Learning analytics are about learning

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Learning analytics are about learning

  1. 1. Learning Analytics is about Learning Dragan Gasevic @dgasevic
  2. 2. Growing demand for education!
  3. 3. Scalability is possible Low effect size of class-size John Hattie
  4. 4. Delivery
  5. 5. Delivery
  6. 6. Scientific American, March 13, 2013 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=massive-open-online-courses-transformhigher-education-and-science
  7. 7. MOTIVATION
  8. 8. Feedback loops between students and instructors are missing! Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.
  9. 9. Learners Registrations Educators Learning and Collaborating
  10. 10. Learners Registrations Networks Mobile Search Educators Learning and Collaborating Networks Videos/slides
  11. 11. Learners Registrations Networks Mobile Search Educators Learning and Collaborating Networks Videos/slides
  12. 12. DANGER
  13. 13. Predict-o-mania The same predictive models for everything and everyone
  14. 14. Student diversity http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr11-14.pdf
  15. 15. Population Diversity 100% 90% 80% 70% ACCT 1 (n = 746) BIOL 1 (n = 220) 60% BIOL 2 (n = 657) 50% COMM 1 (n = 499) COMP 1 (n = 242) 40% ECON 1 (n = 661) 30% GRAP 1 (n = 192) MARK 1 (n = 723) 20% MATH 1 (n = 194) 10% 0% Females International students Other Living in nonlanguage at urban home Part time student Previously enrolled to a course Early access Did not access Late access
  16. 16. LMS Functionality Diversity ACCT 1 Light Box Gallery Forum Course Resource Turn-it-in Assignment Book Quiz Feedback Map Virtual Classroom Lesson Glossary Chat X X X X X X X BIOL 1 X X X BIOL 2 X X X X X X X X X X COMM 1 COMP 1 ECON 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X GRAP 1 X X X MARK 1 MATH 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
  17. 17. Predictive Power Diversity 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% Model 1 50.00% Moodle 40.00% Model 1 + Moodle 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% All courses ACCT 1 together BIOL 1 BIOL 2 COMM 1 COMP 1 Model 1 – demographic and socio-economic variables * - not statistically significant ECON 1 * GRAP 1 MARK 1 MATH 1
  18. 18. Retention is not the only challenge It is important, of course! But, where is learning?
  19. 19. How do we enhance learning if the focus is on outcomes only?
  20. 20. DIRECTION
  21. 21. Learning Analytics – What? Measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of data about learners and their contexts
  22. 22. Learning Analytics – Why? Understanding and optimising learning and the environments in which learning occurs
  23. 23. Modern Educational Psychology Human agency is central to learning Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), 1175-1184.
  24. 24. Winne and Hadwin's model of self-regulated learning
  25. 25. Knowledge society and knowledge economy
  26. 26. Why does it matter?! Challenge Metacognitive skills Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-Regulated Learning: Beliefs, Techniques, and Illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143823
  27. 27. Why does it matter?! Challenge Information seeking skills Judd, T., & Kennedy, G. (2011). Expediency-based practice? Medical students’ reliance on Google and Wikipedia for biomedical inquiries. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42 (2), 351-360. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01019.x
  28. 28. Why does it matter?! Challenge Sensemaking paradox Butcher, K. R., & Sumner, R. (2011). Self-Directed Learning and the Sensemaking Paradox. Human– Computer Interaction, 26(1-2), 123-159. doi:10.1080/07370024.2011.556552
  29. 29. Why does it matter?! Challenge Asking questions and critical thinking Graesser, A. C., & Olde, B. (2003). How does one know whether a person understands a device? The quality of the questions the person asks when the device breaks down. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 524–536..
  30. 30. Process and context focus for learning analytics needed to understand learning
  31. 31. OPPORTUNITIES
  32. 32. Learning Analytics Effects of learning context External conditions (e.g., instructional design)
  33. 33. Cognitive presence the extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a CoI are able to construct meaning via sustained communication Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical Thinking and Computer Conferencing: A Model and Tool to Assess Cognitive Presence. American Journal of Distance Education ,15(1), 7-23.
