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  1. 1. 2 0 1 3/4 ŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē @+câ ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤ ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤē ΓΪΤΘϤϟ΍ϢϣϷ΍ΔϤψϨϣ ΔϓΎϘΜϟ΍ϭϢϠόϟ΍ϭΔϴΑήΘϠϟ
  2. 2. @+câ 5y?qk yc;py€f ΓΪΤΘϤϟ΍ϢϣϷ΍ΔϤψϨϣ ΔϓΎϘΜϟ΍ϭϢϠόϟ΍ϭΔϴΑήΘϠϟ
  3. 3. 2 2 0 1 3 /4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē łĭťŨ 12RqSȞʘ`6[fw€Za5pxShlR%pyux˅ɧx2fTl'Ȟm:t52Byc;py€f fyh_;kQyKk66_f4u ˅kyc+fx;:ȞxȖbyfxr6.ȘA/Țrkɩb12Rx66_f ~Țpyp_fTFyfo?yc;py€gf~ 5~ rRǛqlFǺSȖw€Z1yȞE6R_6JxQyKȞ4uȕk2/;Ȟ€l;fox ˅vky/x u1x2*m:5x rbkȚt4uKg:o?Ȗxʘ_Kqkx q2kx m€g^x 2g lbqCȞ4uȕ15yf1yȞE6R_6Jx5€.€fx;kT€l'gfm€gSf2B6fȞSf66_f12RqSȞ`6[fhl+x 62khl+lb˅ȇlOqȞi8gǠȖxyc;py€f6OpvxrR5xȏfǺSȖfxw€Z5yb4Ȟ5ȘrR€fx;Ȟhl+ ˅66_fȕ15yf5Șx6OqfvxrR€fx;Ȟhkb66_f T€l'gfm€gSf2B6fȞSf66_f`6Z 7x5ɪfy˄62Ȟ ʘyǺg19yb5kxʘ~ɩl€r5xʘȗg€eyc€pxʘ~5ɪf1kxʘ€q€pyKp 9ypkxʘXpyk€b kyb r1ygbx ʘi€gx ak 62;f x ʘɩgbyf y;p6Zx ʘoy;py x52p x ʘ~ɩ r6bx ʘk5u pyx ʘȇpȗ˝ȁ€g€:yb ov€px ʘl€: q€5kx ʘy˝Yyqx5 5kx ʘok25 €bx ʘq€Zyp52p5 $1yx ʘx8€byk ˅~ɩ7 }l: x ʘo2: ɨ€lx ˅vlR1x yc;py€f ȗ€v; hG[ 52C h_;k ~yq: QyKk T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f ˄ɧf oyqSf ȠR eCȖ }6 ʘ66_f rR kygSȞ rk 28k ȠR eyC+gfx EFA Global Monitoring Report team c/o UNESCO, 7, place de Fontenoy Paris 07 SP, France 75352 Email: efareport@unesco.org Tel.: +33 1 45 68 07 41 www.efareport.unesco.org ˄T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_gf _;f 52BȜ hlSf €G_Ȟ m€gSf ɩ/; ˄5vȞx ?f ˄2012 m€gSfx +g;Ȟ R8qf ˄€[/f k7Ț ˄2011 ɪkx6+Ȟ YCp ȟ h€;f ˄2010 m€gSf ȕ x;Ȟ `€_+ ȕ lby+f €lu ˄2009 `_+q: hu ˄2015 iR eyg+ T€l'gf m€gSf ˄2008 ʚY2vf 4u g*6k ȕ €ǻfx R6f eȗ. rk q€k : :5 ˄2007 6cȞ fy[Kf €+f h rk €6_f ˄2006 1y'f olF 5xȎ ˄T€l'gf m€gSf ˄2005 x;Ȟ y+p 8[^ ˄T€l'gf m€gSfx ɪ;q'f G^ ˄2004˝2003 ʚ,€+Cf `6Kf ȠR mfSf ɩ; hu ˄T€l'gf m€gSf ˄2002 ˅QyKȞ 4u Dp ȕ 16 yv: x K. ~ yC ˕̸̸̸˅̵̧̢̦̳̦̱̰̳˅̶̴̯̦̤̰˅̨̰̳˖ pǻpȜ ȠR *Ȟ SKf ȕ ~6'€: 2014 ʘyc;py€f ͱ Ny[+k ]y_+f T€l ȟxȚ SKf Z_#fx mgSfx €ǻgf 2+Ȟ mkȚ lOqk rR 2014 iR ȕ 52B 7, Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France y: kyfy ˄YȗWf 5yB FHI 360 ˄ɨc?f m€lCf yc;py€f ˄%6.Ȝ Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available yc;py€f ˄RKf 2€Gqf ED-2013/WS/29
  4. 4. 3 łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē 62C w^x ȕ } ǛȔy;k ǛF6R i2_ T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f rk ȃR ~1+f 12Sf 4u o 2lǠR f m€gSf e'k ȕ €ȞSf Y2uȚ `€_+ y+p [g/Ȟ o2gf w76* ~4f i2_f rR 2S Ȟ €ȞSf €lqf K. gB ȕ m€gSf TFyf y^ Ǜ''* 66_f i2_ df4b ˅2000 iR ȠR okR Ȗ `ǟ mf wp x k ˓ʚ,'qq: hu˔ e ;f )6J 2^ 2008 iR ȕ 66_f ob ˅2015 ˅[qf Ȝ o ɨ'f rk hS' iSf 4u 66_ oZ ʘ2015 Q[pȖ o ˅952Ȟ ȕ y;€f J; mvpȚ ʘmgSf ȟ ox6_[ h[J oy€gk oy;l.x S: e8 Ȗ ]+fȖ ȕ oy+'q r4f dfx }* mgS ]yS ty;k p2 o h ʘ2€*yf k7Ț €f m€gSf mf x 952Ȟ y_+f y: ʘ€::Ț oylgS Ȗ 2Ȗ m€gSf r: ȕ e[JȚ $g#Z ˅952Ȟ mgSf ɩZyf u1yv [RGk kyc+f iSf 4u 66_ 2q ʘqZ2u `€_+f Ǜ€S:x ˅y_+g ˅6. hkR ~ x mv?€R ock x q'f x 6_[f ; y: ˝ `ySf oyvy r4f hcf k7Ȗ 5xȎ mv€pck ]ȗJ oZ 4fx ˅w€lgSk zy;l l€gS iOp ~ 1y 9_ lp 5yu2x ˝ ɪlgSȞ mR1 Tk r;+ m€gSf zy;k o f1Ț #x ˅mgSf zy;k 88Sf f ?f ɪ €kțf k1Cf y;Ȟ ȟ eyByf ȕ mv; k yux ʘmR2f y_g mf 3 ˅66_f 4u u6b4 m€gSf m€lS h rk ȕF mgSk oy€gk 1˅6 €Nyf u1yv #c o kyc+f ȠR ' 2x8 h rk ɪlgSȞ hGZ ɩZyf €'€ǻ: T5 66_f 12+x ˅2015 eyg+ 2Ȗ ȗKf Qyq oy;cS $€+ ɪ:qȞ ɪlgSȞ 5€. ' ʘuȖx ˅1y'f ɧR m€gS e[JȚ rk Ǜ2 ʘɪlgSȞ SF 2p;k ȠR ɪlgSȞ 52 ' ʘv€px ˅mv2 ȠR oy:52€: r4f eȗ. rk mgSf ȕ x;Ȟ i2R ec ȠR G_f ȟ Y2v #f#f €'€ǻ:Ȗx ˅6cȞ h*6Ȟ ȠR ' ʘǛɩ. x ˅qSȞ 2gf ȕ ǺbȚ 2+f hc? f +pȚ ȠR ɪlgSȞ hGZ T7y ǛB6*x qvȞ ȕ 56l:Ȗ ȠR mvS€'?f 8Zy+f rk :qȞ k8+f ɪlgSȞ 2x8 kyc+f ˅mvZx6N rR 6Oqf Yȉ ʘmvS€l e[JȚ mgS o ȠR rcl Ȗ ɪlgSȞ o ,Fy ǛG 66_fZ ˅mu2*x €fx;Ȟ ySgKG o Wq Ȗ ɪlgSȞ rcfx m€€_gf €'€ǻ:x Ǜ2€ llCk (uqk 2y $€* ʘ:qȞ ]€;f ȕ Ȗ ˓ySK;˔ o mvf ˅mgSfx m€gSf zy;k ɪ;+f ˅hylf ȕ Ǜɩb ǛɩW 2v?p o ~5xȏf rk wpZ 4fx ˅v[gb vf :€;f ȕ ɩ€Wf t4ux lq€ ʘq;f ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 26 t52^ l hylf wC_q Ȏ+f ^yf ȕ Ȁ:Ț m€gSfZ 5l#:Ȗ H[Ǣ/ o kyc+gf `+ Ȗx 7y' Ȗ ʘg*6Ȟ t4u ȕx ˅pySȞ E[/p hBy yux ˅v;[p ȠR vSK^ f 1yRyf hyl rR +pȞ v'f Tǻ Ȗ Wq lb ʘm€gSf ȕ ˅gSf €*Ȗ hylf 22 h: Y?c: ȓ_ k
