 -209.6 Other Non-Operating Income (Expenses) -588,606.0 646,942.0 -493.4 542.3
  28. 28. 28 EBT, EXCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 37,324,475.0 28,441,097.0 31,289.1 23,842.2 Impairment of Goodwill -- -- -- -- Gain (Loss) on Sale of Investments 1,117,029.0 -571,588.0 936.4 -479.2 Gain (Loss) on Sale of Assets -77,225.0 5,525.0 -64.7 4.6 Other Unusual Items, Total -- -- -- -- EBT, INCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 38,364,279.0 27,875,034.0 32,160.8 23,367.6 Income Tax Expense 7,889,515.0 4,480,676.0 6,613.8 3,756.2 Minority Interest in Earnings -653,549.0 -311,859.0 -547.9 -261.4 Earnings from Continuing Operations 30,474,764.0 23,394,358.0 25,547.0 19,611.5 NET INCOME 29,821,215.0 23,082,499.0 24,999.1 19,350.1 NET INCOME TO COMMON INCLUDING EXTRA ITEMS 29,821,215.0 23,082,499.0 24,999.1 19,350.1 NET INCOME TO COMMON EXCLUDING EXTRA ITEMS 29,821,215.0 23,082,499.0 24,999.1 19,350.1
  29. 29. 29 BALANCE SHEET Currency in Millions of South Korean Wons As of: Dec 31 2013 KRW Dec 31 2014 KRW Dec 31 2013 USD Dec 31 2014 USD Assets Cash and Equivalents 16,284,780.0 16,840,766.0 13,651.5 14,117.6 Short-Term Investments 38,171,930.0 44,911,895.0 31,999.5 37,649.6 TOTAL CASH AND SHORT TERM INVESTMENTS 54,456,710.0 61,752,661.0 45,651.1 51,767.3 Accounts Receivable 24,988,532.0 24,694,610.0 20,947.9 20,701.5 Notes Receivable 15,449.0 50,760.0 13.0 42.6 Other Receivables 2,887,402.0 3,539,875.0 2,420.5 2,967.5 TOTAL RECEIVABLES 27,891,383.0 28,285,245.0 23,381.3 23,711.5 Inventory 19,134,868.0 17,317,504.0 16,040.8 14,517.3 Prepaid Expenses 2,472,950.0 3,346,593.0 2,073.1 2,805.4 Other Current Assets 6,804,360.0 4,444,023.0 5,704.1 3,725.4 TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS 110,760,271.0 115,146,026.0 92,850.3 96,526.9 Gross Property Plant and Equipment 168,784,544.0 183,286,006.0 141,492.1 153,648.7 Accumulated Depreciation -93,288,156.0 -102,413,056.0 -78,203.5 -85,852.9 NET PROPERTY PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 75,496,388.0 80,872,950.0 63,288.6 67,795.8 Goodwill 560,534.0 739,576.0 469.9 620.0 Long-Term Investments 12,654,995.0 17,894,293.0 10,608.7 15,000.8
  30. 30. 30 Deferred Tax Assets, Long Term 4,621,780.0 4,526,595.0 3,874.4 3,794.6 Deferred Charges, Long Term 752,669.0 1,239,933.0 631.0 1,039.4 Other Intangibles 2,667,397.0 2,805,964.0 2,236.1 2,352.2 Other Long-Term Assets 6,560,984.0 7,197,621.0 5,500.1 6,033.8 TOTAL ASSETS 214,075,018.0 230,422,958.0 179,459.1 193,163.6 LIABILITIES & EQUITY Accounts Payable 8,437,139.0 7,914,704.0 7,072.9 6,634.9 Accrued Expenses 11,344,530.0 12,876,777.0 9,510.1 10,794.6 Short-Term Borrowings 6,438,517.0 8,029,299.0 5,397.4 6,731.0 Current Portion of Long-Term Debt/Capital Lease 2,425,831.0 1,778,667.0 2,033.6 1,491.1 Current Portion of Capital Lease Obligations 19,811.0 14,807.0 16.6 12.4 Current Income Taxes Payable 3,386,018.0 2,161,109.0 2,838.5 1,811.7 Other Current Liabilities, Total 19,283,374.0 19,253,357.0 16,165.3 16,140.1 TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES 51,315,409.0 52,013,913.0 43,017.7 43,603.3 Long-Term Debt 2,213,783.0 1,379,871.0 1,855.8 1,156.7 Capital Leases 82,402.0 77,682.0 69.1 65.1 Minority Interest 5,573,394.0 5,906,463.0 4,672.2 4,951.4 Pension & Other Post-Retirement Benefits 1,854,902.0 201,342.0 1,555.0 168.8 Deferred Tax Liability Non-Current 6,012,371.0 4,097,811.0 5,040.2 3,435.2
  31. 31. 31 Other Non-Current Liabilities 2,580,141.0 4,564,151.0 2,162.9 3,826.1 TOTAL LIABILITIES 64,059,008.0 62,334,770.0 53,700.7 52,255.2 Common Stock 897,514.0 897,514.0 752.4 752.4 Additional Paid in Capital 4,403,893.0 4,403,893.0 3,691.8 3,691.8 Retained Earnings 148,600,282.0 169,529,604.0 124,571.6 142,116.7 Treasury Stock -7,323,432.0 -8,429,313.0 -6,139.2 -7,066.3 Comprehensive Income and Other -2,135,641.0 -4,219,973.0 -1,790.3 -3,537.6 TOTAL COMMON EQUITY 144,442,616.0 162,181,725.0 121,086.2 135,956.9 TOTAL EQUITY 150,016,010.0 168,088,188.0 125,758.4 140,908.3 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY 214,075,018.0 230,422,958.0 179,459.1 193,163.6