  34. 34. Effect size of the moderator role on critical thinking Cohen’s d = 0.66
  35. 35. Effect size of an intervention on critical thinking in online discussions d = 0.95 (non-moderators) and d = 0.61 (moderators)
  36. 36. Cognitive presence TMA1 TMA2 TMA3 TMA4 Final Control group Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions – Association w/ Grades Triggering event Exploration Integration Resolution Other -.226 -.001 .128 .201 -.028 .005 .141 .060 .027 .078 -.046 .009 .034 -.023 .113 -.050 -.037 .043 -.054 .106 -.010 .048 .113 .074 .154 ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05
  37. 37. Cognitive Presence in Online Discussions – Association w/ Grades Intervention group Control group Cognitive presence ** p TMA1 TMA2 TMA3 TMA4 Final Triggering event Exploration Integration Resolution Other Triggering event Exploration -.226 -.001 .128 .201 -.028 .149 .216 .005 .141 .060 .027 .078 -.077 .197 -.046 .009 .034 -.023 .113 -.070 .163 -.050 -.037 .043 -.054 .106 .000 .223 -.010 .048 .113 .074 .154 .016 .243 Integration .156 .396** .417** .338* .454** Resolution Other -.041 .219 .060 .046 .154 .050 .083 .075 .129 .088 < 0.01; * p < 0.05
  38. 38. Integration posts: effect on final grades 100 80 60 40 20 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 p < .001, Q1 vs. Q2; Q1 vs. Q3, Q1 vs. Q4 Q4
  39. 39. Learning Analytics Are students only driven by assessments? Effects of external conditions
  40. 40. Self-reflections in video annotations Course 1 (non-graded) Course 3 (graded) Course 2 (graded) Course 4 (non-graded)
  41. 41. Self-reflections in video annotations 120.00 100.00 80.00 Course 1 (non-graded) Course 2a (graded) 60.00 Course 2b (graded) Course 3 (graded) 40.00 Course 4 (non-graded) 20.00 0.00 Annotation total Annotation postion Annotation postion Annotation postion Annotation postion Annotation general Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  42. 42. Self-reflections in video annotations 1800 1600 1400 1200 Course 1 (non-graded) 1000 Course 2a (graded) Course 2b (graded) 800 Course 3 (graded) 600 Course 4 (non-graded) 400 200 0 Cognitive processes Perceptual processes Positive emotions Negative emotions Tausczik, Y. R., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(1), 24-54.
  43. 43. Learning Analytics Effects of students’ own decisions Beyond external conditions
  44. 44. Learner profiles – use of LMS Effect size .75 on critical thinking & academic success 3 4
  45. 45. Learner profiles – use of LMS 14 12 10 Triggering 8 Exploration Integration 6 Resolution Other 4 2 0 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Effect size .75 on critical thinking and academic success
  46. 46. CHALLENGES
  47. 47. Learning Analytics What to measure? We don’t need page access counts only! Wilson, T.D. (1999). Models in information behaviour research. Journal of Documentation, 55(3), 249 - 270, doi:10.1108/EUM0000000007145
  48. 48. Instrumentation About specific contexts and constructs
  49. 49. Instrumentation Capturing interventions Previous learning and (memory of) experience Social networks (e.g., communication, cross-class) Interaction types (e.g., transactional distances)
  50. 50. Motivation in Information Interaction Zhou, M., & Winne, P. H. (2012). Modeling academic achievement by self-reported versus traced goal orientation. Learning and Instruction, 22(6), 413–419. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.03.004
  51. 51. Motivation in Information Interaction Achievement goal orientation (2x2) Zhou, M., & Winne, P. H. (2012). Modeling academic achievement by self-reported versus traced goal orientation. Learning and Instruction, 22(6), 413–419. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.03.004
  52. 52. Technology and process of self-regulated learning Siadaty, M. (2013). Semantic Web-Enabled Interventions to Support Workplace Learning, PhD Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, Canada.
  53. 53. Scaling up qualitative analysis
  54. 54. Temporal processes beyond coding and counting
  55. 55. Longitudinal studies
  56. 56. Generating reports and nice visualization is not enough
  57. 57. Building data-driven culture in institutions Manyika, J., et al., Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity, 2011, McKinsey Global Institute, http://goo.gl/Lue3qs
  58. 58. Privacy and ethics
  59. 59. Data sharing and mobility
  60. 60. Thank you!

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