1. AKLAN STATE UNIVERSITY
College of Industrial Technology
Teacher Education Department
Power Point Presentation
Dr. MYRNA D. PELAYO
in partial fulfillment the requirements for the subject
Soc. Sci I-General Psychology
Submitted by: Vea D. Leocario
If you ask someone to describe what an emotion is, they might say it is a feeling,
sentiment, reaction, passion, excitement, or sensation. Another definition of
emotion is it is a spontaneous feeling arising from a person, thing, or experience.
Emotions are unique to each individual, are perception based, and subjective
experiences. It could be argued that emotions are the sole reason for therapeutic
People go to counselors because they do not like how they feel. In other words,
their emotions are too strong and upsetting or the individual does not appear to
have emotions at all. Some people have too much of one emotion versus how
they want to feel, e.g. depressed individuals are mostly sad and desire to feel
happy again. Therefore, every psychological theory, even cognitive behaviorism,
has a goal to ultimately alter the person's emotional state in a positive way.
6. WHAT IS EMOTION?
Emotion is a complex psychological
phenomenon which occurs as animals or
people live their lives.
It is Intense feeling that are directed at
someone or something.
Came from the Latin word ''emovere'' which means
''to move out''.
Subjective reactions to experiences that are associated
with physiological and behavioral changes(According to
Feelings that generally have both physiological and
cognitive elements and that influence behavior(Acc. to
Considered as the building blocks of personality
8. COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS
1. Subjective experience of the emotion.
2. Internal bodily response, particularly those involving the autonomic
a. Blood Pressure & heart rate increase.
b. Respiration becomes more rapid.
c. The pupils dilate.
d. Perspiration increase while secretion of saliva & mucous
e. Blood-sugar level increase to provide more energy.
f. The blood clots more quickly in case of wounds.
g. Blood is diverted from the stomach & intestines to the brain &
h. The hair on the skin becomes erect, causing goose pimples.
9. COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS
3. Cognition about the emotion & associated situation.
4. Facial expression.
5.Reactions to the emotion.
6. Action tendencies
None of these components, by itself is an emotion.
All these components come together to create a
10. CLASSIFICATION OF
The range of emotion is broad. More than 200
emotions are named in the English language.
Psychologists have classified them in many different
ways, and one of which is the system developed by
Robert Plutchnik called the EMOTION WHEEL.
11. ROBERT PLUTCHNIK
He believed that emotions have 4 dimentions:
-Emotion is either positive or negative
-Emotions are primary or mixed
-Many of these emotions are polar opposites
-Emotions Vary In Intensity
12. 1. EMOTION IS EITHER POSITIVE OR
Positive Emotions enhance self-esteem and improve our
relations with others while negative emotions lower
self-esteem and weakens the quality of our relations
13. 2. EMOTIONS ARE PRIMARY OR MIXED
Emotions for Plutchnik are like colors. Every color of
the spectrum can be produced by mixing the primary
colors. Possibly some emotions are primary and if
mixed, form all others emotions, like joy and acceptance
combined results to Love.
14. 3. MANY OF THESE EMOTIONS
ARE POLAR OPPOSITES
Emotions appear across each other on the emotion wheel, like love and
remorse or joy and sadness. Plutchnik believes one cannot simultaneously
experience emotions that are polar opposites.
4. Emotions Vary In Intensity
15. PLUTCHIK'S WHEEL OF EMOTIONS
(PRIMARY & MIXED EMOTIONS)
-was a psychologist who studied
emotions, suicide and aggression. He
believed that there were 8 basic
categories of emotions-
anger, fear, sadness, disgust,
acceptance, and joy.
Plutchik stated that all other emotions
evolved from these 8 basic emotions
and he illustrated the relationships of
one emotion to another in a wheel
diagram. From this diagram, you can
see the shades of colors change with
respect to the various emotions felt.
22. SECONDARY EMOTION
If we experience fear , the secondary emotions would
be : feel threatened or feel anger , depending on the
situation we are experiencing.
23. FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONS
3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONS
( BY FELDMAN )
1.Preparation for action
- we are able to respond to changes in our environment because
our emotions enable us to prepare to respond to the stimulus in
2.Shaping future behavior
- one factor that shapes our future behavior is our emotion.
- constant exposure to stimuli that stir our emotions enables us
to learn, relearn and unlearn a certain behavior.
3.Helping us interact more effectively with others
- we are interacting with one another almost every time.