  5. 5. 4 2 0 1 3 /4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē łĭťŨ ˅2015 2S Ȟ k2;Ȟ €lqgf 22 €ȞR K. UyCp r+px hȖ2f rk mgSp o q€gR Y2uȚ rk g_f ȕ mgSf ȕx m€gSf Q[pȖ ȕ x;Ȟ TFy o ' ʘ66_f ,Fy lbx oylgS r;f 5WBx e[JȚ T€l o rlGp o df4b q€gRx ˅h_;Ȟ ȕ m€gSf B/f y+C€f mvf k7ȗfx vg_p rcl f 5vȞ ;bȖ B6[f mv2f o x Z6SȞ €:: ˅ɪ€ȞR ɪqJyk ɪk7ȗf 2B6fx SȞ 6 }q; }* ʘv:€^ rcl +Fx Y2u 22+ q€gR ' df4b ˅df3 2S }_ f 6W#f 2;fx ʘy;f ȠR +pȞ v'fx kyc+gf o ǛS€l kyc+f ȠR ' ʘv€gR ɩ;p 22 K/f qSFxx 2015 iR rk qǻ^ Tkx o ȗ' 66_f 4u ȕ 15yf f1Ț #x ˅Sk'f €lqgf Ǜ8[+k w[By m€gSf ȕ 6l#; ʘ 6Ȟ Ǣqck ʘiȚ lǢgR 3 dpZ ˅€lpȜ Y2uȚ T€l ȕ 76+Ȟ i2_gf 56l:Ȗ 6Zy m€gSf u t4u ˅1C^Ȗ lpx Sl'Ȟ ɩǢW ʘ€g+Ȟ Sl'Ȟ lgR 3x ˅e[JȚ €* 4_p x ˅iSf 4u T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f f:5 Zyby q6 yc;py€gf kSf 62Ȟ
  6. 6. 5 łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē k2_k 2_Sf z2k ȠR t76* m ~4f i2_f rk mV6f ȠR wp ,G ʘT€l'gf m€gSf Y2u `€_+f vqf 2RyȞ eyg* ȠR ɪkR rk h^ _ Tk iSf 4vf T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f oZ ˅2015 iR eyg+ ȞSf 2€SCf ȠR 1y?qȞ Y2uȚ rk Y2u ~ `_+ rf ʘȒȞ [ mf ʘdf3 Tkx ˅ȒȞ 2_Sf z2k ȠR m€gSgf *Ȟ A6[f rk yk6*Ǡ Ǜ?€lv 6#bȚ [f ȟ ɪlqȞ A/Ț o _€_* ȠR 2? 2b 7'p h rk 2015 iR 2S k ǻ[f m€gSgf ɪk ȞR 5J TFx m o ~6uy'f rkx ˅€vqf h*6Ȟ ȕ i2_f ɩx Tǽf 2S oxȚ Tk _Z6 3 Ȗ 2015 iR 2S k ǻ[f m€gSf Y2u `_+ rfx ˅22'f 2+gf w3 ^yf ȕ ~2Cf Tk elR rk t7'p m mf k pySlgf +pȞ v'fx kyc+f SFx 3x ʘ16Z ~ eluȜ e'k }_ Ȗ $€+ 2B5 Ȃl pǻ_kx 9€_gf g^x +Fx Y2u ˅m€gSf hylf 12+k ǛZ2u `€_+ 12B ȕ 76+Ȟ i2_gf Ǜ#2+ wqk exȚ 8'f E6S ˅8 ȗ ȟ 2014/2013 ǻ[f T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f m;_qx €lqf Y2u `€_+f ~y€* 6k yu m€gSf e'k ȕ i2_f o ȠR Ǜ+Fx Ǜȗ€f1 p#f 8'f i2_x ˅T€l'gf m€gSf B/f ;f Y2uȚ k7 7x' ȕ mvlR1 €W ɪlgSȞ ^J ]ȗJ ȟ k6 y^ :€: 4€[q €lu ȠR yGf Lg;€Z $f#f 8'f k ˅2015 iR 2S ˅€ȞSf mǢgSf 75f,kȗȞ iR ȕx ˅6cȞ fy[Kf g*6k ȕ €ǻfx R6f ȟ e[JȚ rk Ǜ2 ɩb 12R 6_[ ʘ8'qȞ q€;+f rk mV6f ȠR ˄1 Y2vf ■ `;f m€gSf 5WCf e[JȚ Cp rk 6_ k T[p ʘ2011 iR ȕx ˅i8_f rk ;k/f ox1 e[JȚ rk %25 }pR ʘ2012 ˅%18 ;p m€gSf 4u rk e[JȚ C* 7x' mgZ zǺcf 6+Cf yq €_6Z ȕ k ʘ€2Ȗ g*6lgf ȕ h[J oy€gk 57 952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV e[JȚ 12R Xg 2_Z ˅T:x @kv 2Ȗ m€gSf m€lS `[/ o ,6Ȟ rk ˄2 Y2vf ■ [f ȟ €lqȞ €[f ;p Xg mf ʘzǺcf 6+Cf yq €_6Z ȕx ˅R8qf 6Ȟ o2gf ȕ mv[Cp @€S ʘ2011 iR y+qf ȠR u'Ȗ 6l: 3x ˅2_Sf vp eyg+ %23 zy: €[6f `JqȞ ȕ 2Ȗ m€gSf g*6k rglc: ygf ɩ_[f iR ȕ [f }qV ȟ ɪlqȞ o€[f z2f 2Ȗ m€gSf il m€lS }q; Yy;Z ʘ_KqȞ ȕ ɩ.Ț pxȘ ȕ w€gR pb ~4f ˅2086 iR ȕ Ȗ Ǜ6_Z 2Ț €[f z2f df3 `€_+ }q; rf lq€ 2021 12R Xg ʘ2011 iR [Z ˅~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ȕ ;cȞ €::Ț 5vȞ ȟ ɪ_u6Ȟ rk 22Sf 6_[ ˄3 Y2vf ■ o2gf ȕx ˅2004 iR rk Ǜ^ȗKp 4u ɪ_u6Ȟ 12R ȕ [€[J 17 h€'; Tk ʘ`u6k oy€gk 69 952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV ɪ_u6Ȟ %14 ȟ e2SȞ 4u H[/qx ʘL_Z %37 ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ oyglc r4f ɪ_u6Ȟ ;p Xg ʘH[/qȞ h.2f 3 6+Cf yq €_6Z ȕ ǼȚ 6_Z ȟ €lqȞ €[f rcl Ȗ o T^yȞ rk ʘɩ.