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Dean r berry the art of persusion and influence

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Dean r berry the art of persusion and influence

  1. 1. How to Persuade and Influence Others By Dean Berry, Ed. D. The Teachers’ Choice Library
  2. 2. •Free PowerPoint Version at •Slideshare.com •Type PPT title or dean r berry
  3. 3. Personal success has a lot to do with your ability to influence those around you. Success on the job as well as success in personal relationships is greatly dependent on your ability to persuade and influence others. Why do think this is probably true?
  4. 4. In order to understand how to influence the decisions that others make, we need to understand what motivates people or drives their behavior. What do you think causes people to do the things they do? Let’s see if we can come up with 5 or 10 motivations.
  5. 5. Experts tell us that people are often driven by emotions, needs, wants, desires, and beliefs. It might be fame, fortune, or forgiveness. It could be love, friendship, or recognition. Whatever motivates people is the key to how one can influence their decision making. Do you agree? Explain.
  6. 6. There are many techniques that you can use to influence the decisions that other people make. So if you want to convince others to behave or think the way you want them to, this lesson will provide you with that power! What are some ways that people can use the powers of persuasion to their advantage?
  7. 7. Social psychology research tells us that if others like you, think you are an expert on the subject, and believe that many others accept your idea, they are far more likely to say yes to your idea. Paying attention to these concepts of influence can increase your personal power. Which one of these strategies do you use to get your way?
  8. 8. Are you an influencer or a follower? On a scale of 1-10(highest number means you have the most ability to influence) how much power to influence others do you think you have? Write your number on a piece of paper, fold it, and we will collect, tabulate and discuss the mean, median and mode on this issue.
  9. 9. How would you like to be able to persuade people that your ideas are worthy of serious consideration?
  10. 10. How would you like to be able to increase your personal power as well as your power to influence others as you pursue your career?
  11. 11. There are many different approaches that you can use to enhance your powers of persuasion. You will learn these as we proceed through this lesson. In brief, you will see that offering rewards to others, getting them to like you, demonstrating your expertise, and showing that others that are similar approve of your ideas can greatly increase your ability to have influence over others.
  12. 12. Principle # 1 Loss Aversion If you have an idea or solution, try not to include taking something away from those that you want to accept your ideas. You can modify things or add new ideas, but when you propose taking something away from people, you will get serious resistance. This psychological phenomena is referred to as “loss aversion”. What does aversion mean?
  13. 13. Group Discussion • 1. How would you feel and react if your school announced that students are no longer allowed to wear red or black(all shades) clothes of any kind to school? • How would you feel and react if your school gave every student a new pair of black(only)Nike tennis shoes but made a rule that they could not be worn at school? • Which rule would get the strongest negative reaction from students? Why?
  14. 14. No one wants to lose what they already have! Would you rather have a one hour assignment added to your evening or have your parent take away your phone for a day?
  15. 15. It seems to be human nature to protect ourselves from losses even though it keeps us from increasing our gains. We don’t want to give up what we already have.
  16. 16. Insisting that your opponents in an argumentative discussion give up their ideas and accept your ideas creates the resistance that is part of the concept of “loss aversion”. Why would a “my way or the highway” approach lead to ineffective problem solving?
  17. 17. Meet in Groups: Discuss and Solve Discussion Rules • 1. Allow others to “save face” by not suggesting that they give up their main argument on the issue. • 2. Propose potential solutions that address the problem without denying others their point of view. Identify several ideas that might improve local policing and result in protecting the rights of all Americans while improving safety for the police.
  18. 18. Problem solving is much more likely to occur if participants feel that they have not lost something they valued highly. Thus, the art of compromise is necessary when participants hold widely divergent views on an issue.
  19. 19. Candidates running for office avoid talking about what they will be taking away from voters. Instead, they focus on what they will give voters. Again, they understand the power of “loss aversion”.
  20. 20. Political candidates do like to tell voters what their opponent will take away from voters. The fear and anger of possibly losing something that you already have is a powerful motivator to vote against a candidate.