- understanding our emotions and emotions of others enables
us to sympathize with others.
25. POSITIVE EMOTIONS
Positive emotions that lead one to feel good about
one’s self will lead to an emotionally happy and
SOME OF THE POSITIVE EMOTIONS ARE:
26. NEGATIVE EMOTION
Negative emotions sap your energy and
undermine your effectiveness. In the negative
emotional state, you find the lack of desire to do
SOME OF THE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS ARE
27. THEORIES OF EMOTION
Does your heart pound
because you are afraid...
or are you afraid because you
feel your heart pounding?
THEORY OF EMOTION
Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological
responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
The first one is the oldest of the four. It
is known as the James-Lange
theory. As you may have guessed,
this theory originated from two
theorists called William James (1884)
and Carl Lange (1887).
The concept of William James and Carl
Lange about emotion is that we are having
emotional experiences as the result of the
body's reaction to the environmental
We experience emotions as a result of our
physiological changes that produce specific
C R Y
S T R IK ER E A C T S A D
A N G R Y
I N T E R P R E T
1842-1910 1834 - 1900
THEORY OF EMOTION
subjective experience of
The second theory is known as
the Cannon-Bard theory. It
began with the work of Walter
Cannon. He thought that the
James-Lange theory was
flawed for a number of reasons
32. SCHACHTER’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
To experience emotion one must:
be physically aroused
cognitively label the arousal
33. MANY YEARS LATER, TWO PSYCHOLOGISTS CALLED STANLEY SCHACHTER AND
JEROME SINGER PROPOSED ANOTHER THEORY. THEIR THEORY, KNOWN AS
THE SCHACHTER-SINGER THEORY, SUGGESTS THAT EXPERIENCING AN EMOTION
REQUIRES BOTH BODILY RESPONSE AND AN INTERPRETATION OF THE BODILY
RESPONSE BY CONSIDERING THE PARTICULAR SITUATION THE PERSON IS IN AT
THE MOMENT (SCHACHTER & SINGER, 1962).
34. RICHARD LAZARUS
Richard Lazarus developed the Lazarus theory of emotion. His
model basically states that a thought must occur before an emotion
or physiological response can take place. Therefore, a person sees a
bear (event), the person thinks "I am going to be shredded into tiny
little pieces" (thought), and the person simultaneously feels fear
and prepares for "fight or flight."
Bear (Event) => "I am going to die" => fear (Emotion) + "Fight or
Flight" (Physical) Stanley Schachter
35. LAZARUS COGNITIVE
It is the stimulus that causes emotional reaction. However,
this emotional reaction undergoes the process of cognitive
appraisal mediatus or ''to come between'', which means that
before the actual physical arousal and emotional experience
the person first interprets the arousal before experiencing
physiological and emotional experience.
This theory is a completely different type of
theory and explains our experience of emotions
in relation to its opposites. Richard Solomon and
John Corbit suggest that the experience of an
emotion disrupts the body's state of balance and
that our basic emotions typically have their
opposing counterparts (Solomon & Corbit,
37. SIGMUND FREUD
Sigmund Freud believed that mental illness came from repressed
emotions in the unconscious mind. Freud believed that release
and acceptance of these denied or repressed emotions and
memories were vital for mental health. If this emotional energy
was not released, Freud noted that it led to physiological
symptoms and illnesses. He termed these physiological
manifestations of emotions "psychosomatic." Severe
psychosomatic cases of repressed memories of trauma led to a
diagnosis of "hysteria.“
38. DEVELOPING EMOTIONALLY
1. Exercise restraint and temperance and moderation in the
expression of your emotion.
2. Cultivate a sense of humor.
3. Learn to accept the inevitable things in life.
4. Develop an attitude of consideration and respect for the rights
of other people.
5. Pursue a hobby that will open new avenues of interest, engage
your attitude and divert it from the routine, humdrum work of
6. Be humble to accept your own mistakes.
7. Avoid the occasions that will cause your trigger violent
8. Redirect the expression of certain emotions through
substitution of more desirable ones—this is sublimation.
9. Learn to accept yourself for what you are.
10. Cultivate friendship.
39. QUOTES ON EMOTION:
Colors, like features, follow the changes of the emotions.”
Every role varies greatly, just as emotions vary greatly.”
"An emotion is a complex psychological state that involves three distinct
components: asubjective experience, a physiological response, and
a behavioral or expressive response.“
~(Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2007