Ț u'ȗf Ǜ_Zxx ˅Ǜ6_Z 2Ț A/Ț z2f ˅2111 iR ȕ Ȗ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ il rk zǺcf ǛF[/p h#l k ~ ʘ5cf z2f k oy€gk 774 aqu ob ʘ2011 iR [Z ˅ySC Ȗ 5cf z2f €kȚ y+k r;+ mf ˄4 Y2vf ■ ɪ€kȚ Ȗu $gx ˅2015 iR eyg+ k oy€gk 743 Xg€f €[J hc? 12Sf H[/q o T^yȞ rkx ˅2000 iR 4qk L_Z %1 w;p ˅2072 iR }* €kqf o2gf ȕ Ǜ6_Z 2Ț ?f z2f €6_f m€lS `€_+ m Ȗ 2^x ˅;qf rk mu 5cf ɪ;q'f ɪ Zcf `€_+ Eǻ[Ȟ rk ob yfx }* ˅o2gf rk 22Sf ȕ 1yyk ɪ;q'f ɪ x[f wx e8 Ȗ ˄5 Y2vf ■ vqk %38 ;px 2011 iR ȕ 2Ȗ m€gSf zy;k ȠR Y2vf 4u __* 2^ o2gf rk L_Z %60 ;p oZ ʘ2005 iR eyg+ ˅~yp#f m€gSf zy;k ȠR w__* 2^ h[J oy€gk 250 ɧy* aqvZ ˅€::Ț mgS ȟ ox6_[ e[JȚ rk ɪȗȞ o €p2Ȟ €Ryqf x3 m€gSf qS ˄6 Y2vf ■ yq;f [gcf Xgx ˅:52Ȟ ȕ h^Ț ȠR yq: T5 yGk e[JȚ Ȗu Cp o rk mV6f ȠR €::Ț 5vȞ oylgS e ~6' Ǜ6_ o2gf $g [Z ˄Ǜ€:: Ǜ6k ɪlgSȞ ȕ 5l#:Ȗ h#lx ˅Ǜyq: c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 129 ɧy* h?[f 4u rR lqf ɪlgSȞ 52 ȕ h#lȞ ~2+f 2ǢS ʘdf4b o2gf $g ȕx ˅€qJyf ɩSlgf Ǜ_Zx 2Ȗ m€gSf lgSk rk %75 rk h^ 52 ˅mv52x 12 ɪlgSk €Ny rk y: Ǜ6k ɪ€f+f
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  12. 12. łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē 11 o T^yǠ rk%70Xg Y2uo2gf Zcf`€_+ ɪ;q'fɪ m€gSfȕ eyg+2Ȗ 2015iR 5cf z2f €6_f Ȗ2Sk }p1 h'; f ;l/f o2gf v€Z €6_f 5vk y;b r4f ;p Xg 3 mfSf ȕ H[/q v3 ;l/f o2gf o ɪ 2^x ˅%35 rk h^ %25 ;p ;qf z2f €6_f 5vk ;b Ȗ2Sk v€Z o2gf ȕ h';Ȟ e2SȞ L:yk h#l f %50 ;p h_k t4u r;+ Ȗ T^yȞ rkx ˅zǺcf 6+Cf yq €_6ZȚ :52f rk 2l;Ȟ p€f ȟ 1q:Ȗx ˅Ǜ6^ u'Ȗ rk Ǜ2g 12 ȕ €[f Cp rk h^ o ,G ʘ€C_:Ȗ ˅€6_f 5vk r;b 2^ ȃR ;l/f o2gf t4u ɪ;q'fɪx;ȞxZcf`€_+˄5Y2vf Ȗ2Sk h€'; ɪk ~ ʘɪ;q'f ɪ Zcf `€_+ o yK/f h#l ʘ952Ȟ 2€_f ȕ o€Cfx €[f ɪ x;k ˅T€l'gf m€gSf Y2u rk k/f Y2vf `€_+ t' ȟxȚ ʘɪ;q'f ɪ x;Ȟ ɪk ~ ʘǛȗkb Y2vf `€_+ ox :5llgf (xǻfx ʘ€k €:52k Yx6N f[b df4b gK ȠR €[fx o€Cgf Zck A6Z ɩZyx ʘ8€€lf rk €f/f ˅qkcf mv^Kf oqSf ]ȗJ rk mvq€clf y: 2* g€g^Ȗ*ȕȖm€gSfh*6kz2*ȕɪ;q'fɪZcfh.2fG[/qȞo2gf`_+mf˄6hc?f 2011 ʘo2gf h.1 Z ;+ [qCk ʘ]+fȖ ;p ȕ ɪ;q'f ɪ Zcf __* f o2gf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ m€gSf ~yp#f m€gSf 2Ȗ h.2f S[6Ȟ o2gf €gSf +ȃf rk h.2f K:yȞ o2gf €p2f +ȃf rk h.2f K:yȞ o2gf h.2f G[/qȞ o2gf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf ɪ;q'f ɪ x[f o€[f ;* ȠR ɪ;q'f ɪ Zcf ɪ;q'f ɪ x[f €[f ;* ȠR (%) o2gf 100 80 60 40 20 0 m€gSf 2Ȗ m€gSf 2Ȗ m€gSf 2Ȗ rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ~yp#f m€gSf C*ȝf yc;py€f 2vSk ˄52CȞ Z €qC r ɪ;q'f ɪ x[f Ilp rx ʘH[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf Z [Z ˅h.2f ;+ o2gf %20 ,'q 3 ˄€[f ;* ȠR x[f oyc k 1R m€gSf zy;k ȠR ɪ;q'f ɪ Zcf ɪk ȕ o2gf rk lq€ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ȕ %10y€2Ȗ m€gSf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ȕ Zck A6[ rvqk %8 Tl Ȗ ux ʘh.2f S[6Ȟx K:yȞ o2gf Z ȕ k ˅~yp#f ɪ Zcf `_+ f o2gf rk Ǻb Ǜ12R mG f [f ȕ ox6 o€Cf oZ ʘm€gSf zy;k ob Ǜ ɪ;q'f m lgb Zcf i2R 6uOl 28k hc? o2gf t4u HS ˅~yp#f m€gSf rk €gSf g*6Ȟ ȟ €p2f g*6Ȟ rk _5Ȗ g*6k ȕ Zcf i2R rk o€Cf pS ʘe#Ȟ h€: ȠSZ o2gf Z ȕ €gSf +ȃf o2g rk %2 ȕ 2Ȗ m€gSf ȕ ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ȕx ʘL:yȞ h.2f 3 t4u rk %62 ȕ wqk €gSf g*6Ȟ ȕx ʘo2gf t4u rk %23 ˅˕6 hc?f) o2gf
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  17. 17. 