• An effective presentation makes the best use of the relationship between the presenter
and the audience. It takes full consideration of the audience's needs in order to capture
their interest, develop their understanding, inspire their confidence and achieve the
PLANNING YOUR PRESENTATION
Questions to ask yourself
Identify your aim.
Explore the topic of your presentation.
Know Your audience.
The main points you want to include.
Convince your audience to your point
Prioritize expected outcomes from your
CHURNING YOUR BRAIN
The first step in preparing a presentation is
to learn more about the audience to whom
you'll be speaking. It's a good idea to obtain
some information on the backgrounds,
values, and interests of your audience so that
you understand what the audience might
expect from your presentation.
STEP 1: ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE
Now the next step is to select a
topic that is of interest to the
audience and to you. It will be
much easier to deliver a
presentation that the audience finds
relevant, and more enjoyable to
research a topic that is of interest to
STEP 2: SELECT A TOPIC
Once you have selected a topic, write the
objective of the presentation in a single
concise statement. The objective needs to
specify exactly what you want your
audience to learn from your presentation.
Base the objective and the level of the
content on the amount of time you have
for the presentation and the background
knowledge of the audience.
As you research and develop the
presentation keep the above mentioned
topics cautiously in your brain during
STEP 3: DEFINE THE OBJECTIVE OF
Determine how much information you can present in the amount of
time allowed. The body of the presentation is where you present your
ideas convincingly and you need to illustrate and support them in the
Present data and facts
Read quotes from experts
Relate personal experiences
Provide vivid descriptions
Listeners may quickly become bored by lots of facts and tire of hearing
story after story
STEP 4: PREPARE THE BODY OF THE
Decide how you will begin and end the talk.
Ask questions to stimulate thinking
Share a personal experience
Begin with a joke or humorous story
Project a cartoon or colorful visual
Make a stimulating or inspirational statement
Give a unique demonstration
STEP 5: PREPARE THE INTRODUCTION
Most people spend hours preparing a presentation but very little time practicing it.
Speaking from Memory
Speaking from Notes
Speaking from Text
Using a Combination
STEP 6: PRACTICE DELIVERING THE
A distinct advantage of speaking from memory is
your ability to speak to the audience without
relying on notes or a script.
This allows you the flexibility to move away from
the podium and to maintain eye contact with the
However, speaking from memory has
disadvantages, too. Presentations from memory
often sound rehearsed and the possibility exists
that you'll forget an important point, present
information that's inaccurate, or completely lose
your train of thought. If you decide to deliver your
presentation from memory, have notes handy to
jog your memory just in case!
SPEAKING FROM MEMORY
Many people like to speak from notes. Typically these notes are
either on cards or paper in outline form and contain key ideas and
information. If you are using an electronic presentation tool, you may
be able to include your notes in the presentation itself.
The benefit of delivering a presentation from notes is that you sound
natural rather than rehearsed and you can still maintain relatively
good eye contact with the audience. The down side is that you might
not express your key ideas and thoughts as well as you may have
liked had you planned your exact words in advance.
SPEAKING FROM NOTES
Speaking from text involves writing your
speech out, word for word, then basically
reading from the text. As with speaking
from memory, an advantage of this
method is that you plan, in advance,
exactly what you're going to say and how
you're going to say it.
A disadvantage is that you might appear
to the audience to be stiff or rehearsed.
You will need to make frequent eye
contact and speak with expression to
maintain the audience's interest.
SPEAKING FROM TEXT
The best method of all the three is combination
method. For instance, experts suggest you
memorize the first and last ten minutes of your
talk so that you can speak flawlessly and
without notes. Notes may be suitable for
segments of your presentation that you know
very well, for example, relating a personal story.
Finally, speaking from a text might be
appropriate when you have quotes or other
important points that you want to make sure you
communicate accurately and completely. You
can make a smooth segue to written text by
saying something like: "I want to read this quote
to you verbatim, to ensure that I don't distort the
USING A COMBINATION OF METHODS
The conclusion is an essential though frequently underdeveloped section of a
overview of what has been achieved and make a lasting impact.