  21. 21. Group Discussion Meet in groups and discuss the following. • 1. Identify a list of things that a presidential candidate in the United States might promise to give people to curry favor and get their vote. • 2. Identify a list of things that candidates might take away from people but would not tell them about before the election. • 3. Discuss how knowledge about the power of “loss aversion” might result in dishonest candidates.
  22. 22. Not having something is far more acceptable than having something and having it taken away. If the government takes away people’s right to be guaranteed good medical insurance even with pre-existing conditions, many people will be outraged because of the loss.
  23. 23. Not having something is tolerable but having something taken away from us is totally unacceptable.
  24. 24. Quick Write Summarize the principle of “loss aversion”. What does it say about human behavior? How might the knowledge of this principle modify a candidate’s presentation of her/his ideas before an election? Give some examples of how this principle works.
  25. 25. “People tend to like those who like them”. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
  26. 26. If someone is trying to get you to change your mind about a controversial issue, they become the messenger for a different point of view. Do you think that you are more likely to listen to the other point of view if the messenger is someone that you like?
  27. 27. This person is trying to persuade you to vote for a presidential candidate. Which one of her or his characteristics would be the most persuasive for you? Meet in a group and share your choice. • He’s such a cool guy. • I love her smile. • She laughs at things that I find very funny. • That guy is so friendly it’s hard to disagree with him. • He’s from my neighborhood and seems like family when he talks about the old days. • She has the kindest expression in her eyes. • That political speaker is so hot. • His expression and voice are very reassuring.
  28. 28. You don’t have to love somebody in order for them to be able to influence your decision making. If that person demonstrates approval or high regard for you, you will be much more open to their ideas.
  29. 29. Sometimes in politics the public likes a candidate a lot because he represents their point of view. As a result, they begin believing or accepting everything else that the candidate says. Have you every seen this happen? Do you think it is possible to like someone so much that you become blind to their faults?
  30. 30. If you want to influence someone, find out what you like about them and honestly give them attention or compliments for what they do well. When they feel appreciated by you, they are far more likely to accept or agree with your ideas or suggestions. When a salesperson spends a long time with you and develops a personal relationship with you by talking about things you are interested in and that reflect well on you, you relax and become more open to her/his suggestions. Why do you think that this technique works? Would you trust a sales person like this more than a disinterested sales person?
  31. 31. Quick Write Summarize the principle of “liking”. Why do you think the principle of “liking” is effective? Provide an example of how one could convince others that they like them and then use this principle to their advantage.
  32. 32. Principle # 3 Scarcity It’s human nature to desire those things that are hard to get and to take things for granted that are easily available. When things are getting out of reach, we try even harder to get them. People who want us to accept something seem to know that if they indicate that it is only available for a short period of time, we are more likely to grab it before it is gone.
  33. 33. “People tend to want more of what is hard to get”. Think about advertised products that retailors run out of before you can get one. Do you agree with the first statement? Why or why not?
  34. 34. Do you agree that absence creates increased desire?
  35. 35. If you want other people to value what you have, it helps to have them believe that it is in short supply. “This is a one of a kind”. “You’ll never find another as good as this one”. “There won’t be any left by tomorrow”. Does this kind of persuasive technique create a reaction in the cognitive or emotional center of the brain?
  36. 36. If you are selling a product or idea to others, you are more likely to get a positive response by offering something new or in limited supply. Providing the same old argument or something that is fairly easy to acquire does not create much interest or demand for what you have to offer. Trying too hard to convince someone of what you are offering may result in higher resistance.
  37. 37. Only Two Left in Stock! Get them before they’re all gone!
  38. 38. Read the principle below. Do you agree? If something is hard to get, is it more desirable to pursue? Can you give an example?
  39. 39. Last Day to Buy a Pet. Next Pet Available In six Months.
  40. 40. Quick Write Summarize the principle of “scarcity”. Why do you think sales people love to use this principle? Does it usually work? Provide some examples of the principle of “scarcity” as it is used by those who are trying to influence our behavior.