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē łĭťŨ 150ɪrk 6ZyǛ2g p€ ʘvp? Ǜ2g41i^ ][pL_Z 6#b x %6 (qfrk ky_f ȠRɧlȜ ȕm€gSf 2011iR 16 i8fȖ o2gf ȠR ɪS ~4f XgȞ 5b1 hlR 5J 12+ mfx aǻ?k hyl Y2u 22+ i2R f;k (ǟfS o Wqx ˅w Y2u TFx eȗ. rk 2015 iR 2S T€l'gf m€gSf Y2uȚ rR h_ Ȗ k D€C/ o2gf ȠR ɪS ˄ɧf yux 12+k Ǜ2g 150 ɪ rkx ˅m€gSgf ɧlȜ ky_f (qf rk %6 rk 6#b x %6 ][p L_Z Ǜ2g 41 i^ ʘvp? p€ 6Zy 96Ǣb ɪ* ȕ ʘ2011 iR ȕ m€gSf ȠR ɧlȜ ky_f (qf ˅ɧlȜ ky_f (qf rk %3 rk h^ Ǜ2g 25 df4f %20 D€C/ o2gf ȠR ɪS wp ǛȖl w€gR `[Ȟ rkx ȞSf L:yȞ Xg df3 Tkx ˅m€gSgf v€p8€k rk h^Ț ȠR Ǜȗ€g^ Ȗ ;qf t4u ɩW mfx ʘL_Z %15 ;p 2011 iR ȕ i^ ʘvp? p€ 6Zy Ǜ2g 138 ɪ rkx ˅1999 iR 4qk o ɪ* ȕ ʘ2011 iR ȕ %20 rk 6#b ][p L_Z Ǜ2g 25 v^[p G[. L:ykx H[/qk h.1 3 h^Ț ȠR o2g 6 ;q ʘkyc+f ][pȜ rk C* t5R ʘm€gSf ȠR ˅2011x 1999 kR ɪ 6#b x yk I_p 5 ˅k1_f yq;f ȕ TFyf 4u r;+ o T^yȞ ɩV rkx LK. ʘ2012 iR rR vp? p€ 6Zy Ǜ2g 49 ɪ rkx 2011 kR ɪ m€gSgf CC/Ȟ v€p8€k H€[/f Ǜ2g 25 €_6Z ȕ Ǜ1yyk Ǜ2g 16 aqu ʘo2gf t4u ɪ rkx ˅2012x ʘo2gf t4u rk ǛGS oZ ʘdf3 Tkx ˅zǺcf 6+Cf yq g;f wyf 4u kx^ ʘ€y€x ɪqx o;pWZ v€Z l ˅m€gSgf CC/Ȟ v€p8€k TZ6 o T^yȞ rkx o2gf rk 22Sf ȕ ~1C^Ȗ ylqf ^J rk 1[:ȗfx v2R^ T€:y kyc+f ȠR ɪS ʘmfSf ȕ Ǜ6_Z 6#bȚ df4 k^ 3x ˅m€gSgf v€p8€k l. D€C/x €ȏf vf rcl€Z ʘL:ykx H[/qk h.1 3 fx1 67 kyc* m€gSgf c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 153 t52_k ȕF Xgk D€C/ ȠR ][pȜ C* L:yk 28 o df3 o rkx ˅2015 iR ȕ ;p ȟ %3 ;p rk h_qZ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk m€gSf ˅2015 iR eyg+ %6 ɨ+Ȟ v'p TZ6f ɩ2 4/ f ɩ_[f o2gf u g€g^x i8g k 4ux ʘȏf 17 eȗ. rk %20 ;q ɧlȜ ɪ rk L_Z o2g 7 iy_x ˅€[fțf €lpȜ Y2uȚ `€_+f v'p 28 Ȏ h€C+ vp? p€ 6Zy Ǜ2g 67 v ȊyȞ ;qf D€C/x %20 ;q ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ 2Sf h#l ʘo;b [Z ˅m€gSgf v16 rk %20ux €;€6f _Sf rk _R i7ȗf hylf [b i2R 2S i7ȗf hylf ȕ 8'Sf Xgx ˅T€l'gf m€gSf `€_+ ik 2015 iR eyg+ T€l'gf 2€'f Ȁ:Ț m€gSf `€_+f T€l ]+f Y2u hS lk ʘc6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 26 t52_k k Ȗl* o :țf x2x ˅eqȞ 2€S Ǜ6k 952Ȟ e[JȚ 7x' k1_f yq;f ȕ v2R;k +pȞ v'f H€[/ ɩ2 3/ m mf 3x ˅2R;Ȟ dgf v17 Ȗl* olF ȕ h#lȞ Y2vf oyc€;Z ʘpySȞ Ilp ɩ€Wf gR eyg+ mvlǢgS olFx mv:52l e[JȚ T€l ]+f ˅Ǜ_* 6K/gf F6R 2015 iR ɩC_f ^yf eȗ. ɧȞ 8'Sf 2: h€+;Ȟ rk x2 2^x 4u ȕ 52Ȟ ȗ€g+f o 2€ ˅2015 iR eyg+f _Ȟ 17 eȗ. rk 8'Sf 2: rclȞ rk wp ɪǢǠ 66_f €kyc+f 15yȞ rk €Zb C* D€C/x €g+Ȟ 16Ȝ eȗW: ȕ 8€bǻf 17x m€gSgf S^yȞx l_f ˅€5/f 2R;Ȟ 2S 22'f m€gSf Y2u ʘT^yk yu lb ʘ2k 3x 8'Sf oZ ʘ~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ȟ 2015 iR o yf rkx ˅c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 38 ȟ T[ɩ: ɧȞ gK +Ȉ €gyl ǛZ2u 2015 iR 2S k 5J rlG €fx;k +pȞ v'f T€l hl+ $€+ gkb €Z[ Zyf i2R ȟ €fȞ y'[f qSZ2 Ȗ $€+x vk8f ˅e[JȚ t' q;[p ȠR uqSK^ f 1yRyf m€gSf`€_+rR2€Sfo2gfrk22SfȠRɪS m€gSfȠR28Ȟ][pT€l'gf ʘɩ.Ț yq;f ȕ m€gSf ȠR ɨ+Ȟ ][pȜ 117 2_f h.2f 3 o2gfx H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ l€: Ȗ r;+ ȟ Ǜ€8 df3 T6x ʘ€p2f +ȃf rk L:yȞ ȕ ʘm€gSf ȠR kyc+f ][pȜ 117x ˅~1C^Ȗ uylp (qf rk %5˅1 ;p ȟ %4˅6 ;p rk h_pZ ʘL:yȞ ;qf S[5x ˅2011x 1999 kR ɪ ɧlȜ ky_f ˄L:yȞx H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ QǼ y+p ȠR ;q o2gf t4u rk Ǜ2g ɪȗ ȕ m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ 117Z ɪ ɧlȜ ky_f (qf rk 6#b x 2*x yk K_p ˅2011x 1999 kR
  18. 18. łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē T;frcl fx1ɪ:x XgkD€C/ t52^ȕF 5Ȗx15€gk153 m€gSgfc6k 17 `6JrR *ȗB6 T€:yf 2R_f]Kp €ȏf iyRȚ ǻZ eyJ r2Sf bȂ Tk _[Cf HS 6 XgȞ e1S k ~ ʘ2012 iR ȟ 2010 iR rk 2lȞ ȗ#f ˅2011x 2010 ɪkSf ǻZ eȗ. m€gSgf DC/Ȟ 6vf rR (q ʘmfSf ȕ Ǜ6_Z 6#bȚ o2gf rk 22Sf ȕx mOp ?p rk ǛȖ2 €C/?f vx6#f /qf q ȏf 5Ȗx2f rk py€gǻf pb yfx ˅€gVȚ 2€[ y^ €l€gS SF. €ȏf 3ȗȞ ȕ Ǜ2€S €[/k oyc o vf 52_Ȟ rk %20 ;p m€gSgf CC. yfx ʘeȞ 9 5 )5 ȏf )xǻ hyl QK_f }qV 2^ df3 ocf ʘhCǢ+Ȟ h.2f 4u ˅c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 56x c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 38 ɪ t52^ €_6ZȚ kyc+f €pyp_f ɩV €ȏf :5lȞ gcx rk 2+f z6 yfx ˅Ǜyq: 5Ȗx1 5€gk 63 y+q 52_ k ȠR hCǢ+Ȟ h.2f rk %20 ;p ][p mx :5lȞ dg 5Ȗx1 5€gk 13 t52^ ȕF Xgk ɩZy ȟ df3 z1Ț ʘm€gSf ˅iR hb QK_gf c6k )ȗBȜ €glR 51 kyc+f ȠR ɪS wp ɪ* ȕx ˅iu ɨ€lc 5x2 QȗKFȖ +pȞ v'gf rcl ʘȏf mOqf 88Sf +pȞ v'f wSZ2 