3. Raw Material
• LAB (Linear Alkyl Benzene)
• Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA)
4. LABSA Specifications
• Appearance : Coffee Colored Viscous Liquid
• Active Matter : 96% Min.
• Neutralization Number as mg KOH/g : 170.00 to 195.00
• Free Oil : 1.80% Max.
• H2 SO4 : 1.80% Max.
• Water : 2.00% Max.
• Klett : 45.00 Max.
5. Properties of LABSA
• Mass Density : ~ 1.070 g/cm3
• Viscosity : ~1500 – 2000 mPa.s.
• Melting Range : ~ – 10 ℃
• Boiling Point : ~ 315 ℃
• Vapour Pressure : Below 0.15 (0.001 mm Hg)
• Flash Point : >200℃
• Decomposition Temperature : > 100℃
• pH : ~ 2.
6. Applications of LABSA
• Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA) -
Soft Acid Slurry is main active detergent for
Synthetic Detergent industries in the formulation
of Washing Powder, Detergent Powder, Detergent
Cake, Liquid Soap, Cleaning Powder, Scouring Bar,
Oil Soaps etc.
• It is used in Anionic specialty formulations.
• In other Industries like textile industries it is used
as mercerizing or washing agent.
7. Applications of LABSA
• It is used for increasing the surface area of
• As an emulsifier and wetting agent.
• In small quantity with other surfactant in toilet
soap for foaming.
• Spent Acid is used for the manufactures of Alum,
Ferrous Sulphates, Super Phosphates etc.
8. Advantages of LABSA
• A common cost effective, anionic surfactant.
• Is biodegradable.
• Due to its stable foam, more suitable for
detergent applications in combinations with
• Compatible with enzyme and builders.
9. Advantages of LABSA
• Outstanding performance with other anionic
surfactants due to its synergistic effect.
• Consumes less alkali for neutralization.
• Ideal for liquid detergent application due to high
solubility and low salt content.
• No problem to use with hard water.
10. Manufacturing process of LABSA:
Air Drying Unit
• Air Feed
• Sulphur feed
• LAB Feed
11. Air Drying
• The air taken from
outside is compressed
and dehumidified by
means of Intermediate
Cooling Unit and Silica
Fig: Air is taken from outside
by means of Roots Blower.
12. Air Drying (cont.)
• The cooling has the purpose to remove the
humidity from the air and to convey low
temperature air to the dehumidifying tower, thus
favoring the water absorption in the silica gel.
• The silica gel air drying has the object to reduce
to very low values of the moisture content of air
intended for the sulfur combustion & then for
13. Air Drying (cont.)
• Air is cooled by passing
it through a heat
the coolant mono-
ethylene glycol. The
condensation of air.
Fig: Glycol Tower
14. Air Drying (cont.)
• After cooling air to the required temperature it
has to be dried to remove traces of moisture
present in it. For this purpose air is passed
through a cylinder filled with silica gel.
• Two cylinders with silica-gel are used; one for
drying the air, the other is reconditioned.
• Equipments: Roots Blower, Cooling Blower, Glycol
Tower, Chiller, Regeneration Blower, and Silica
15. Sulphur Melting Unit
• Sulphur is melted to
allow Sulphur that has
been acquired has to be
melted prior to its
• This is done by heating
it in the melter at
temperatures of 135℃
Fig: Sulphur Melting Unit.
16. Sulphur Melting Unit (Cont.)
• The temperature exceeds 145℃ it would result in
• Temperature of 140℃ is maintained to prevent
wastage of sulphur due to vaporisation.
• The solid sulphur is melted and filtered to avoid the
pump valves clogging and then fed to the sulphur
burner by a proportioning pump.
• Equipments: Melting Tower, Furnace, SO2 Cooler
17. Sulphur Trioxide Production
• In the furnace, the sulphur is fed through a pipe and
falls on a surface of refractory balls, while the
combustion air is supplied.
• To start the reaction in furnace, the catalyst layers of
the first & second stage of the conversion tower have
to be brought to the necessary temperature.
• This is reached by preheating with hot air and the
upper part of the catalyst tower is heated up to a
temperature of 400-420℃
18. Sulphur Trioxide Production (Cont.)
• The temperature of the
gas at the burner outlet
is around 700 ℃.
• Thereafter a heat
exchanger cools the gas
so that it reaches the
conversion tower at the
Fig: Heat Exchanger
19. Sulphur Trioxide Production (Cont.)
• The conversion tower is
composed of three layers of
• The gas, passing from a
layer to next one, crosses a
heat exchanger to take the
gas temperature to
optimum conversion values
on every stage.
• Equipments: SO2 –SO3
Converter, SO3 Cooler,
Fig: SO2 –SO3 Converter
20. Reaction unit
• This SO3 is sent to the reactor where it reacts
with Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB).
• The reactor has small tubes in which the SO3
passes and the LAB passes through its sides.
• The main reaction takes place at bottom of these
tubes and during maintenance these tubes are
• The liquid product is sent to the aging vessel and
the gases are sent to cyclone separator.
• Equipments: Reactor
21. Ageing & Hydrolysis
• The product after being sulphonated
overflows into the bottom of the ageing unit.
• It is then conveyed into the stabilizer together
• Afterwards it is transferred with the help of a
pump to the neutralization unit.
22. Gas Separation
• Cyclonic separation is a method of removing
particulates from air stream, without the use
of filters, through vortex separation.
• Rotational effects and gravity are used to
separate mixtures of solids and fluids.
• The liquid product and reactants which still
have to react are sent to the aging vessel but
the product in the form of vapour and gases
are sent to Electro Static Precipitator (ESP).
23. Gas Scrubbing
• The unit is designed to treat exhaust gas
stream coming from the sulphonation reactor
before being sent to the atmosphere in order
to remove any possible organic, unreacted SO₃
traces and unconverted SO₂
24. Electro Static Precipitator (ESP)
• An ESP is a particulate
collection device that
removes particles from
a flowing gas (such as
air) using the force of
an induced electrostatic
charge. The LABSA is
Fig: Electro Static precipitator
• LABSA is packaged into
plastic drums and then
• Each drum contains
210kg of the product.
• Rhymer buys second
hand drums in order to
• A Klett colorimeter allows
light to pass through and
determines the colour Klett
of the substance. Lesser the
color Klett, better the
quality of the product.
• The sample of the product
is then titrated with
ethanol, the amount of
ethanol required to reach
the point is noted and the
acid level of the product is
calculated. Fig: color klett determination
and acid value determination