  41. 41. Principle # 4 Reciprocity “People tend to cooperate with or give to those who give them something of value first”. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
  42. 42. Decision making is usually preceded by emotion. While factual information is usually part of our decision making process, how we feel about the person or idea plays a significant role in our final decision. So when a sales person offers us coffee and donuts and a gift certificate for future purchases, we suddenly feel positive about our experience. Are we more likely to feel that we owe the sales person the respect of listening carefully to the sales pitch?
  43. 43. If you want someone to do something for you, do something for them first. Sales people understand this technique of persuasion quite well. Many organizations seeking contributions send preprinted address labels in hopes that the recipient will feel more positive about opening up their wallet and making a generous contribution.
  44. 44. I’ll take care of your need to be heard and to be respected, if you listen to my ideas and evidence.
  45. 45. Personal persuasion is trying to sell your ideas to others. But to get people to consider your ideas you need to listen to theirs and show a willingness to accept some aspect of what they are saying before presenting your ideas. In other words, demonstrate that you are a fair person who is clearly willing to listen to their points and present your points in an objective manner. This is a type of reciprocity.
  46. 46. What are some ways to trigger the reciprocity effect? What are some examples of how reciprocity could be used in personal and in business situations?
  47. 47. It is normal in most situations for people to feel obligated to reciprocate when they are given a gift or compliment. Although some people like giving gifts and do not expect or want a gift in return, others use gift giving to ingratiate themselves with others. They might not want a gift in return, but they may want a promotion or friendship in return. Have you ever been given a gift by someone and felt awkward because you did not have a gift for them?
  48. 48. Everybody Loves Free Samples! •Can you name some products or services that sometimes offer free samples? • Do you think that offering something for free encourages people to buy the product or service?
  49. 49. Can you summarize what reciprocation means and how it can be effectively used to your advantage to influence others.
  50. 50. Quick Write Summarize the concept of reciprocation. How does it work? What are some examples of how it can be used to influence others? How does the expression, “I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine”, apply to the principle of reciprocity?
  51. 51. Principal #5 Expertise
  52. 52. “People tend to follow the suggestions and advice of experts more than those who display less knowledge about the subject.” Do you agree with this statement? Are there exceptions to this? Can you provide some examples?
  53. 53. If you have expertise on a topic, don’t assume that those around you know about your expertise. If you have knowledge about an issue, it is incumbent on you to demonstrate your unique ability by citing supportive evidence from credible sources. It is also useful to help others focus on clarifying issues and identifying logical cause and effect relationships. This approach will enhance your ability to persuade and influence those around you.
  54. 54. If you want to be someone who others listen to, you need to make sure that you know what you are talking about. Acquiring knowledge is the key to gaining the power to influence others.
  55. 55. Prepare well and present your ideas like an expert and you can influence others!
  56. 56. Most people can only gain expertise in a couple of areas. However, if you know where to go to find credible information, you can prepare for most situations and still exercise considerable influence.
  57. 57. Group Discussion Meet in groups and discuss the following. • 1. How do you decide if someone is an expert or a pretender? • 2. If someone makes claims, how do you determine whether or not to believe their claim?
  58. 58. Quick Write No one seems to like a “know it all”. However, if an issue is complex, most of us listen to those who seem logical and knowledgeable about the issue. Do you believe that expertise is an important aspect of influencing others? Why might it be effective? Provide some examples of controversial issues where expertise would give the speaker more credibility and influence.
  59. 59. Principle #6 Social Proof “People tend to follow the lead of those that are similar to them”. What does this statement suggest about effective ways for candidates to get support from voters?
  60. 60. “People tend to follow the lead of those who are the most similar to themselves. If others who are like you approve of a certain position on an issue, you are more likely to accept the same position”. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why or why not?
  61. 61. What does this image suggest?
  62. 62. What point is being made about power and influence in this diagram?
  63. 63. If the store’s electronic department has a very long line to buy the newly released toy for Christmas, will more people want to buy the toy? Why or why not?
  64. 64. This candidate is speaking to a group of ranchers and farmers who live in a small community and attend local churches every weekend. What might the speaker say in his speech in order to make use of the principle of “social proof”?
  65. 65. I love everything about California. I find that the people are the smartest. They understand my ideas really well. With your support, we can win this election and bring your high paying jobs back to your neighborhoods. I feel your pain and understand what is important to your state. How is this candidate using social proof to his advantage?