2*x 5Ȗx1 ockZ Ǜ5Ȗx1 350 t52^ ǛWgk 6Zǰy o ʘe#Ȟ h€: ȠR ʘ€ȏf rk h^ ][p m df3 Tkx ˅€ȏf 16Ȝ 5J ȕ Ǜ€c6k kR ɪ €ȏf (kǺgf ǛlR1 2R;Ȟ ɧl rk %0˅1 ex2f kyc* ȠR ɪS ʘdf3 ȟ ZFȜx ˅2011x 2002 ˅€Z[?f olG vp2g ȕ g';Ȟ bȃf fK o +pȞ ɪ* ȕ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk L_Z %10 ;p €ȏf 3x ˅kyc+f ][pȜ rk L_Z %10 ɧy* m€gSgf DC/ (qf rk %14 ȟ €ȏf v2R 18 kyc+f k^ t4u l. D€C/x 2015 iR eyg+ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ T€l ɪclf eykȚ rk [c k 6Zy 2_Z ʘm€gSgf 2Sf ˅952Ȟ ]+fȖ rk v€_u6kx o;b e[J f ʘǛ2g 67 ɪ rk ʘȃR z2*Ȝ o2gf rk €y€ 2Sx rcfx ʘvkyc* €p8€k ȕ yfx m€gSf hS ȕ +'p ȟ €ȏf v2R TZ6f ɩ#c df3 rk 6#b hS[ o vqcl 2R ȠR kyc+f gC* ʘ2011 iR [Z ˅ȋ^Ț u2* ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk %12 ;p ʘL:yȞ ȕ ʘ Wg ȏf rk oZ ʘ2015 iR eyg+ %16 ȟ ;qf S[5 3x ˅ɧlȜ ,€ lk ˝ %18 ;q 15yȞ rk 28Ȟ ȠR hC+€: QK_f hb ȠR ][pȜ ȕ Ǜ€c6k Ǜ5Ȗx1 19 u52_k 17 `€_+ wf ˅m€gSf rk €2Ȗ g*6Ȟ ]+fȖ r: ȕ h[J (qf rk Ǜ8 v[By ʘ€ȏf 16Ȝ oZ ʘdf3 Tkx ˅Wgf ɩ_[f o2gf ȕ 22 L ylq ʘɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ o2gf ɪ rk L_Z o2g S5 ʘ€f+f Ȗ2Slgf Ǜ_Zxx rR h_ k ȏf rk Ǜ€f* hC+ f ɪS5Țx €pl#f %20 R Uyg vp rk ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk %20 ;p ˅2015 iR eyg+ o kyc+gf 2€ hc? hlS ~4f ȏf iOqf ,€x ˅ɨ+Ȟ 2€SCf ȠR hylf 5J ȕ l€gSf vkOp mR2 dgl ɪg[fx 2qvfx ȉk h#k L:yk h.1 3 o2g lx rk m€gSf _5ȗf €g+k 15yk Sf ɩ#c Ǻb pck y;k Q[5 2R;x ˅€ȏf v16 ɪ;+ eȗ. rk vqcl €[€b ɩ;[ ȠR h7Ǻf ȕ €ȏf 16Ȝ r: ȕ h[J hb ȠR 2qvf w_[q k YSF ȃR ][p ˅m€gSf rk €2Ȗ g*6Ȟ ]+fȖ ɩb €Ȏ [R €: yq ȕ o2gf HS ,qlx Uyg ȟ ~1 lk ʘ3y[qf 3 €g+Ȟ Rl'f rk Ryl'Ȟ ȕ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf ȟ ȏf ;p ȕ zy;k }p1 (qf ȟ ȏf ;p ɩ;[ rcl ʘo;b [Z ˅mfSf ygf 3y[p eȗ. rk 8 hc? %10 Wff ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ R58f QK_f o ɪ* [Z ˅Ȁ€;f 2€SCf ȠR R58f oZ ʘo;bf ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk %22˅5 ;p hc? ˅L_Z %1˅2 Xg €ȏf 16Ȝ ȕ v mv; f C+f ȟ 5x2vȞ €ȏf 16Ȝ €fV TǻZ ʘ2qvf ȕ k Xg 2^x ˅%pȜ Ȏ rkx €ȏf iy:6f rk [RȜ rk %5˅7 e1S k [RȜ ȟ z8S ~4f 2Sf o2_Z ;p CC. yfx ˅2013/2012 ǻZ ȕ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf ȕ hC* 2^ QK_f ocf ʘm€gSgf 5x2vȞ l€_f t4u rk %20 ~ ʘc6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 22˅5 t52^ ȕF Xgk ȠR 2012 iR €p8€l p5_k Ǜ6_ %40 ;q hylf ȕ 17 h#l k ˅l_f m€gSf 15yȞ eȗW:Ȗ 7€k T€ f kyc+f HS aqux 5yvl ǽ. 2_Z ˅€_€_+f vl€^ rk h^ €S€Kf '€p 5Ȗx1 5€gk 1˅36 t52^ ǛWgk €J6_l2f yWpycf © Eduardo Martino/UNESCO
  19. 19. 2 0 1 3 /4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē łĭťŨ rcl *ȗBȝf ȟ€k6f 15yȞ17 2Ǣ:€g+Ȟ rk%56 ȕ8'Sf hylf ~yq;f A/f m€gSf Ȁ:Ț 18 rk yfx m€gSf hSx ʘ€ȏf v2R^ T€:yx ɪ YSF ȗ m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ 17x ʘ€gSf vyfx ˅2010x 2003 kR 15yȞ 17 L_Z ~5xȏf rk €f ʘT€l'gf m€gSf `€_+fx 15yȞ t4u T7y 1R ǛG ~5xȏf rk h ʘm€gSgf €g+Ȟ +f k ȕ mu r4f dfx [Cqk C+ }O+ $€+ y+p w'f o€*Ț rk ɩ#b ȕ 15yȞ Y6+q ʘdf3 Tkx ˅v€f m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ hy+ }q; }*x ˅yO* 6#b mu rk €f kyc+f rk 22Sf h.1 ʘ?lvȞ [f ,fCf `JqȞ HSf 15yȞ rk 28Ȟ v:: ȠR DC/ hylgf 28k ȟ %+ f 952Ȟ rk Ryl'Ȟ HSf x 2gf ȕ ˅x;Ȟ i2Rx m€gSf rk ok6+f ȠR gWgf mR2f rk ʘh7Ǻf oZ ˅u15yk T7y 1R ȕ [g/Ȟ v^6J o2ggfx hb ȠR ][pȝf ǛqǢ€Sk }p1 Ǜ2* rlG ʘe#Ȟ h€: ȠR €[6f `JqȞ ȕ 1yyȞ 952lgf yfxȚ KR Tk 4€lg ˅ɩb 2* ȟ ɪ?lvȞ ɪ€gBȚ oc;f Rl ȠR 8€bǻfx mgSfx 952Ȟ ȕ 2€_f Ȗ2Sl _5Ȗ ȟ *ȗBȜ 1 x ˅2gf rk kx6+Ȟ el?f _Kqk ȕ Ǜ*'p T7yf 1R B/f z6.