Important elements of a conclusion are:
a review of the topic and purpose of your presentation: "In this presentation I wanted to
a statement of the conclusions or recommendations to be drawn from your work: "I hope
to have been able to show that the effect of ....";
an indication of the next stages (what might be done to take this work further?): "This
does of course highlight the need for further research in the area of ...";
an instruction as to what happens next (questions, discussion or group work?): "I would
now like to give you the opportunity to ask questions ...";
a thank you to the audience for their attention and participation: "That's all I have time
for. Thank you very much for listening."
• The word “prop” comes from
the term “theatrical property”. If
you watch a play, props are
objects used by actors on stage
to add realism to the story and
to help advance the narrative.
Common props that are used in
a play include tables, chairs,
lamps, umbrellas. The list goes
on and on.
WHAT IS A PROP?
• In a presentation, props are objects that the speaker uses to enhance
the impact of a presentation.
• The size of the prop is limited only by the size of the stage.
• Most props are small enough to be handled by the presenter.
• Slide presentations such PowerPoint, Keynote and Prezi are also props;
however, they are such a specialized form of prop for presentations that
they deserve separate consideration.
• The well-timed use of a well-chosen prop can make a big impression
on the audience. Props can help a presentation in several ways:
• They can make a point concrete.
• They can have an emotional impact.
• They can be effective metaphors.
• They can inject humour into a presentation.
• They focus the audience’s attention and interest.
• They are memorable
PROPS HELP A PRESENTATION
1) The prop must be relevant to
• It might seem axiomatic, but
without question, this is the most
important rule for using props. If
the prop does not, in some way,
contribute to the objective of your
speech or presentation, you should
not use it.
TIPS FOR USING PROPS
• The larger the audience, the more care you must take to ensure that everyone
can see the prop. It is frustrating for those who are sitting at the back if they
cannot see it. Even for small audiences, a speaker must be sure that people can
see the prop. This means holding it up or setting it up high enough and for
long enough so that people can get a meaningful look.
2) MAKE SURE THE AUDIENCE CAN SEE
If you use more props than is appropriate for your presentation, there
is a risk that it will come across as Vaudevillian rather professional.
is no “right” number of props to use, though in many cases, one will
It depends on a number of factors such as the amount of time you
have, the nature of the props, whether the props are related, etc.
No two speeches are the same and each requires its own “recipe” to
turn out right.
3) USE THE RIGHT NUMBER OF PROPS
The more complicated the prop, the greater the chance that something
can go wrong. Test it, test it and then test it again beforehand. This is
especially important if the prop forms a key part of the presentation;
for example, if it is an invention that you are revealing to the public.
4) MAKE SURE THE PROP WORKS
Many props are simple items with few or no moving parts. The
chances that they will not work are next to zero. But what about
complicated props ?Or what if you forget or lose your simple prop?
Can you adjust? Do you have a backup plan?
5) HAVE A BACKUP IN CASE THE PROP
• The speaker must be comfortable in handling the prop from start to
finish. This means revealing the prop, handling it, operating it (if
applicable), putting it away and, of course, speaking about it.
6) BE COMFORTABLE WITH THE PROP
Where possible, keep the prop hidden until you need it
This is more easily done with small props that you can keep in your
pocket or behind the lectern. However, it might be possible with larger
props if you have a big stage with a back curtain or wings. There are
two main advantages with keeping the prop hidden: it will not distract
the audience while you are talking about something else; and the
impact of the prop will be greater if it is only seen when you reveal it.
7) KEEP THE PROP HIDDEN
If you talk about the prop before showing it, build a sense of
anticipation before the audience sees it
Doing so will focus the audience’s attention and give the prop greater
impact when it is revealed. Of course, this requires the right
choreography and the prop needs to live up to the expectation that you
create; however, when done well, the effect is powerful.
8) TALK ABOUT THE PROP PRIOR
Unless you will need to refer to the prop again, I recommend putting it
away (or at least to the side) once you are finished using it.
Otherwise, the prop could be a distraction for the rest of your talk.