  66. 66. Meet in Groups Create a political speech that will be given to a multi-cultural college campus audience in Los Angeles. Use social proof to persuade the audience that you are similar to them and understand their issues very well. Share your speech with the class.
  67. 67. Quick Write Summarize the concept of social proof as it relates to the power to influence others. How might a salesperson use social proof to influence your decision about a product? How might a political candidate use social proof to get elected?
  68. 68. Principle # 7 Commitment and Consistency “People tend to align their beliefs with their previously made public statements. If they are unable to merge their behavior or public statements with their beliefs, they become very uncomfortable”. Can you explain why this may or may not be true?
  69. 69. The person depicted here attends a meeting and verbally commits to the cause promoted in the meeting. How might this affect his behavior about whales in the future?
  70. 70. When people make a commitment to an idea or belief that is active, public, and voluntary, they are very unlikely to change their mind. Sales people, politicians, and religious leaders understand and use public announcements about an idea as a good way to solidify a person’s commitment to a belief or action.
  71. 71. Once we publicly take a position on an issue, we generally ignore any information that doesn’t agree with our previously stated position. “I’ve heard that argument before, and I don’t I think it’s true no matter how much evidence you provide.”
  72. 72. The best car sales people use the psychology of persuasion when they insist that you identify and drive the car that matches your ideal car before a sales price is discussed. Once you are committed to wanting the car, they then move at a snails pace while the price is negotiated. They want your desire to have that specific car ingrained in your mind before the final price is agreed to. You have committed to really wanting that car. Why do you think they do that?
  73. 73. In the vast majority of people, their brain requires them to maintain consistency between their attitudes and their behaviors. People who fail to maintain such consistency usually develop psychological issues after a period of time. Someone who professes to support citizenship for undocumented immigrants is not likely to vote for a candidate whose main goal is to deport all immigrants. As a result, getting that person to agree that undocumented immigrants should not be deported is just about as good as getting them to oppose the election of the deportation candidate. Why might this be true?
  74. 74. How did the sign affect the behavior of the guy in the cartoon? Why did it work?
  75. 75. “Once people think like and behave like a racist, they are very unlikely to accept evidence that shows that our country is far better off fighting racism and becoming multi-ethnic.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?
  76. 76. Would this young lady be likely to vote in favor of increasing federal government subsidies, very low interest college loans? Why or why not?
  77. 77. People who want to persuade us of an idea or purchase, understand that they can manipulate our thought processes by linking something we value to what they are arguing for or selling. If they find out that we have a real passion for saving and protecting animals, they will connect that information to the issue of helping the homeless. Why do you think that might work?
  78. 78. What does it mean to be consistent in your values and actions? Can you give an example?
  79. 79. Commitment and Consistency with Values and Intentions • Can we count on your support? • Are you ready to purchase your dream car today? • I see that you purchased your last vehicle here. We love loyal customers. • You donated to our campaign last year. Can we get your support again this year? • I noticed that you are a member of the NRA. My candidate supports gun rights. Can we get your support? • You mentioned that you have eight beautiful children. Are you willing to contribute to our Save the Children organization? • Let’s do this!!
  80. 80. Review the six principles of how to influence others. Can you explain or give an example of each? Loss aversion is another important concept in how influence can work or fail. Can you explain why?
  81. 81. Quick Write What is an effective way to persuade someone of your point of view? Use at least four of the principles of persuasion listed on the previous slide and explain effective strategies for influencing the decisions that other people make. Create several examples of how you can be more persuasive as you make arguments for or against controversial issues.
  82. 82. Ten Simple Ways to Tell If Someone is Lying • • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1FN9rokq_k
  83. 83. Thirteen Psychology Tricks that Will Work on Anybody • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSvxuekIVuk
  84. 84. 20 Tricks Psychologist Use to Read People Like a Book • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMPxx71ICxk
  85. 85. Ten Things Your Body Language says About You • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhFPMTWSsso
  86. 86. 5 Foolproof Ways to Spot a Liar • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUolw6HyZg8