Ț (kǺf `ǟg mf ʘdf3 Tkx CC/Ȟ e8 Ȗ wp ȕ df3 : 2* h#lx ˅Ǜȗlk 2€'f m€gSf ɩZy €fc Yb y+p ȠR cS Ȗ h[J hcf 6#bȚ Ȗyf rk 2*x ux ʘȖɩb Ȗx ȕx ˅ɪ?lvlgf 4€lg hcf DC/Ȟ m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ Xg ʘ2qvf ȕ 6 ȕ ʘXg 2_Z ɩ_[f 5v€ Ȗx ȕ k ˅Ǜ€c6k Ǜ5Ȗx1 685 ɧy* ˅L_Z c6k 5Ȗx1 100 ʘh_Ȟ f [f 22+ ȕ ySB 2' o ɩ_[f o2ggf rclx 22Sf iy_ ʘdf4f '€px ˅vZ2v:x +f 2 ȕ u ɪg';Ȟ 4€kȗf 12Sf Ǜ_Zx CC/Ȟ T7y o2gf rk rk ɩb Ǜ12R mG f `JqȞ ;* ȠR ʘ952Ȟ ȕ lȗk C* D€C/x €ȏf 16Ȝ 18f rclx ˅8€x ǻZ ȕ QK_gf ɩb €ZF 15yk 2?* m€gSgf vqk 2B6f ȞSf 66_f 12R qSȞ `6[f 62_ ɩ?x o2gf rk Ǜ2g 67 iy_ o rclȞ rk wp ȟ T€l'gf m€gSf 52_l m€gSf 15yk 18 L:yȞx H[/qȞ h.2f 3 rk 2015 iR eyg+ %72 ;q ~ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 153 ɨ+Ȟ (qf ȟ ȏf ;p TZ6f *ȗB 6 eȗ. ˅m€gSf ȠR iSf ][pȜx ɧlȜ ][pȜ L:yk T[6 o t4u ɪ;fx S;f o2gf ȕ rclx rk m€gSf rk €2Ȗ g*6Ȟ ]+fȖ r: ȕ h[J hb ȠR ˅2015 iR ȕ Ǜ€c6k Ǜ5Ȗx1 466 ȟ €c6k 5Ȗx1 209 S;f o2gf t4u ɪ rk H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ k ȕ h[J hb ȠR ][pȜ L:yk T[6 o rcl€Z ʘɪ;fx 158 ȟ 102 rk m€gSf rk €2Ȗ g*6Ȟ ]+fȖ r: ˅Ǜ€c6k Ǜ5Ȗx1 hS[f ɪ;fx S;f o2gf t4u rk Ǜ2g ȃR S5 Xgx (qf rk %6 rR h_ Ȗ k ][p ȕ h#l ~4f )ǻ_Ȟ Y2vf ɪ;l/fx ȗ#f o2gf ɪ rkx ˅m€gSf ȠR ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ df3 `€_+ vqk ȃR S;f rcl ʘY2vf 4u `_+ mf f ][pȜ hSx vSyqx €ȏf v2R^ T€:y k^ k 3 ˅˕10 hc?f) 2015 iR eyg+ vyfx rk m€gSf ȠR rk %56 ;p €g €g+Ȟ 15yȞ ȟ ZFȜ t4vf rclx 5Ȗx1 5€gk 26 Xg ~4f ~yq;f hylf ȕ 8'Sf L:yk rk Ǜ2g ɪS5 x ; `gS l€Z Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȕ c6k ~ ʘ€p2f +ȃf rk L:yȞx H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf m€gSf ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 38 Xff 8'Sf rk %54 ;p ˅~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ ȕx Ȁ:Ț 2^ 5x1ybȜ pcZ ˅`y: rk yg/ Ȗ *ȗBȜ t4ux ʘ€K[qf bȃf Tk 1y_Sf ȠR Ex[f 1R k^ 15yȞȕɩb17`_+o m€gSfȠR][pȜyfx 22+ȟZ1vfɩ2fxȏf2v'fȕ[€[Kf18fork˄10hc?f €p8€Ȟ ȕ m€gSf C*x ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf ȟ ȏf ;p rk hb Q[5 f* ȕ 2015 iR ȕ ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk yk ;qb m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ ˕%) ɧlȜ ɨ+Ȟ (qf rk C+b m€gSf ȠR ][pȜ 9 hl+Ȟ zy;Ȟ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ˕2011) Ȁ:Ț zy;Ȟ 5lp€k €k7 €q€V 6_?V2k Ȗl€yV cpȖ ~Ǽ ɪg[f @1ȗWq ox6kcf €;€px2p }K:yf €_6Z 5yvl €kV 1ylb 2qVx 5y[1 yb yV5c€p 6'€qf 1? €S?f €J6_l2f xȖ 5yvl y:Z q€b5y x;€ €q€V ɩ€f o;b e€p €q€k5 €y€ oy€fɩ: ɩ'€p 6WȞ o;pWZ ɪq €p5yk ɧk p€V 2px5 eWq;f 22'f €q€V y €J6_l2f yWpycf 5yvl 2qvf o;c€J €5y yVy ǻ5 ~yk7 ~yV5 €u o:8€Vɩ^ ȉk rl€f ~xȗk oy ȖyWp €fyWqk lpȜ hylgf €fx2f ;:Ȟ ʙC*ȝf yc;py€f 2vSk p€ 2R^ ȟ Ǜ1q: ʘ˕2013) T€l'gf m€gSf 2B6f ȞSf 66_f qSȞ `6[f u6 ;* ˄51CȞ ˅˕2013 ʘ2012) ɧx2f 2_qf ]x2qB ʙ˕2013) i[;bx x
  20. 20. łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē pySȞ2v CC/Ȟ Ȁ:Țm€gSgf 2011iRȕ vfT6ex 2002iR4qk 19 ȠR L_Z hC+ f ʘH[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf k 2v 2_Z ʘȀ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ pySȞ $g 5_ k w2v lk Ǻb Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ pySȞ ȕ ǛF[/p ȕ %9 ;q pySȞ G[/p 2_Z ˅L:yȞ h.2f 3 o2gf g_pZ ʘ2011x 2010 kR ɪ H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ˅c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 1˅86 ȟ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 2˅05 rk Ǜ5Ȗx1 18 rk h[J hcf *Ȟ 15yȞ E[/p ȟ df3 z1 x ˅2011 iR ȕ Ǜ€c6k Ǜ5Ȗx1 16 ȟ 2010 iR ȕ Ǜ€c6k Cp rk 6#b mG f ʘzǺcf 6+Cf yq €_6Z ȕx pySȞ G[/p ʘmfSf ȕ 952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV oc;f ˅2011x 2010 kR ɪ %7 ;q Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ t4u ȕ Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ pySȞ H[/q mf yfx Ǜ€Zb XgȞ 4u ocf c6k 5Ȗx1 oy€gk 134 52_l _KqȞ ˅h[J oy€gk rk 6#bȚ 952Ȟ ȕ 2€ rbk hylf ˅q: rk 6#b 12k ȠR pySȞ G[/p ʘo2gf HS ȕx ]+f ȟ €k6f 1yv'f mR1 ȕ Ǜ€:: Ǜ5x1 pySȞ 1 2_Z rcfx ʘ2+Ȟ €p8q 5yvl ȕ 952Ȟ e[JȚ rk 28Ȟ 2010x 2009 kR ɪ %12 ;q G[/p pySȞ t4u ˅2011 iR ȕ %57 u52^ €ZF ;qx i2Sf ǛF6S 6#bȚ [f oyg#l r4f ʘmfSf e[J 6_Z k 3 o2gf ȕ L_Z oy?