The speakers must put the props away, put them to the side or had
assistants can take away the props when they were finished with them.
9) PUT THE PROP AWAY WHEN YOU
ARE FINISHED WITH IT
when it comes to preparing a presentation and the same holds true for props.
With thousands of objects from which to choose, use your imagination and try to
think of unusual props that would have a real impact on your audience.
One idea is to think about metaphors or analogies for the points you are trying to
make and then look for the relevant item. It might be as close as your kitchen
10) BE CREATIVE WITH YOUR PROPS
WHAT DOES GLOSSOPHOBIA FEEL LIKE?
• When faced with having to give a
presentation, many people
experience the classic fight-or-flight
response. This is the body’s way of
preparing to defend itself against
• When threatened, your brain
prompts the release of adrenaline
and steroids. This causes your blood
sugar levels, or energy levels, to
increase. And your blood pressure
and heart rate rise, sending more
blood flow to your muscles
STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING GLOSSOPHOBIA
There are some strategies that you
can use in combination with tradition
treatment or on their own.
For example, you might find it
beneficial to take a public speaking
class or workshop. Many are
developed for people who have
You may also wish to check out an
organization that trains people in
Here are some other tips to help you
navigate public speaking situations:
• Strategies To Overcome
Know your material. This doesn’t mean you
should memorize your presentation, but you
should know what you want to say and have an
outline of the key points. Give special focus to
the introduction, because this is when you are
likely to be most nervous.
Most detrimental - catastrophising:
“I think I am going to faint”
“I’m sure to make a dreadful mistake and that will ruin
Best kind - realistic appraisal:
“I’m bound to make a few mistakes, but so does everyone.”
“The audience wants me to play well and will make allowance for a
DURING YOUR PRESENTATION
• Keep in mind that 40 percent of the audience fears
public speaking, too.
• There’s no need to apologize for being nervous.
Instead, do your best to accept that stress is
normal and use it to be more alert and energetic.
• Smile and make eye contact
• Take advantage of any opportunity to spend a few
moments chatting with them.
• Be sure to take several slow, deep breaths to help
calm you down if needed.
• Even if you do not like the topic, develop an interest in it.
• Be extremely well-prepared.
• Anticipate hard and easy question.
• Memorize your opening statement.
• Strategies for preparation
• If your presentation is being videotaped before a live audience, ignore
the camera. Likewise
• If you are being interviewed before a camera, the viewer expects to
see you communicating with your ‘live’ audience or interviewer.
• If you are interviewed by a television reporter, keep your comments
short and to the point.
• If you must face a hostile interview on- camera, avoid the appearance
of surprise. The only preparation is to expect an opening question that
is hostile, direct, admissions, or explanations.
On Camera Techniques
Try not to hold the microphone by hand in
the first minute.
Don't hold notes. The audience can see
them shake. Use three-by-five cards instead.
Use eye contact. It will make you feel less
Look at the friendliest faces in the
Joke about your nervousness. What's the
right wine to go with fingernails?
Strategies When You are on Stage
Speak Up! Make sure to speak a little louder than
Slow Down! When you are giving your speech
You can do this!
Believe in yourself!
• Some Tips For Eloquent Speaking
Applying some of these techniques
Overcome Your Anxiety
Obviously, there aren't butterflies fluttering around your stomach, but what causes this
You've likely heard of the "fight or flight" response-the nervous system's way of
preparing the body for danger.
When this kicks in, usually in a situation that's causing you anxiety, your body releases
This increases your heart rate and redirects blood away from your stomach and toward
your arms and legs (preparing you for fight or flight).
The reduced blood flow to your stomach causes that 'fluttery' sensation.
Where Does This Feeling Come From?
Control The “Butterflies”
How to Alleviate Feelings of Anxiety
1. Practice intentional breathing.
2. Take care of yourself and declutter your
3. Challenge your negative thoughts.
4. Visualize positive outcomes and plan for
the day ahead
5. Accept uncertainty.
6. Surround yourself with positivity.
Extensive Practice can Take You From
Here...... To Here
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