  32. 32. 32 RATIOS A] BALANCE SHEET RATIOS 1. CURRENT RATIO = CURRENT ASSETS CURRENT LIABILITIES For 2013, CURRENT RATIO = 110760271 51315409 = 2.16 For 2014, CURRENT RATIO = 115146026 52013913 = 2.21 2. QUICK RATIO/ LIQUID RATIO = QUICK ASSETS QUICK LIABILITIES Quick Assets = Current Assets- Stock- Prepaid Expenses Quick Liabilities = Current Liabilities- Bank Overdraft- Advance Income For 2013, QUICK RATIO = 89152453 51315409 = 1.74 For 2014, QUICK RATO = 94481929 52013913 = 1.82
  33. 33. 33 3. DEBT EQUITY RATIO = LONG−TERM DEBTS SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS For 2013, DEBT EQUITY RATIO = 2213783 150016010 = 0.015 For 2014, DEBT EQUITY RATIO = 1379871 168088188 = 0.008 4. STOCK TO WORKING CAPITAL RATIO = STOCK WORKING CAPITAL Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities For 2013, STOCK TO WORKING CAPITAL RATIO = 19134868 59444862 = 0.33 For 2014, STOCK TO WORKING CAPITAL RATIO = 17317504 63132113 = 0.27
  34. 34. 34 5. PROPRIETARY RATIO = PROPRIETORS FUNDS TOTAL ASSETS × 100 For 2013, PROPRIETARY RATIO = 150016010 214075018 × 100 = 70% For 2014, PROPRIETARY RATIO = 168088188 230422958 × 100 = 72.94% i.e. 73% B] REVENUE STATEMENT RATIOS 1. GROSS PROFIT RATIO = GROSS PROFIT SALES × 100 FOR 2013, GROSS PROFIT RATIO = 90996358 228692667 × 100 = 39.78% i.e. 40% FOR 2014, GROSS PROFIT RATIO = 77927187 206205987 × 100 = 37.79% i.e. 38%
  35. 35. 35 2. OPERATING RATIO = OPERATING COST NET SALES × 100 For 2013, OPERATING RATIO = 54211345 228692667 × 100 = 23.70% For 2014, OPERATING RATIO = 52902116 206205987 × 100 = 25.65% 3. SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE RATIO = SELLING,GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES 𝑁𝐸𝑇 𝑆𝐴𝐿𝐸𝑆 × 100 For 2013, SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE RATIO= 38934012 228692667 × 100 = 17.02% For 2014, SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE RATIO= 37446184 206205987 × 100 = 18.16%
  36. 36. 36 4. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSE RATIO = RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES NET SALES × 100 For 2013, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSE RATIO = 14319402 228692667 × 100 = 6.26% For 2014, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSE RATIO = 14385506 206205987 × 100 = 6.98% 5. NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX RATIO = NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX NET SALES × 100 For 2013, NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX RATIO = 38364279 228692667 × 100 = 16.78% For 2014, NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX RATIO = 27875034 206205987 × 100 = 13.52%
  37. 37. 37 6. NET PROFIT AFTER TAX RATIO = NET PROFIT AFTER TAX NET SALES × 100 For 2013, NET PROFIT AFTER TAX RATIO = 29821215 228692667 × 100 = 13.04% For 2014, NET PROFIT AFTER TAX RATIO = 23082499 206205987 × 100 = 11.19% 7. NET OPERATING PROFIT RATIO = NET OPERATING PROFIT NET SALES × 100 For 2013, NET OPERATING PROFIT RATIO = 36785013 228692667 × 100 = 16.08% For 2014, NET OPERATING PROFIT RATIO = 25025071 206205987 × 100 = 12.14%
  38. 38. 38 8. STOCK TURNOVER RATIO = COST OF GOODS SOLD AVERAGE STOCK Average Stock = Opening Stock + Closing Stock For 2013, STOCK TURNOVER RATIO = 137696309 18441140 = 7.47 times For 2014, STOCK TURNOVER RATIO = 128278800 18226186 = 7.04 times C] COMBINED RATIOS 1. FIXED ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO = SALES FIXED ASSETS For 2013, FIXED ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO = 228692667 76056922 = 3.01 times For 2014, FIXED ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO = 206205987 81612526 = 2.53 times