€S Ȗ mvpZ ʘ952Ȟ ]+fȖ h.2f 3 o2gf HS ȕ ǛG oy?€S lpx H[/qȞ h.2f ȟ Ǜ2g 25 }_5 ʘ2000 iR 4qlZ ˅€p2f +ȃf rk L:yȞ o2gf 12R Xg lq€ ʘǛ2g 54 mG +B f ʘ[f t4u rk %84 ;p pb ʘ1999 iR ȕx ˅Ǜ2g 36 h.2f G[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ @€S 952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV mfSf e[J +ȃf rk L:yȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ %12x H[/qȞ o2gf ȕ oy?€S mvqk %37 ob ʘ2011 iR eyg+x ʙ€p2f rk L:yȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ %49x H[/qȞ h.2f 3 _5 ȟ €;€5 5yC ey+f 4u z8Sx ˅€p2f +ȃf ʘe#Ȟ h€: ȠR €q€b [Z ˅952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV e[JȚ ȗKf 12R 9: ȠR 16[f CC/Ȟ T7y ~6' ȃqȞ OZ+k ȃR qȖ ,fB ȕ 4u €fx ʘɪg';Ȟ %46 ;qf ǛqJyk 2S fx g*_f wx g*_f `JqȞ ȕ ˅952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV oc;f rk 1R ȟ €k6f ɩ2f rk zyC_f pckȜ `€_+fx 15yȞ t4u KW o olF kyc+f ȠR ɪS ʘT7yf 2Ț [gf 2€'f m€gSf ɩZy €glSf gkcf [gcf mOqf 52^ 88S z2Ȟ 2€Sf *ȗBȜ iy_ o x Ǜ[SF ˅ɩ2f t4u h#k 4€[q ȠR €l€gSf m€gSgfCC/ȞpySȞȕu'Ȗ ʘ952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV e[JȚ 12R ȕ r;+f 1yb5 ȟ Ǜ6Op T€l ]+f olGf ikȚ ȟ ɩ. SZ1 KR rk 2 Ȗ =lcpȖ h^ }+Z ˅2015 iR eyg+ 952Ȟ e[JȚ u1yRy Zyf rR [g/k +pȞ v'f pb ʘ~1C^Ȗ ȕ Ǜ6.k !2* ~4f Tǻf o lb ˅m€gSf hyl `gS l€Z ˅lvȞ t4u 1 ySB rk 17 Ȁ:Ț m€gSgf pySȞ m2_ 2S 16J 28 m€gSgf CC/Ȟ pySȞ pb lq€x f* ȕ vZ oȘ k ʘ2010 iR ȕ vx53 ȟ gBx ʘ2002 iR m€gSf y;k T€l'f k2_Ȟ pySȞ Qyl'k oZ ˄5yu2 ˅˕11 hc?f) 2011x 2010 kR ɪ %7 ;q H[/p 4qk ȟxȚ 6lgf Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ pySȞ G[/px ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 6˅2 rk g_p 3 ʘ%6 ;q 2002 iR pySȞ k ˅2011 iR ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk 5˅8 ȟ 2010 iR 2010 kR ɪ %11 ;q G[/pZ ~yp#f m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ 6kȚ 4u hǢ#lx ˅ǛȗSZ H[/qk zy;k ȕ pb o 2S 2011x hk ~ 12vx T€l'gf m€gSf Y2u `€_+ €pck 12v Ǜ6K. k Y2u ɪlG ȟ €k6f *ylKf Y2uȚ rk 28k `€_+ ȕ ˅~yp#f m€gSf rk €p2f g*6Ȟ m€lS Y2u 2015 iR 2S 2011x2010kRɪ5Ȗx15€gk152_lm€gSgfCC/ȞpySȞ G[/p˄11hc?f 2011˝2002 ʘm€gSgf CC/Ȟ pySȞ RyZ2k Qyl'k 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ˕2013) ~1C^Ȗ o2€Ȟ ȕ €lqfx oxSf lOqȞ Sf €lpȜ 2R;Ȟ q'f ˄52CȞ ~yp#f 2S k m€gSf ~yp#f m€gSf Ȁ:Ț m€gSf 2011 iSf #f 6S;f ʘ€c6kȚ 5Ȗx2f 5€gl 0 6.7 2.7 1.1 3.0 8.9 4.4 1.2 3.3 9.2 4.2 1.4 3.6 10.2 4.7 1.3 4.2 11.4 5.1 1.7 4.6 12.5 5.3 2.0 5.1 12.3 5.0 2.0 5.2 14.4 5.6 2.5 6.2 14.4 5.7 2.5 6.2 13.4 5.4 2.2 5.8 ĞŰŹŕŭŨėĹŸĘĩġĠŮŨș2011ūĘŔƁŜ ƁļĘļǠėŮƀũŕġũŨĞŅŅıŭŨė ŪİĴŨėĞʼnŝıűŭŨėůėĴũěŨėƁŜ ķǜŸijķĘƀũŬ1,9
  21. 21. 2 0 1 3 /4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē łĭťŨ QK^}_g m€gSf L_Z%1.4 pySȞrk €p;pȜ 20 hylf c6k 5Ȗx1 oy€gk 5˅2 u52^ +qk ȠR gC*x ʘ5'p8f CC/k pb pySȞ dg hb o 2€ ˅€l€gSf vK. hx ȕ ɧx2f dqf rk 2gf t_g l p5_k ɩWB XgȞ o lb rk €ȞSf bȃf 2B6f Ǜq€;+x ˅2000 iR ȕ 2 ~4f 2_Sf _Z2 rR Ǜ66_ i2_ o v€gR ɪS ʘvkv: m€gSf h oxSf lOqȞ Sf €lpȜ 2R;Ȟ q'f ȟ v2f pySȞ gSZ lb Ǜkl ʘ˕˴˪˨˩˝˩˦˨) ~1C^Ȗ o2€Ȟ ȕ €lqfx *_gf ȞSf f+f h#k ʘ+Cf €qSȞ €ȞSf `1qCf ˅5ȗȞx h;fx 72Ȝ +ZcȞ ȞSf ]x2qCfx ʘɪC+fx rR ^y: €flȜ pySȞ o ȠR e2 k aqu €fx 2011 iR rlZ ˅2015 iR ȕ h#lȞ vqf 2RyȞ h^ 5yu2f k^ 3 ʘ%4 ;q €flȜ pySȞ G[/p ʘ2012 iR ȟ €lpȜ 2R;Ȟ q'g K6Ȟ +pȞ v'f rk v 16 H€[/ ~1C^Ȗ o2€Ȟ ȕ €lqfx oxSf lOqȞ Sf 6k ȕ pySȞ v'f t4u rk v 13 gS 2_Z ˄vpySk :q f vpySk H€[/ `6J rR yfxȚ $€* rk }p1 h^ hl+ o T^yȞ rk obx ˅ɧlȜ ky_f h.2f Tk k2_Ȟ €q#f pySȞ o 3 ʘG€[/f t4u R Ǜylp o2gf rkx ˅2012 iR ȟ 2011 iR rk %12˅8 ;q G[/p v€f o2gf rk Ǜ2g 31 ȕ 2013 iR ȕ 2R;Ȟ H[/q o T^yȞ ȕ o2gf t4u mOSk T_x ʘH[/qȞ h.2f 3 ɪȗ#fx ;f ˅zǺcf 6+Cf yq €_6Z vk8f L_Z ex1 l. [ o T^yȞ rk ʘdf3 ȟ ZFx x5xȚ 1+Ȗ ȕ ȃR l/f GRȚ ex2f ɪ rk ky_f h.2f rk %0˅7 ;p ȟ vpySk 18 g^ f ʘu1yRy o2gf t4u Zx 3x ˅2015 iR eyg+ ɧlȜ 9 52_l 2015 iR ȕ m€gSf CC/k 28: vpZ ˅c6k 5Ȗx1 5€gk }O+ o Wq€Z R8qf 6Ȟ o2gf ȕ m€gSf k Cp mG o2gf t4u oZ ˅+pȞ v'f z2f yfxȚ %1˅4 Ǜ€f* m€gSf }_gx ˅952Ȟ ɪ_+gȞ ɩV mfSf e[J R1 f %4 Ǚf ;p rR 2€S ux ʘ€p;pȜ pySȞ rk L_Z €ȞSf ˓ǛȖx m€gSf˔ 51k ȕ 2+Ȟ mkțf iSf ɪkȚ v€f pySȞ rk m€gSf C* 7x' Ȗ T^yȞ rkx ˅˕12 hc?f) ˅2013 iSf RyFyȞ LK/f ȕ %2 ;p €flȜ €p;pȜ ʘQ8qf ; _gWk el?f 952k mOSk gN $€* ʘɧk ȕx rcfx ʘ2013 iSf pySȞ gJ rk %5 ȠR m€gSf hC* eyg+ %15 ;q Ȗ ygKȞ eykȚ m2_ 2vS i2_ mf m2_ €gSZ 2vS i2_ mf ʘh#Ȟx ˅2013 Ǻl:/eyg ˅%36 ;q Ȗ 5y: ȕ m€gSgf 2013 iR ȕ ygKȞ 15yȞ ygKȞ eykȚ rk 28Ȟ ȠR ȗC+ 2^ r2gf r4u o Tkx yZ 2S : eykȚ t4u oZ ʘ2013 iR rk _*Ȗ ǻZ ȕ rk ǽf ȟ x6KF r4f e[JȚ ɪȗk ȟ ;qf oxȚ ˅Q8qf ; 952Ȟ ǛG mvȞ oZ L_Z €lu ȁc ~4f yu 2R;Ȟ Xgk €fx A/Ț 2 Y2v; $€+ pySȞ t4u i2/; €b yu 3 ˄*Ȟ 2R;Ȟ T€l oy_g Ȗ e[JȚ Ȗu oZ ˅Ǜpk6* r4f ȗKf ȠR `[q m€gSgf CC/Ȟ ȂȞ pySȞ T5 o €:52f ,qȞ o Tkx ˅€qWf o2gf ȕ Sk'f ȕ oy:52 h.2f o2g Z ȟ oc;f rk ɩcf 12RȚ 3 o2gf HS ˅o;bx ɩ'€px 2qvf vqkx ʘ€p2f +ȃf rk L:yȞ Tl'f ɩ#c 6#b yu k hS[ o T€K; o2gf t4u o Tkx dfx ȠR 15yȞ t4u T7yx m€gSf hylf 15yk rk v2f k ]6W;: *ȗBȜ t4u oZ ʘv€f +f k mu r4f wy o +pȞ v'gf Wq ʘw;[p ^yf ȕx ˅ǛȗyJ Ǜ^x rk L:yȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ S^yf `JqȞ ȟ vpySk ok6* i2R olF €W ʘ6_[f v€Z 8bǻ f ʘ€p2f +ȃf ˅m€gSf ȕ mv_* rk o2gf t4u ȕ e[JȚ rk 6. h€ Ǻb 52 m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ ȂȞ pySȞ G[/p 2^x z6. RK^ ȟ k2_Ȟ pySȞ ȕ iSf E[/pȖ rk Ǜȗ€g^ pySȞ C* G[/p df4x ʘ2011x 2010 kR ɪ pySȞ E[/p cSx ˅%11 ȟ %12 rk m€gSgf CC/Ȟ v'f rk ɩb 12Sf ɩWȞ ][pȜ Ilp m€gSgf CC/Ȟ ȠR ʘ2+Ȟ Ȗyfx 2qfyux ;p6Zx 2qb G[. 2_Z ˅+pȞ pySȞ G[. lk 6#b m€gSf ȠR v^[p ʘAyC/f wx +pk v 21 G[. ʘ2011x 2010 kR ɪx ˅€flȜ m€gSf ȟ vk2_ f pySȞ RyZ2k Y6JȚ 12Skx €q 2+Z m'+f $€* rk zǺcf H€[/f €glR k ˅Ȁ:Ț €p:x 2qfyux o€fx ;p6Zx x5xȚ 1+Ȗx 2qb ȕ pySȞ H€[/ rk %90 Sl'k g#k f ʘ2+Ȟ Ȗyfx ˅Ȁ:Ț m€gSgf CC/Ȟ m€gSgf €q +pk v Ǻb vpyb rk 2+Ȟ Ȗyf g_px h#lx ˅2011 iR ȕ €p#f 6Ȟ ȟ 2010 iR ȕ Ȁ:Ț f pySȞ k ˅m€gSgf +pk v Ǻb Ǜ€f* 2+Ȟ cglȞ $g#f rk 6#b G[/p 2_Z Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ 2qfyu vk2_ +pk v Ǻb fx2f t4u pbx ʙ2011x 2010 kR ɪ 1+f 6Ȟ ȟ f8p vqcfx ʘ2007 iR ȕ Ȁ:Ț m€gSgf ˅2011 iR eyg+ ȃR v2R;k ɧx2f dqfx ɧx2f 2_qf ]x2qBx €fǻ: 17x 2011x 2010 kR ɪ Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ k2_Ȟ €flȜ 2_Z ˅H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȕ v^[p G[. vqcfx Ȁ:Ț m€gSf ȟ ɧx2f dqf vk2_ f pySȞ S[5 3 o2gf ȕ %23 ;q G[/p vqcfx ʘǛȖl %13 ;q ȕ ǛF[/p 2+Ȟ €p8q 5yvl 2vx ˅H[/qȞ h.2f 2002 iR ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 oy€gk 88 rk ɧx2f dqf RyZ2k ˅2011 iR ȕ c6k 5Ȗx1 oy€gk 0˅3 rk h^ ȟ Ǜku Ǜ52Ck ˕GPE) m€gSf h rk €ȞSf bȃf h#lx ʘ2011 iR [Z ˅H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf HS hylf t52^ Ǜ€:€^ ǛWgk m€gSf h rk €ȞSf bȃf _[p h+ vgS lk ʘȀ:Ț m€gSf ȠR c6k 5Ȗx1 oy€gk 385 f zǺcf +pȞ v'f ɪ rk S6f 6Ȟ q;f dg ȕ h.2f 3 o2gfx H[/qȞ h.2f 3 o2gf ȟ pySȞ i2_ ɪȗ#fx 2*yf o2gf ȟ ;qfx ˅€p2f +ȃf rk L:yȞ k2^ ʘ2011 iR ȕ (kǺf 4€[qf +qk ȠR gC* f CC/Ȟ pySȞ rk %24 m€gSf h rk €ȞSf bȃf k Wg 2^ oyc o df3 Tk ,6Ȟ rk €fx ˅Ȁ:Ț m€gSgf €p8q 5yvl +B x ˅][pȜ H€[/ ȕ ɧx2f dqf wWg 2013 iR ȕ m€gSf h rk €ȞSf bȃf ȕ ǛcȂ 2+Ȟ
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  26. 26. łĭťŨ 2 0 1 3 / 4 ŒżũĥťŤŪżťőĝŤēİŀĴŤŽũŤĔőŤēĴŻĴŝĝŤē 25 2012 5,7 2 1 % 49 % 15 2,8 0,9

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