  39. 39. 39 2. TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO = SALES TOTAL ASSETS For 2013, TOTAL ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO = 228692667 214075018 = 1.07 times For 2014, TOTAL ASSTES TURNOVER RATIO = 206205987 230422958 = 0.89 times 3. CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO = SALES CAPITAL EMPLOYED For 2013, CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO = 228692667 152229793 = 1.50 times For 2014, CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO = 206205987 169468057 = 1.22 times
  40. 40. 40 4. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED = NET PROFIT BEFORE INTEREST AND TAX CAPITAL EMPLOYED × 100 For 2013, RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED = 36785013 152229793 × 100 = 24.16% For 2014, RETURN ON CAPIYAL EMPLOYED = 25025071 169468059 × 100 = 14.77% 5. RETURN ON PROPRIETORS FUNDS = NPAT PROPRIETORS FUNDS × 100 For 2013, RETURN ON PROPREITORS FUNDS = 29821215 150016010 × 100 = 19.88% For 2014, RETURN ON PROPREITORS FUNDS = 23082499 1680118118 × 100 = 13.73%
  41. 41. 41 6. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO = CREDIT SALES AVERAGE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE For 2013, DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO = 228692667 24988532 = 9.15 times For 2014, DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO = 206205987 24694610 = 8.35 times (Assuming closing debtors as average debtors and net sales as credit sales)
  42. 42. 42 CONCLUSION Samsung Electronics, Co., Ltd., a part of Samsung Group, is the world’s largest technology company by revenues. The company produces consumer electronics, telecoms equipment, semiconductors and home appliances. The company is the world’s largest mobile phones and smartphones vendor. It is the largest memory chip maker and the largest TV manufacturer The company’s overall position is at a very good position. The company achieves sufficient profit in past four years. The long term solvency position of the company is very good. The company maintains low liquidity to achieve the high profitability. The company distributes dividends every year to its share holders.
  43. 43. 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.demonstratingvalue.org/resources/financial-ratio-analysis http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ratio-analysis.html#ixzz3mr3ywKTs http://www.ukessays.co.uk/essays/accounting/ratio-analysis.php#ixzz3mr6AthiP http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/ratio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratio http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/financial-management/203835-different- modes-expressing-accounting-ratio.html http://arunk.com/pdf/published%20work/Standards_For_Comparison_Under_R.pdf http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/financial-management/203846-nature-ratio- analysis.html http://www.accountingexplanation.com/significance_and_usefulness_of_ratio_analysis.htm http://www.accountingexplanation.com/important_factors_for_understanding_ratios_analysis .htm http://www.accountingexplanation.com/interpretation_of_ratios_analysis.htm http://accountingexplained.com/financial/ratios/advantages-limitations http://www.samsung.com/us/wow/survey.html http://www.mercurynews.com/ci_22979868/samsung-short-history http://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=005930:KS&dat aset=balanceSheet&period=A&currency=US%20Dollar

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